The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Text of the Inscriptions

Part I    -Sanskrit Inscription

Part II  -Tamil & Grantha Ins.

Part III -Notes & Fragments

Part IV  -Addenda

Other Inscriptions

Tamil Inscriptions

Misc. Ins. from Tamil Country

Chola Inscriptions

Kannada Inscriptions

Telugu Ins. from Andhra Pradesh

Pallava Inscriptions

Pandya Inscriptions

Ins. of Vijayanagara Dynasty

Ins. during 1903-1904

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

PART-I

SANSKRIT INSCRIPTIONS

No.36. A GRANT OF AMMA I

The original of the subjoined inscription belong to the Government Central Museum, Madras. According to Mr. Sewell,[1] it “was found at the close of the year 1871 buries in the ground in a field in t he village of Ederu near Akiripalle in the Kistna District, 15 miles north-east of Bezava, a village belonging to the present Zamindari of Nuzividu. The plates were presented to the Madras Museum by the then Zamindar.”  A rough transcript and paraphrace of the inscription were published by S. M. Natesa Sastri.[2] As the inscription deserves to be published more carefully owing to its bearing on a part of the history of the Eastern Chalukyas, I now edit it from the original plates, the use of which I owe to the kindness of Dr. E. Thurston, Superintendent, Government Central Museum.

The document is engraved on five copper-plates with raised rims, which are not less then ¼ inch thick.  Each plate measures 9 ¼ by 4 ¼ inches.  The first and fifth plates are inscribed only on their inner sides, while the three middle ones bear writing on both sides.  The characters are extremely elegant and must have been engraved by an accomplished measures about 5 inches in diameter.  The well-cut circular seal, which is attached to the ring, rests on an expanded lotus-flower and measures 3 ¼ inches in diameter. It bears, at the top, a recumbent boar, which faces the right and is surmounted by the moon and the sun, two chamaras, an elephant-goad and a symbol which I cannot make out ; across the centre, the legend ; and at the bottom, an expended lotus-flower (side view) , - all in relief, on a counter-sunk surface.  Both the plates and the seal are in excellent preservation.

The inscription opens with a mangala, and then notices in prose and in verse the ancestors of the Eastern Chalukya king Amma I.  Of the kings from Kubja-Vishnu-vardhana to Vishnuvardhana IV.  Nothing but the names and the length of reigns is mentioned.  The next king was Vijayaditya II., who is called Narendra-mrigaraja in other inscriptions.  He fought 108 battles during 12 years with the armies of the Gangas and Rattas, built 108 temples of Siva in commemoration of his victories and rules over Vengi for 44 years (verses 2 to 4).  As Mr. Fleet has pointed out,[3] “ the Gangas here referred to were mahamandalesvaras, feudatories of the Rashtrakutas, whose inscriptions are found in the Belgaum and Dharwad Districts.” The Rattas mentioned in the grant were the Rashtrakutas themselves.  If we deduct the sum of the reigns of the Eastern Chalukya king from Kali-Vishnuvardhana to Chalukya-Bhima II.  from the date of death of his predecessor Vijayaditya II. would fall in Saka  764.  Most inscriptions assign to the latter a reign of 44 years.  Accordingly, his accession would fall in Saka 716, 724 or 720.  Hence the war between Vijayaditya II. and the Rattas – as suggested by Mr. Fleet–may have taken place during the reigns of the two Rashtrakhuta kings Govinda III.  and Sarva Amonghavarsha, who ruled at least from  Saka  726[4] to 737 and from 737[5] till at least 800[6] respectively.  As, in a grant of Saka 730,[7] as the servant of Govinda III., and as in a grant of Saka 789[8] it is stated, that Amoghavarsha was worshipped by the lord of Vengi, it seems that each party claimed the victory over the other.  The fact, that Vijayaditya II. built 108 temples of Narendresvara, i.e., temple of Siva called after his surname Narendra[9].

Nothing of importance seems to have happened during the short reign of Kali-Vishnuvardhana.  His successor Vijayaditya III., who reigned from Saka 765-66 to 809-10, “having been challenged by the lord of the Rattas, conquered the unequalled Gangas, cut off the head of Mangi in battle, frightened the fire-brand Krishna and burnt his city completely”  (Verse 10.)  The killing of Mangi and the burning of the city of Krishna is also reported in another inscription.[10]  The Krishna, whom Vijayaditya III. defeated, is probably identifical with the lord of the Rattas, who challenged him, and with the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II., whose earliest known date is Saka 825.[11]

After the death of Vijayaditya III., the Rashtrakutas, as noticed by Mr. Fleet, seem to have been victorious ; for his nephew Chalukya-Bhima I., alias Droharjuna, who rulled from Saka 809-10 to 839-40, had to reconquer “the country of Vengi, which ahd been overrun by the army of Ratta claimants” (line 28 f.) The length of the reign of Vijayaditya IV., the successor of Chalukya-Bhima I., is not mentioned in the subjoined inscription ; according to other grants he ruled six months.

There followed the king, who issued the grant, Amma I., alias Rajamahendra or Vishnuvardhana VI. He, “having  drawn his sword, wich broke the dishonest hearts of his feudatory relatives, who had joined the party of his natural adversaries, won the affection of the subjects and of the army of his father (Vijayadita IV.) and of his grandfather (Chalukya-Bhima I.)” (line 39 ff.) The natural adversaries of Amma I. Were probably the Rashtrakutas under Prabhutavarsha III., whose inscription is dated in Saka 842.[12]

The grant proper, which takes up the remainder of the inscription, is an order, which Amma I. Addressed to the inhabitants of the Kanderuvadi-vishaya, and by which he granted the village of Gonturu[13] together with twelve hamlets to Bhandanaditya, alias Kundaditya, one of his military officers.  The donee belonged to the Pattavardhini-vamsa.  His ancestor Kalakampa had been in the service of Kubja-Vishnuvardhana, the first of the Eastern Chalukya kings, and had killed a certain Daddara in battle.  Bhandanaditya himself had already served the donor’s father, who is here called Vijayaditya-Kaliyarttyanka. The second part of this name corresponds to the Kollabhiganda or Kollabiganda of their inscriptions.  The grant closes with the enumeration of the four boundaries of the village granted and of the names of the twelve hamlets included in it, and with two of the customary imprecatory verses.

TRANSLATION

(Verse 1.) Let there be prosperity of all kinds for ever to the whole world, prosperity for ever to cows, brahmanas and princes !

(Line 2.) Hai ! Kubja-Vishnuvardhana,-the brother of Satyasraya-Vallabha, who adorned the race of the glorious Chalukyas, etc,[14]-(ruled) for eighteen years. His son Jayasimha-Vallabha (ruled) for thirty-three years. Vishnuvardhana, the son of his brother Indra-raja (ruled) for nine years.  His son Mangi-yuvara (ruled) for twenty-five years. His son Jayasimha (ruled) for thirteen years. Kokkili, his younger brother from a different mother, (ruled) for six months.  His elder brother Vishnu-raja, having expelled his younger brother, (ruled) for thirty-seven years.  His son
Vijayaditya-bhattaraka (ruled) for eighteen years.  His son Vishnuvardhana (ruled) for thrity-six years.  His son,-

(Verse 2 and 3.) The brave king Vijayaditya, - having fought 108 battles, in which he acquired power by his arm, with the armies of the Gangas and Rattas for twelve years by day and by night, sword in hand, by means of polity and valour,[15]-built the same number (i.e., 108) large temples of Siva.

(Verse 4.) Having ruled his kingdom for forty-four years, this lord of Vengi, became a companion of Indra.

(Verses 5 to 7.) His son. Kali-Vishuvardhana, the brave lord of Vengi,-who knew (the science of) polity ; who was skilled in fighting (kali) with all weapons ; [16] who was devoted to the art of protecting (his subjects), as he was able to enforce the rules of the castes and orders ; whose arms were engaged in the conquest of hostile cities ; who acquired glory on the whole earth, which was made prosperous by his ministers, whose chief aim was always to cherish the three objects of life ; who was skilled in fighting with elephants and horses ; and who knew (how to follow the percepts of) polity in ruling, - was the anointed lord of his prosperous race for one and a half years.

(Verse 8.) His son was a ruler of all princes and a lord of all wealth, who was renowned for a frame, which possessed the splendour of beauty, (that appeared the more) spotless on account o his valour, liberality, firmness and justice.

(Verse 9.) Having conquered by his flashing sword crowds of warlike enemies (and) many princes, this Vijayaditya (i.e., the sun of victory), who possessed natural power, and whose rise was due to an inheritance of abundant majesty, daily conquered the sun in the world by his virtues, which consisted of valour and glory.

(Verse 10.) Having been challenged by the lord of the Rattas, this lord, - who possessed the strength of Siva, (who resembled) the sun by the power obtained by his strong arm, and who had gained great and excellent might[17] by his strength, which impressed its mark on the universe, - conquered the unequalled Gangas, cut of the head of Mangi in battle, frightened the firebrand Krishna and burnt his city completely.

(Line 27.) This asylum of the whole world, the illustrious Vijayaditya (ruled) for forty-four years.  After him, the son of his younger brother Vikramaditya, (viz.,) king Chalukya-Bhima, whose other name was Droharjuna, illumined the country of Vengi,-which had been overrun by the army of the Ratta claimants, just as by dense darkness after sunset, - by the flashing of his sword, the only companion of his valour, and became king.  Then, having fulfilled, like a friend, (or) like a preceptor, the desires of the distressed, the helpless, the naked, the dancers, the singers and those who gained their livelihood by (carrying) the banner of virtue, having gratified (their) minds by gifts, like the tree of paradise, and having ruled for thirty years, he became a companion of Indra, as though he had delighted him by his virtues.

(Verse 11.) His son Vijayaditya was famed for his wonderful strength, which was the means of his sway over all enjoyments, and through which he gained prosperity from his infancy.

(Verse 12.) Having destroyed the crowd of his (viz., his father’s) foes by the strength of his arm (and) through his valour, while his father was still living, and having conquered after (his father’s death) the crowd of his own enemies[18] and the association of his external foes by his extensive wisdom, (this) lord, - whose plans were backed up by invincible and great power, who was satisfied by the enjoyment of (all) his desires, who longed for (another) kingdom, and who had obtained glory, - went to Indra, in order to conquer one equal half (of Indra’s throne).

(Line 38.) His son Amma, whose other name was Rajasimhendra, - having destroyed from after his sword, which broke the dishonest hearts of his feudatory relatives, who had joined the party of his natural adversaries,-won the affection of the subjects and of the army of his father and of his grandfather by his might, which was backed up by the three (regal) powers.  (He) who resembled the teacher of the gods in wisdom, the sun in glory, the earth in patience and the mountain of the immortals through his being the resting-place of many learned men (or gods), the asylum of the whole world, the illustrious Vishnuvardhana-maharaja, who had celebrated the festival of his anointment to the kingdom, and who had ascended the throne, having called together all the householders, who inhabit the district of Kanderuvadi, thus issued his commands :-

(Line 44.) The chief of the Pattavardhini family, which was (always) charged with appointments by the prosperous succession of our race, he who was famed by the name of Kalkampa, the follower of Kubja-Vishnuvardhana, killed in battle with his permission (a king) called Daddara, whose army was difficult to be overcome, and seized his banners.  The son of Somaditya, who descended from his race, was Pritiviya-raja (!), who acquired glory in many battles.

(Verse 13 and 14.) His son, whose weapons destroyed the pride of all enemies, a servant of king Vijayaditya-Kaliyarttyanka, (was) Bhandanaditya, of whom his enemies were afraid, when they perceived him approaching, his face covered with collyrium and his cheeks flushed, as if it were Yama, whose (elephant) Anjana[19] was facing (them), and the temples (of whose elephant) were shining (with rutting-juice).

(Verse 15.) For, having sounded the drum of heroes in tumultuous conflicts with the enemies and having defeated (their) army, he, - (who was also called) Kuntaditya, and who was the above of the splendour of great fame combined with sacred knowledge,-pleased my mind, entered my service and obtained my favour ; his long arms were the origin of the splendour of victory over hostile kings, whose armies were large and numerous. 

(Line 53.) “To him we gave the village called Gonturu together with twelve hamlets, having exempted it from all taxes.  Thus be it made known to you by us.  Its boundaries  (are) : - on the east, Gonguva ; on the south Gonayuru ; on the west, Kalucheruvulu ; on the north, Madapalli, The hamlets[20], which are situated between these (four villages), (are) : - on the east, Poturayu ; on  the south-east, Peddakoyilamu ; on the south, Kuruvapoti ; on the south-west, Peruvati (and) Kuruva ; on the west, Palagunta (and) Padumatikatta ; on the north, Madapalliparru ; on the north-east, Chamirenigunta. Nobody shall cause obstruction to this (grant).  He, who does it, becomes (guilty) of the five great sins.  And Vyasa has said thus : [Here follow two of the customary impreactory verses.]”


[1] Lists of Antiquities, Vol. II, p.25.

[2] Ind. Ant Vol. XIII, p.50 ; Archaological Survey of Southern India, Vol. IV, p. 176. An earlier abstract of t he same inscription had been published in the Proceeding of the Madras Government, Public Department, 7th April 1873. and reprinted with notes in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. II, p. 175 f.

[3] Ind. Ant Vol. XII, p.218.

[4] Ind. Ant Vol. X1, p.126.  The original of the inscription is dated in Saka 726 expired, the Subhanu year. The latter corresponds to the current Saka year 726.

[5] Ibid, XII, 219. The current fifty-second year of Amoghavarsha’s reign corresponded to Saka 788 expired and the Vyaya  year current.

[6] Ibid, XIII, 135. The inscription is dated Saka  799 expired.

[7] Ibid, VI, 68. The date in the original is Saka 730 expired, the Sarvajit year.  The latter corresponds to the current Saka year 730.

[8] Ind.Ant. Vol. XII, p.219.

[9] Ibid. VII 77 : ashtottara [sata] – Narendrasvarayatananam karta ; ibid. XIII, 213 : ashtottarasata-mita-Narendressvara [ah].

[10] Ibid. XIII,213 : Mangi-Kirana-(Read Krishna) –pura-dahana-vikhyata-kirtih.

[11] Ibid. XII, 221. The inscription is dated in Saka 822 expired, the Dundubhi year.  The latter corresponds to the current Saka year 825.

[12] Ibid XII, 223. The date of the original is Saka 840, the Pramathin year. The latter corresponds to the current Saka year 842.

[13] According to Mr. Sewell (Lists, Vol. II p.26) it remains doubtful, whether the village of Gonturu is identical with the modern town of Guntur in the kistna District. 

[14] The passage, which is omitted in the translation, is identical with the first 4 lines of No.35.

[15] The exigencies of the metre seem to have occasioned the plural nayavikramaih instead of the dual nayavikramabham.

[16] This epithet seems to be intended for an etymological explanation of the king’s surname Kali

[17] By the expression urusadvikrama, a comparison with Vishnu (Trivikrama) is hinted.

[18] The six internal enemies of man seem to be intended ; see page 35, note 3.

[19] Anjana is generally used as the name of Varuna’s elephant, while Yama’s is called Vamana. 

[20] Kshetrasiman  seems to have the same meaning as gramatica in line 53.

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