A GRANT OF AMMA I
original of the subjoined inscription belong to the Government
Central Museum, Madras. According to Mr. Sewell,
it “was found at the close of the year 1871 buries in the ground
in a field in t he village of Ederu near Akiripalle in the Kistna
District, 15 miles north-east of Bezava, a village belonging to the
present Zamindari of Nuzividu. The plates were presented to the
Madras Museum by the then Zamindar.”
A rough transcript and paraphrace of the inscription were
published by S. M. Natesa Sastri.
As the inscription deserves to be published more carefully owing to
its bearing on a part of the history of the Eastern Chalukyas, I now
edit it from the original plates, the use of which I owe to the
kindness of Dr. E. Thurston, Superintendent, Government Central
document is engraved on five copper-plates with raised rims, which
are not less then ¼ inch thick.
Each plate measures 9 ¼ by 4 ¼ inches.
The first and fifth plates are inscribed only on their inner
sides, while the three middle ones bear writing on both sides. The characters are extremely elegant and must have been
engraved by an accomplished measures about 5 inches in diameter.
The well-cut circular seal, which is attached to the ring,
rests on an expanded lotus-flower and measures 3 ¼ inches in
diameter. It bears, at the top, a recumbent boar, which faces the
right and is surmounted by the moon and the sun, two chamaras, an
elephant-goad and a symbol which I cannot make out ; across the
centre, the legend ; and at the bottom, an expended lotus-flower (side
view) , - all in relief, on a counter-sunk surface.
Both the plates and the seal are in excellent preservation.
inscription opens with a mangala, and then notices in prose
and in verse the ancestors of the Eastern Chalukya king Amma I.
Of the kings from Kubja-Vishnu-vardhana to Vishnuvardhana IV.
Nothing but the names and the length of reigns is mentioned.
The next king was Vijayaditya II., who is called
Narendra-mrigaraja in other inscriptions. He fought 108 battles during 12 years with the armies of the
Gangas and Rattas, built 108 temples of Siva in commemoration of his
victories and rules over Vengi for 44 years (verses 2 to 4).
As Mr. Fleet has pointed out,
“ the Gangas here referred to were mahamandalesvaras, feudatories
of the Rashtrakutas, whose inscriptions are found in the Belgaum and
Dharwad Districts.” The Rattas mentioned in the grant were the
Rashtrakutas themselves. If
we deduct the sum of the reigns of the Eastern Chalukya king from
Kali-Vishnuvardhana to Chalukya-Bhima II.
from the date of death of his predecessor Vijayaditya II.
would fall in Saka 764.
Most inscriptions assign to the latter a reign of 44 years.
Accordingly, his accession would fall in Saka 716, 724
or 720. Hence the war
between Vijayaditya II. and the Rattas – as suggested by Mr.
Fleet–may have taken place during the reigns of the two
Rashtrakhuta kings Govinda III.
and Sarva Amonghavarsha, who ruled at least from Saka
to 737 and from 737 till at least 800
respectively. As, in a
grant of Saka 730,
as the servant of Govinda III., and as in a grant of Saka 789
it is stated, that Amoghavarsha was worshipped by the lord of Vengi,
it seems that each party claimed the victory over the other. The fact, that Vijayaditya II. built 108 temples of
Narendresvara, i.e., temple of Siva called after his surname
of importance seems to have happened during the short reign of Kali-Vishnuvardhana.
His successor Vijayaditya III., who reigned from Saka 765-66
to 809-10, “having been challenged by the lord of the Rattas,
conquered the unequalled Gangas, cut off the head of Mangi in
battle, frightened the fire-brand Krishna and burnt his city
killing of Mangi and the burning of the city of Krishna is also
reported in another inscription.
The Krishna, whom Vijayaditya III. defeated, is probably
identifical with the lord of the Rattas, who challenged him, and
with the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II., whose earliest known date is Saka
the death of Vijayaditya III., the Rashtrakutas, as noticed by Mr.
Fleet, seem to have been victorious ; for his nephew Chalukya-Bhima
I., alias Droharjuna, who rulled from Saka 809-10 to
839-40, had to reconquer “the country of Vengi, which ahd been
overrun by the army of Ratta claimants” (line 28 f.) The
length of the reign of Vijayaditya IV., the successor of
Chalukya-Bhima I., is not mentioned in the subjoined inscription ;
according to other grants he ruled six months.
followed the king, who issued the grant, Amma I., alias
Rajamahendra or Vishnuvardhana VI. He, “having
drawn his sword, wich broke the dishonest hearts of his
feudatory relatives, who had joined the party of his natural
adversaries, won the affection of the subjects and of the army of
his father (Vijayadita IV.) and of his grandfather (Chalukya-Bhima
I.)” (line 39 ff.) The natural adversaries of Amma I.
Were probably the Rashtrakutas under Prabhutavarsha III., whose
inscription is dated in Saka 842.
grant proper, which takes up the remainder of the inscription, is an
order, which Amma I. Addressed to the inhabitants of the
Kanderuvadi-vishaya, and by which he granted the village of Gonturu
together with twelve hamlets to Bhandanaditya, alias
Kundaditya, one of his military officers.
The donee belonged to the Pattavardhini-vamsa.
His ancestor Kalakampa had been in the service of
Kubja-Vishnuvardhana, the first of the Eastern Chalukya kings, and
had killed a certain Daddara in battle.
Bhandanaditya himself had already served the donor’s
father, who is here called Vijayaditya-Kaliyarttyanka. The second
part of this name corresponds to the Kollabhiganda or Kollabiganda
of their inscriptions. The grant closes with the enumeration of the four boundaries
of the village granted and of the names of the twelve hamlets
included in it, and with two of the customary imprecatory verses.
1.) Let there be prosperity of all kinds for ever to the whole
world, prosperity for ever to cows, brahmanas and princes !
2.) Hai ! Kubja-Vishnuvardhana,-the brother of Satyasraya-Vallabha,
who adorned the race of the glorious Chalukyas, etc,-(ruled)
for eighteen years. His son Jayasimha-Vallabha (ruled) for
thirty-three years. Vishnuvardhana, the son of his brother Indra-raja
(ruled) for nine years.
His son Mangi-yuvara (ruled) for twenty-five years.
His son Jayasimha (ruled) for thirteen years. Kokkili, his
younger brother from a different mother, (ruled) for six
months. His elder
brother Vishnu-raja, having expelled his younger brother, (ruled)
for thirty-seven years. His
Vijayaditya-bhattaraka (ruled) for eighteen years.
His son Vishnuvardhana (ruled) for thrity-six years. His son,-
2 and 3.) The brave king Vijayaditya, - having fought 108 battles,
in which he acquired power by his arm, with the armies of the Gangas
and Rattas for twelve years by day and by night, sword in hand, by
means of polity and valour,-built
the same number (i.e., 108) large temples of Siva.
4.) Having ruled his kingdom for forty-four years, this lord of
Vengi, became a companion of Indra.
5 to 7.) His son. Kali-Vishuvardhana, the brave lord of Vengi,-who
knew (the science of) polity ; who was skilled in fighting (kali)
with all weapons ;
who was devoted to the art of protecting (his subjects), as
he was able to enforce the rules of the castes and orders ; whose
arms were engaged in the conquest of hostile cities ; who acquired
glory on the whole earth, which was made prosperous by his
ministers, whose chief aim was always to cherish the three objects
of life ; who was skilled in fighting with elephants and horses ;
and who knew (how to follow the percepts of) polity in
ruling, - was the anointed lord of his prosperous race for one and a
8.) His son was a ruler of all princes and a lord of all wealth, who
was renowned for a frame, which possessed the splendour of beauty, (that
appeared the more) spotless on account o his valour, liberality,
firmness and justice.
9.) Having conquered by his flashing sword crowds of warlike enemies
(and) many princes, this Vijayaditya (i.e., the sun of
victory), who possessed natural power, and whose rise was due to
an inheritance of abundant majesty, daily conquered the sun in the
world by his virtues, which consisted of valour and glory.
10.) Having been challenged by the lord of the Rattas, this lord, -
who possessed the strength of Siva, (who resembled) the sun
by the power obtained by his strong arm, and who had gained great
and excellent might by his strength, which
impressed its mark on the universe, - conquered the unequalled
Gangas, cut of the head of Mangi in battle, frightened the firebrand
Krishna and burnt his city completely.
27.) This asylum of the whole world, the illustrious Vijayaditya (ruled)
for forty-four years. After him, the son of his younger brother Vikramaditya, (viz.,)
king Chalukya-Bhima, whose other name was Droharjuna, illumined
the country of Vengi,-which had been overrun by the army of the
Ratta claimants, just as by dense darkness after sunset, - by the
flashing of his sword, the only companion of his valour, and became
king. Then, having
fulfilled, like a friend, (or) like a preceptor, the desires
of the distressed, the helpless, the naked, the dancers, the singers
and those who gained their livelihood by (carrying) the
banner of virtue, having gratified (their) minds by gifts,
like the tree of paradise, and having ruled for thirty years, he
became a companion of Indra, as though he had delighted him by his
11.) His son Vijayaditya was famed for his wonderful strength, which
was the means of his sway over all enjoyments, and through which he
gained prosperity from his infancy.
12.) Having destroyed the crowd of his (viz., his father’s)
foes by the strength of his arm (and) through his valour,
while his father was still living, and having conquered after (his
father’s death) the crowd of his own enemies
and the association of his external foes by his extensive wisdom, (this)
lord, - whose plans were backed up by invincible and great power,
who was satisfied by the enjoyment of (all) his desires, who
longed for (another) kingdom, and who had obtained glory, -
went to Indra, in order to conquer one equal half (of Indra’s
38.) His son Amma, whose other name was Rajasimhendra, - having
destroyed from after his sword, which broke the dishonest hearts of
his feudatory relatives, who had joined the party of his natural
adversaries,-won the affection of the subjects and of the army of
his father and of his grandfather by his might, which was backed up
by the three (regal) powers.
(He) who resembled the teacher of the gods in wisdom,
the sun in glory, the earth in patience and the mountain of the
immortals through his being the resting-place of many learned men (or
gods), the asylum of the whole world, the illustrious
Vishnuvardhana-maharaja, who had celebrated the festival of his
anointment to the kingdom, and who had ascended the throne, having
called together all the householders, who inhabit the district of
Kanderuvadi, thus issued his commands :-
44.) The chief of the Pattavardhini family, which was (always)
charged with appointments by the prosperous succession of our race,
he who was famed by the name of Kalkampa, the follower of
Kubja-Vishnuvardhana, killed in battle with his permission (a
king) called Daddara, whose army was difficult to be overcome,
and seized his banners. The
son of Somaditya, who descended from his race, was Pritiviya-raja
(!), who acquired glory in many battles.
13 and 14.) His son, whose weapons destroyed the pride of all
enemies, a servant of king Vijayaditya-Kaliyarttyanka, (was) Bhandanaditya,
of whom his enemies were afraid, when they perceived him
approaching, his face covered with collyrium and his cheeks flushed,
as if it were Yama, whose (elephant) Anjana was facing (them),
and the temples (of whose elephant) were shining (with
15.) For, having sounded the drum of heroes in tumultuous conflicts
with the enemies and having defeated (their) army, he, - (who
was also called) Kuntaditya, and who was the above of the
splendour of great fame combined with sacred knowledge,-pleased my
mind, entered my service and obtained my favour ; his long arms were
the origin of the splendour of victory over hostile kings, whose
armies were large and numerous.
53.) “To him we gave the village called Gonturu together with
twelve hamlets, having exempted it from all taxes.
Thus be it made known to you by us.
Its boundaries (are) : - on the east, Gonguva ; on the south Gonayuru
; on the west, Kalucheruvulu ; on the north, Madapalli, The hamlets,
which are situated between these (four villages), (are) : -
on the east, Poturayu ; on the
south-east, Peddakoyilamu ; on the south, Kuruvapoti ; on the
south-west, Peruvati (and) Kuruva ; on the west, Palagunta (and)
Padumatikatta ; on the north, Madapalliparru ; on the
north-east, Chamirenigunta. Nobody shall cause obstruction to this (grant).
He, who does it,
becomes (guilty) of the five great sins.
And Vyasa has said thus : [Here
follow two of the customary impreactory verses.]”