The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions





Text of the Inscriptions 

Rajendra Chola


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Annual Reports 1935-1944

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Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

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Early Gupta Inscriptions

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Darasuram Temple


There are four inscription of Rajadhiraja I in the year’s collection, beginning with the introduction Tingaler-taru  ect., or Tingaler-peravalar. Three of them viz., 143, 264 and 345 are dated respectively in his 27th, 32nd and 33rd years of reign which are to be counted form A.D. 1018, as he is known to have been nominated as co-ruler with Rajendra-chola I that year. As Rajendradeva (II) is said to have succeeded to the throne in A.D. 1052 after the death of reign of the latter must have  been his last. There are however  a few inscriptions of later regnal years like No. 14 of 1908 from Kumbhakonam (36th year ), No.135 of 1892 from Kolar (35th year) and No. 534 of 1906 from pedda Tippasamudram (saka 981, Hemalamba =A.D. 1057-58) all referring themselves to the reign of Vijaya Rajendradeva, who has been surmised to be identical with Rajadhiraja I because of his title and of the mention of Kalyanapuram Among his conquest  (An. Rept. For 1908, Part II, para 56). The first of these epigraphs actually begins with the same Tingaler-taru introduction of Rajadhiraja. As against  this, the latter  two give the surname  Parakesarivarman before the name of the king, while Rajadhiraja was a Rajakesari. It is possible that there is some confusion in the claims of the achievements and the regnal years of the two kings, and that the reference in the records mentioned above may be to Rajendradeva only, with the regnal year of Rajadhiraja Extended by a few years into his own reign. A stone images of advarapalaka near the inner gopura of the Airavatesvara temple at Darasuram(Thanjavur dist.) bares an inscription at its base (No. 24 of 1908) stating that it was brought by king Vijaya-Rajendra after his conquest of Kalyanapuram.   

From No 264 already mentioned above, which is dated in the 32nd year Rajadhiraja, we learn that he ordered  the tax-free gift of two veli of land and two houses to the court musician (Perundanattu-Gandharva) Araiyan Tiruvaimarududaiyan alias Mummudisola-Nrittapperaiyan, for reciting  the  Patavyam in the temple of Tiruvidaimarududairur. Following the documentary languages of the times the inscription states that the royal order was received by the temple authorities with folded hands when it was communicated to them.   

Kulottunga-chola III who was also called virrajendra (No. 57) and Tribhuvanaviradeva  (No.382, 386 and  476 ), is represented by about 40 inscriptions ranging from  his 3rd year of reign (No.586). to the 39th (No. 386). A Sanskrit record in duplicate (Nos. 190-2) found in the Kampaharesvara temple at Tribhuvana (Tanjavur district ) calls him by the title Pandyari. It is not dated but must have been engraved late in his reign as it gives in brief a list of his achievements which are already known from his numerous Tamil inscriptions. Heis stated to have conquered the ruler of Simhala and the lord of Kerala and to have killed Vira-Pandya, and after capturing Madurai to have performed the anointment of heroes at that place. The inscription describes in detail the construction of this temple by the king, and its consecration by his Preceptor Somesvara, son of Srikantha- sambhu alias Isvara-siva and a scholar of repute who was well-versed in saiva-darsanas and the Upanishads. The king is also credited with the elaborate renovations of other temple besides. These were (1) the Nataraja temple at Chidambaram, (2) the Ekamresvara temple at Kanchipuram, (3) the Halasya temple at Madurai, (4) the Madhyarjuna temple at Tiruvidaimarudur , (5) the Rajarajesvara temple at Darasuram and  (6) the Valmikesvara temple at Tiruvarur. From No. 288 from Tiruvidaimarudur we learn of the existence of a royal Palace at that Place situated to the east of the temple. A portion of the palace grounds is stated to have been alienated for the purpose of laying out a new road called the Rajakkal-Tambiran-tiruvidi beginning with the eastern gateway of the temple, so that the procession of the god might  start from this entrance on festival days instead of from the south as hitherto and pass through the new road in future. Another inscription from the same place (No.306) gives us an idea of the encouragement shown to culture by royal patronage. It refers to the appointment of an abhinaya-nattuvanar in addition to others in the temple for performing what was called the ahamarggam (expression ) style of dance as distinct from action (nritya).

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