of the CHOLA DYNASTY
a pillar at uyyakkondan-tirumalai
This short inscription is engraved on a pillar in the
south-east corner of the veranda which surrounds the shrine of the Ujjivanatha
temple at Uyyakkondan-Tirumalai, a village 3 miles west of Trichinopoly. It
records the gift of a perpetual lamp in the 34th year of the reign
of Madirai-konda Ko-Parakesarivarman, i.e., of the Chola king Parantaka
I. The donor was Pirantakan-Madevadigalar, a queen of Pirantakan-Kandaradittadevar.
The only king with a similar name, of which we known, is Gandaradityavarman,
the second son of Parantaka I. As the inscription belongs to the time of
Parantaka I. himself, and as it prefixes the word Pirantakan to the name
it is evident that Gandaradityavarman, the son of Parantaka I., is actually
meant here. The name Parantaka also forms the first-member of the name of the
queen of Kandaradittadevar; Pirantakan-Madev-adigalar probably means ‘the
devotee (of the temple) of Mahadeva, (founded by) Parantaka (I.).’
The hitherto published inscriptions of Parantaka I. are
dated in the 13th, 15th, 24th and 26th
years of his reign. The latest sure date hitherto found is the 40th
year in an inscription of the Panchanadesvara temple at Tiruvaiyaru.
The large Leyden grant (I. 48 ff.) states that
Gandaradityavarman, the second son of Parantaka I., “founded, for the sake (of
bliss) in another (world), a large village, (called) by his own name, in the
country on the northern bank of Kavera’s daughter (i.e., the Kaveri
river).” This village appears to be identical with
Gandaraditya-Chaturvedimangalam, which is mentioned in several Tanjore
inscriptions as belonging
to a district on the northern bank (of the Kaveri), and with the modern
Kandaradityam in the Udaiyarpalaiyam talluqa. The fifth of the nine Saiva hymns
known as Tiruvisaippa was composed by Kandaradittan, who calls
himself ‘king of the people of Tanjai,’ i.e., Tanjore, and must be
accordingly identified with the Chola king Gandaradityavarman.
The carpenter Kandaraditta-Perundachchan in No. 66, paragraph 505, is
apparently named after Gandaradityavarman, the granduncle of the then reigning
According to the subjoined inscription, the ancient name of
Uyyakkondan-Tirumalai was Nandipanmamangalam, which suggests that the place may
have been founded by one of the Pallava kings named Nandivarman. The temple was
called Tirukkarkudi-Paramesvara. This enables us to identify it with Karkudi, a
shrine, which is referred to in the Periyapuranam as situated in the
Chola country to the south of the Kaveri river.
In the thirty-fourth year (of the reign) of Madirai-konda
Ko-Parakesarivarman,— Pirantakan-Madevadigalar, the daughter of Mara-Perumal
(and) queen of Pirantakan-Kandaradittadevar, gave ninety full-grown ewes, which
must neither die nor grow old,
to (the temple of) Tirukkarkudi-Paramesvara at Nandipanmamangalam, a brahmadeya
on the southern bank (of the Kaveri river), for supplying, every
day as long as the moon and the sun endure, (one) urakku (stamped with)
in order to feed one sacred perpetual lamp which shall burn day and night. (The
charity is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.
No. 76. Udayendiram
Plates of Prithivipati II. Hastimalla.
inscription was first made known by the Rev. T. Foulkes in the Manual of the
salem District, Vol. II, p. 369 ff. It is engraved on one of the five sets
of copper-plates, which appear to have been discovered at Udayendiram in A. D.
1850 and are now in the possession of the Dharmakarta of the
Saundararaja-Perumal temple at Udayendiram. I owe the opportunity of using the
original plates to the courtesy of Mr. F.A. Nicholson, i.c.s..
The copperplates are seven in number. They measure about 8 ¾
to 8 7/8 by 3 ¼ inches. The edges of each plate are raised into rims for the
protection of the writing, which is in very good preservation. The plates are
strung on a copper ring, which had been already cut when Mr. Foulkes examined
the plates. The ring is about ½ inch thick and measures about 5 ¼ inches in
diameter. Its ends are soldered into the lower portion of a flower, which bears
on its expanded petals a circular seal of about 2 1/8 inches in diameter. This
seal, which I have figured in the Epigraphia Indica (Vol. III, p. 104,
No. 4 of the Plate), bears, in relief, a bull couchant which faces the proper
right and is flanked by two ornamented lamp-stands. Above the bull are an
indistinct figure (perhaps a squatting male person) and a crescent, and above
these a parasol between two chauris. Below the bull is the Grantha
legend Prabhumeru. From the Udayendiram plates of the Bana king
Vikramaditya II. We learn that his great-grandfather had the name or surname
Prabhumeru. The occurrence of this name on the seal of the subjoined grant
suggests that the Ganga king Prithivipati II. adopted a Bana biruda and
placed it on his seal when the Bana kingdom was bestowed on him by the Chola
king Parantaka I. As, however, the seal-ring had been already cut when Mr.
Foulkes examined the plates, the possibility remains that, as in the case of
the inscription No. 74, the present seal may have originally belonged to
another set of plates, perhaps to those of Vikramaditya II.
The first five plates bear 28 Sanskrit verse in the Grantha
alphabet. The alphabet and laguage of the two last plates (and of a portion of
the last line of plate Vb) is Tamil. A few Tamil letters are used in the
middle of the Sanskrit portion, viz., zei of Vaimbalguri in line
42, rum of Sripurambiya in line 45, and re of Parivi in line 62. A
few words in Sanskrit prose and Grantha characters occur at the beginning of
plate I and at the end plate VII (svasti sri, I. 1, and
on namo Narayanaya, I. 101).
The Sanskrit portion opens with invocations of Vishnu and
Siva (verses 1 and 2). The next few verses (3 to 11) contain a genealogy of the
Chola king Parantaka I. Then follows a genealogy of the Ganga-Bana king
Prithivipati II. surnamed Hastimalla (vv. 12 to 23), and the information that,
with the permission of his sovereign Parakesarin or Parantaka I., he granted
the village of Kadaikkottur to the village of Udayendu-chaturvedimangalam (vv.
24 to 26). Excluded from the grant was certain land, which belonged to the
Digambara Jainas (v. 27 f. and I. 97 f.). The Tamil portion contains a minute
description of the boundaries Kadaikkottur and adds that the grant was made by
Sembiyan-Mavalivanaraya (i.e., the Ganga-Bana king Prithivipati II.) in
the 15th year of the reign of Madirai-konda Ko-Parakesarivarman (i.e.,
the Chola king Parantaka I.), and that the granted village was clubbed together
with Udyasandira-mangalam into one village, called Viranarayanachcheri
in commemoration of Parantaka’s surname Viranarayana.
The Chola genealogy (vv. 3 to 11) may be subdivided into
three portions, viz., mythical ancestors, ancient Chola kings, and
direct predecessors of Parantaka I. The mythical ancestors (v. 3) are Brahma,
Marichi, Kasyapa, the Sun, Rudrajit, Chandrajit and Sibi. The four first of
these are named in the same order in the Udayendiram plates of Vira-Chola and
in the Kalingattu-Parani; in the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula, Marichi is
placed after Kasyapa. Sibi is mentioned by name in the large Leyden grant (I.
13) and alluded to in the Kalingattu-Parani (viii. 13) and in the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula
(II. 20 to 22).
The ancient Chola kings to whom the subjoined inscription
refers (v. 4), are Kokkilli, Chola, Karikala and Kochchankan.
The Leyden grant mentions the same persons in different order, viz.,
Chola (I. 17), Karikala (I. 24), Kochchankannan
(I. 25) and Kokkilli (I. 26). The Kalingattu-Parani alludes first to
Kokkilli as having wedded a Naga princess (viii. 18), then to Kochchengan as
contemporary of the poet Poygai (ibid.), and last to Karikala as having
built embankments along the Kaveri river (Viii. 20), while the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula
alludes first to Kokkilli (I. 19 f.), then to Karkala (I. 26), and last to
Kochchengan (I. 27 f.). It will be observed that each of the four documents
which record the names and achievements of these ancient Chola kings,
enumerates them in different order. One of the four kings, Kokkilli, can hardly
be considered a historical person, as he is credited with having entered a
subterraneous cave and there to have contracted marriage with a serpent
and as the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula places him before the two mythical kings
Sibi and Kavera; and the king Chola of the Udayendiram plates and of the Leyden
grant is nothing more than a personification of the Chola dynasty,— just as
Pallava, the supposed son of the hero Asvatthaman and founder of the Pallava
The two remaining kings, Kochchengan and Karikala, are the
heroes of two Tamil poems, the Kalavari by Poygaiyar and the Pattinappalai
by Rudrangannanar. These two poemsmust be considerably more ancient than the Kalingattu-Parani,
which belongs to the time of Kulottunga I. (A.D. 1063 to 1112), because the
author of this poem (viii. 18 and 21) believed them to lbe actually composed
before the time of Parantaka I. and during the very reigns of Kochchengan and
Karikala. While the Kalingattu-Parani places Kochchengan before Karkala,
who is represented as having inscribed on Mount Meru the history of his
predecessors, and among them of Kochchengan (viii. 19), the Leyden grant calls
Kochchengan a descendant of Karikala, and the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula refers
to the two kings in the same order. The Leyden grant even represents the
mythical king Kokkilli as a descendant of Kochchengan. A comparison of these
conflicting statements shows that, at the time of the composition of the three
documents referred to, no tradition remained regarding the order in which
Kochchengan and Karikala succeeded each other. Probably their names were only
known from ancient Tamil panegyrics of the same type as the Kalavari and
the Pattinappalai. It would be a mistake to treat them as actual
ancestors of that Chola dynasty whose epigraphical records have come down to
us. They must rather be considered as two representatives of extinct dynasties
of the Chola country, whose names had survived in Tamil literature either by
chance or on account of their specially marked achievements.
To Karikala the Leyden grant (I. 24 f.) attributes the
building of embankments along the Kaveri river. The same act is alluded to in
the Kalingattu-Parani and the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula. The
Kalingattu-Parani (viii. 21) adds that he paid 1,600,000 gold pieces to the
author of the Pattinappalai. According to the Porunararrupadai, a
poem by Mudattamakkanniyar, the name of the king’s father was Ilanjetchenni. The
king himself is there called Karigal, i.e., ‘Black-leg’ or
‘Elephant-leg,’ while the
Sanskritised form of his name, Karikala, would mean ‘the death of elephants.’ He
is said to have defeated the Chera and Pandya kings in a battle fought at
According to the Silappadigaram,
his capital was Kavirippumbattinam. In one of his interesting contributions to
the history of ancient Tamil literature,
the Honourable P. Coomaraswamy allots Karikala to the first century A.D. This
opinion is based on the fact that the commentaries on the Silappadigaram
represent Karikala as the maternal grandfather of the Chera king Senguttuvan, a
contemporary of Gajabahu of Ceylon. Mr. Coomaraswamy identifies the latter with
Gajabahu I., who, according to the Mahavamsa, reigned from A.D. 113 to
135. With due respect to Mr. Coomaraswamy’s sagacity, I am not prepared to
accept this view, unless the identity of the two Gajabahus is not only supported
by the mere identity of the name, but proved by internal reasons, and until the
chronology of the earlier history o Ceylon has been subjected to a critical
The last of the four ancient Chola kings to whom the
subjoined inscription refers is Kochchengan, i.e., ‘king Red-eye.’ Poygaiyar’s
poem Kalavari, which has been translated into English by Mr. Kanakasabhai
Pillai, describes the battle of Karumalam, in which Sengan defeated and
captured a Chera king. The Kalingattu-Parani and the Vikkirama-Sora-Ula
state that the prisoner was set at liberty by the king, after the Kalavari
had been recited in the presence of the latter. The Leyden grant (I. 26) calls
him “a bee at the lotus feet of Sambhu (Siva).”
By this is alludes to the fact that Sengan was considered as one of the
sixty-three devotees of Siva. The Periyapuranam calls him the son of the
Chola king Subhadeva by Kamalavati, and attributes to him the foundation of the
Jambukesvara temple. His name is mentioned by two of the authors of the Devaram:
Sundaramurti invokes him in the Tiruttondattogai, and refers to a temple
which Kochchenganan had built at Nannilam; and Tirunanasambandar mentions two
other temples which the Chola king Seyyagan
had built at Ambar and at Vaigal. The last two references prove that Sengan
must have lived before the 7th century, to which, as shown by Mr.
Venkayya, Tirunanasambandar belongs. Finally, Mr. Venkayya has found that the
Nalayira-prabandham speaks of a visit of the Chola king Kochchenganan to
the Vishnu temple at Tirunaraiyur.
Verses 4 and 5 of the Udayendiram plates and lines 28 to 31
of the large Leyden grant mention the names of the grandfather and father of
Parantaka I., Vijayalaya and Aditya I. Both kings are described in general terms,
and no special deeds or events are noticed in connection with them. It may be
concluded from this that they were insignificant princes, and that Parantaka I,
was the actual founder of the Chola power. The king during whose reign the
present grant was issued, bore various names. The Leyden grant (II. 32 and 40)
calls him Parantaka. The same name occurs in verses 21 and 25 of the
Udayendiram plates. He was also called Viranarayana, a name which occurs in
verse 6, and which is presupposed by Viranarayanachcheri, as the granted
village was termed after the name of “His Majesty” (I. 73 f.). Another name of
his was Parakesarin (v. 24), which forms part of his Tamil designation
Madirai-konda Ko-Parakesarivarman (I. 71), i.e., ‘king Parakesarivarman
who took Madirai (Madhura).’ The conquest of Madhura and the defeat of its
ruler, the Pandya king Rajasimha, is referred to in verses 9 and 11. Parantaka
I. is also reported to have repulsed an army of the king of Lanka (Ceylon) and
t o have earned by this feat the surname Samgramaraghava (v. 10). Hence he
calls himself ‘Ko-Parakesarivarman who took Madirai (i.e., Madhura) and
Iram (i.e., Ceylon)’ in some of his inscriptions.
H defeated among others, the Vaidumba king, “uprooted by force two lords of the
Bana kings” (v. 9), and conferred the dignity of “lord of the Banas” on the
Ganga king Prithivipati II. (v. 21). His queen was the daughter of a king of
Kerala (v. 8). The Leyden grant (I. 35 f.) reports “(this) banner of the race
of the Sun covered the temple of Siva at Vyaghragrahara with pure gold, brought
from all regions, subdued by the power of his own arm.” As stated before, this
verse refers to the gilding of the Kanakasabha or ‘Golden Hall’ at
Chidambaram. Mr. P. Sundaram Pillai has pointed out that the expression ‘Golden
Hall’ (Ponnambalam) occurs already in the Devaram of Appar (alias
Tirunavukkaraiyar), the elder contemporary of Tirunanasambandar. Consequently,
it seems that Parantaka I. did not gild the Chidambaram temple for the first
time, but that he only re-gilded it. Mr. Sundaram adds that “Umapati
Sivacharya, to whose statements we are bound to accord some consideration,
ascribes, in the 14th century, the building of the Golden Hall and
the town (Chidambaram) itself to a certain Hiranyavarman of immemorial
antiquity.” Though the name Hiranyavarman actually occurs among the Pallava
kings of Kanchi, it looks as if his alleged connection with the Golden Hall
were only due to the circumstance that the word hiranya, ‘gold,’ happens
to be a portion of his name. The gilding, or rather re-gilding, of the
Chidambaram temple by Parantaka I. is alluded to in the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula
(II. 30 to 32). The Kalingattu-Parani (viii. 23) mentions his conquest
of Ceylon and Madhura. The same two conquests and the gilding of the
Chidambaram temple are referred to in a hymn by Gandaraditya, the second son of
Parantaka I. According to this hymn, the capital of Parantaka I. was Kori, i.e.,
Uraiyur, now a suburb of Trichinopoly. The present inscription is dated in the
15th year of his reign (I. 71 f.). A list of other inscriptions of
his was given on page 374 above.
The genealogy of the Chola king Parantaka I. is followed by
an account of the ancestors of his feudatory Prithivipati II. surnamed Hastimalla
(vv. 12 to 23). This passage opens with a verse (12) glorifying the Ganga
family, which is aid to have had for its ancestor the sage Kanva of the race of
and to have “obtained increase through the might of Simhanandin.”
As in the copper-plate grants of the Western Gangas, the first king of the
Ganga dynasty is stated to have been Konkani, who resided at Kuvalalapura, the
modern Kolar, “who was
anointed to the conquest of the Bana country,”
and who, in his youth, accomplished the feat of splitting in two a huge stone
pillar with a single stroke of his sword.
The device on his banner is said to have been a swan (sitapinchha, v.
14). To the period between this mythical ancestor and the great-grandfather of
Prithivipati II. the inscription (v. 15) allots the reigns of Vishnugopa, Hari,
Madhava, Durvinita, Bhuvikrama, and “other kings” of Konkani’s lineage. The
remainder of the genealogical portion of the inscription supplies the following
pedigree of the Ganga kings:
Prithivikpati I. fought a battle at Vaimbalguri (v. 27) and
lost his life in a battle with the Pandya king Varaguna at Sripurambiya (v.
18). Sripurambiya has to be identified with the village of Tiruppirambiyam near
Venkayya has shown that this place is mentioned in the Devaram of
Tirunanasambandar and Sundaramurti, and that king Varaguna-Pandya is referred
to in the Tiruvilaiyadalpuranam.
Prithivipati II. was a dependent of Parantaka I. and
received from him the dignity of ‘lord of the Banas’ (v. 21), who had been
conquered by the Chola king (v. 9). He defeated the Hill-chiefs (Girindra)
and the Pallavas (v. 23) and bore the titles ‘lord of Parivipuri’ and ‘lord of
Nandi,’ i.e., of the Nandidurga hill near Bangalore. His banner bore the
device of a blackbuck, his crest was a bull, and his drum was called Paisacha
(v. 24). In the Tamil portion of the inscription, Prithivipati II. is referred
to under the title Sembiyan-Mavalivanaraya (II. 72 and 101). The second part of
this name consists of Mavali, the Tamil form of Mahabali, i.e., ‘the
great Bali,’ who is considered as the ancestor of the Bana kings, and Vanaraya,
i.e., Banaraja or ‘king of the Banas.’ The first part of the name,
Sembiyan, is one of the titles of the Chola kings. The whole surname appears to
mean: ‘(he who was appointed) Mahabali-Banaraja (by) the Chola king.’
According to verse 16, the Ganga king Prithivipati I.
rendered assistance to two chiefs named Iriga and Nagadanta the sons of king
Dindi, and defended the former of these two against king Amoghavarsha. This
king can be safely identified in the following manner. The Chola king Rajaraja
ascended the throne in A.D. 984-85; Rajaraja’s grand-uncle Rajaditya was slain
by the Ganga king Butuga, who was a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna
III., before A.D. 949-50; Rajaditya’s father Parantaka I., who reigned at least
40 years, may accordingly be placed about A.D. 900 to 940. As Parantaka I. was
a contemporary of the Ganga king Prithivipati II.— Amoghavarsha, the
contemporary of Prithivipati I., must be identical with the Rashtrakuta king
Amoghavarsha I., who reigned from A.D. 814-15 to 876-78. Accordingly Marasimha,
the son of Prithivipati I., must have reigned about A.D. 878 to 900, and must
be distinct from another Marasimha, who reigned from A.D. 963-64 to 974-75.
Of the localities mentioned in the grant proper,
Udayendu-Chaturvedimangalam (v. 26) and Udayasandiramangalam (the Tamil
spelling of Udayachandramangalam, II. 74 and 99 f.) are two different forms of
the name of the modern village of Udayendiram, where the plates were found. In
mentioning the name Udayachandramangalam, the subjoined inscription presupposes
the existence of the lost original of the Udayendiram plates of Nandivarman
Pallavamalla (No. 74), which record the foundation of that village in honour of
the general Udayachandra. The village granted, Kadaikkottur, must have been
situated close to Udayendiram, because it was clubbed together with the latter
into one Village, called Viranarayanachcheri. Kadaikkottur was bounded
on the south-east and north by the Palaru river (II. 78 and 96), which passed
through the village near the eastern boundary of the latter (I. 75). The
village belonged to Mel-Adaiyaru-nadu, a subdivision of the district of
Paduvur-kottam (I. 73 f.).
As I have already stated on page 365, Mel-Adaiyaru-nadu
is the Tamil equivalent of Paschimasrayanadi-vishaya, the Sanskrit name of the
district to which Udayendiram belonged in the time of Nandivarman Pallavamalla.
A.— Sanskrit portion
(Verse 1.) May he (viz., Vishnu) incessantly grant
you prosperity, the lord of Prosperity (and) master of the Universe, of
whom the eight-bodied (Siva) himself became one half of the body;
from the lotus on whose navel the creator of the worlds was produced; (and)
whose true nature the primeval speech (i.e., the Veda) reveals!
(V. 2) Let it far remove your sins, the being (viz.,
Siva) which is the enemy of Cupid; whose diadem is the moon; the dark (spot)
on whose throat resembles a particle of a cloud; (and) in whose forehead
is sunk a (third) reddish eye!
(V. 3.) From the lotus on the navel of Vishnu was
produced Brahma; from his Marichi; from him (Kasyapa) the founder of a gotra
(and) husband of Diti; from him the Sun, who is praised by (Indra) the
lord of gods; from him Rudrajit, who was full of terrible power; from him the
glorious Chandrajit; (and) in his race Sibi, the best of kings, who
saved a pigeon (by offering his own flesh to a hawk).
(V. 4.) In his race, which was resplendent with the
fame of Kokkilli, Chola and Karikala, (and) which was the birthplace of
Kochchankan and other noble kings, was born the glorious (and)
victorious Vijayalaya, whose footstool was worshipped by the best of kings.
(V. 5.) His son was Aditya, who overcame the whole
crowd of exalted kings; whose splendor, being emitted to enter various
countries, dispelled the darkness (which were) troops of enemies; who
learned the true state (of the affairs of his enemies) from his spies; who made
the excellent wheel (of his authority) roll with incessant speed; (and)
to whom, the continually rising, joyfully bowed the four regions.
(V. 6.) From him was born the glorious king
Viranarayana, a jungle-fire to enemies, who, visibly (and) amply
manifesting the glory of Chakradhara,
(which resides) in him, now wears for a long time, as easily as an
arm-ring, the circle of the earth, together with the seven continents, oceans
and mountains resting on (his) strong arm.
(V. 7.) He practiced many meritorious acts and gifts,
(as) the hemagarbha (gift), the tulabhara (gift), gifts
(of land) to Brahmanas, and (the building of) temples.
(V. 8.) As Sakra (Indra) the daughter of
Puloman, as Sarva (Siva) the daughter of the lord of mountains, (and)
as (Vishnu), the enemy of Kaitabha the daughter of the ocean, he married
the daughter of the lord of Kerala.
(V. 9.) He uprooted by force two lords of the Bana
kings and defeated the Vaidumba and many other kings in various regions. His
army, having crushed at the head of a battle and Pandya king together with an
army of elephants, horses and soldiers seized a herd of elephants together with
(the city of) Madhura.
(V. 10.) Having slain in an instant, at the head of a
battle, an immense army, dispatched by the lord of Lanka, which teemed with
brave soldiers (and) was interspersed with troops of elephants and
horses, he bears in the world the title Samgramaraghava, which is full of
(V. 11.) When he had defeated the Pandya (king)
Rajasimha, two persons experienced the same fear at the same time: (Kubera) the
lord of wealth on account of the death of his own friend,
on account of the proximity (of the Chola dominions to Ceylon).
(V. 12.) May it be victorious, the Ganga family, at
the beginning of which was the great sage Kanva, who was born in the excellent
race of Kasyapa, (and) the power of whose austerities was very great;
which obtained increase through the might of Simhanandin; (and which is)
the best of victorious (dynasties)!
(V. 13.) In the great (city of) Kuvalalapura,
which was the dwelling-place of Prosperity, resided a king whose name Konkani (was
well known) on earth; who was a descendant of Kanva (Kanvayana); who
became the first of the whole Ganga race; (and) who was anointed to the
conquest of the Bana country (mandala).
(V. 14.) (While still) a youth, he who
resembled the powerful Sisu (Kumara)
in gracefulness, split in two a huge stone pillar with the sword held in (his)
hand at a single stroke. The crowds of enemies became afraid when they
perceived at the head of the battle his lofty, excellent banner, which bore a
(V. 15.) In his lineage, which deserves respect
because there were born (in it) the glorious Vishnugopa, Hari, Madhava,
Durvinita, Bhuvikrama and other kings, was born Sivamara’s son, the glorious
Prithivipati (I.), a matchless hero of wide fame.
(V. 16.) By the promise of security, he who was
unequalled by others, saved Iriga and Nagadanta, the sons of king (ko)
Dindi, who were afraid,— the one from king Amoghavarsha, (and) the other from
the jaws of death.
(V. 17.) At the head of a battle called (after)
Vaimbalguri, he who had slain the army of the enemy with (his) sword, caused a
piece of bone, which had been cut from his own body by the sharp sword, to
enter the water of the Ganga.
(V. 18.) Having defeated by force the Pandya lord
Varaguna at the head of the great battle of Sripurambiya, and having (thus)
made (his) title Aparajita (i.e., ‘the Unconquered’) significant,
this hero entered the heaven of (his) friend (viz., Indra) by
sacrificing his own life.
(V. 19.) His son was the glorious king Marasimha, the
light of the Ganga family (and) the only abode of honor, who possessed
the power of the sun in dispelling darkness,— a crowd of enemies.
(V. 20.) His son was called Prithivipati (II.), the
foremost lion among kings, whose face beamed with kindness, who was exalted by
birth, who kept the vow of (resembling) the Kalpa tree towards
friends, who was the fire of death to enemies, and who bore, from the forehead
to the feet, wounds received from the enemies in battle.
(V. 21.) This prince, a flamingo in the tank of the
Ganga family, received from that
Parantaka, who attacked kings in battle, a grant (prasada) in the shape
of a (copper) plate (patta),
which was the instrument of the attainment of the dignity (pada) of lord
of the Banas (Banadhiraja).
(V. 22.) Oppressed by the Kali (age), the
political crowd of virtues, viz., courage, liberality, gratitude,
sweetness, courtesy, wisdom, patience, intelligence, purity, tranquility,
dignity, mercy, forbearance, etc., forthwith joined, in order to rest
without grief and fatigue, this Prithivipati (II.) because they thought that he
was born of the race of Bali.
(V. 23.) He deservedly bore the other name
Hastimalla, as he tore
up the Hill-chiefs (Girindra) together with the Pallavas, as he was
devoted to virtue, as his fingers (always) carried gifts, as he bore the
earth, (and) as he was prosperous from birth;— [just as the divine
elephant Airavata tears up large hills like sprouts, is beloved by Indra,
carries rut on the tip of his trunk, bears the earth, and was born (from the
milk ocean) together with the goddess of Prosperity].
(V. 24.) He whose banner bore (the emblem of)
a black-buck, who was the lord (of the city) of Parivipuri, whose crest (anka)
was a bull, whose drum (was called) Paisacha, who was fearless in
battle, (and) who was the lord of Nandi,— though himself (called)
submitting a request, was commanded (accordingly) by king Parakesarin.
(V. 25.) “The religious merit of those who perform (grants),
and of those who protect (them), (is) equal. Therefore protect (the
present gift)”: (Speaking) thus, the matchless hero Parantaka
incessantly bows (his head, whose diadem are the lotus feet of Cupid’s enemy
(Siva), to future kings.
(V. 26.) This king granted the land called
Kadaikkottur, on his (viz., Hastimalla’s) behalf, to (the village of)
(V. 27.) The two pattis called Vidyadharipatti
(and) Devapatti in this (village) had been formerly
enjoyed by the Digambaras.
(V. 28.) The king made the gift excluding these two (patties)
of that (village); for, these two were known to have formerly belonged
to the Kshapanakas.
B.— Tamil portion.
(Line 71.) In the fifteenth year (of the reign)
of Madirai-konda Ko-parakesarivarman,— His Majesty (Peruman-adigal) had,
at the request of Sembiyan Mavalivanarayar, converted (the village of)
Kadaikkottur in Mel-Adaiyaru-nadu, (a subdivision) of Paduvur-kottam,
together with Udayasandiramangalam, into a brahmadeya, called
Viranarayanachcheri after his own name.
(L. 75.) the eastern-boundary of this (village is)
a banyan tree (alam) on the east of (the land called) Idaiyarrukkollai
on the east of the Palaru (river); going to the south of this, a marudu
(tree); and going
to the south of this, the (channel called) Vayirakkal, which
feeds the (tank called) Vinnamangalattareri.
(L. 78.) The southeastern boundary (is) the
(L. 79.) The southern boundary (is) a group of
nux vomica trees (etti); ascending to the west of this, a pit on
the north of the waste land (of the village) of Sirrariyur; ascending to
the west of this, a banyan tree at the outlet on the eastern side of the (tank
called) Vinnappuliyaneri; ascending to the west of this, a crooked
neem tree (vembu) on a large (piece of) barren ground; ascending
to the west of this, an expanse of water; ascending to the west of this, a bush
on the south of a cross-road
and indu (creepers);
and ascending to the west of this, the foot of a high hill.
(L. 83.) The western boundary (is) a
resounding boulder; going to the north of this, the “cross-road of the three
women;” and going to the north of this, the “horse’s halter.”
(L. 86.) Its northern boundary (is) Adiyaman-mundai;
descending to the east of this, Pidamburai (?); descending to the east
of this, a pond with kura (shrubs);
descending to the east of this, a path (of the breadth) of one buffalo;
descending to the east of this, a hillock near a banyan tree on the north of
the (tank called) Kangayaneri; descending to the east of this, a
large vein (?) of stone; descending to the east of this, a large boulder near a
to the east of this, a large turinjil (tree);
descending to the east of this, a large boulder; descending to the east of
this, a stone wall (?) near a turinjil (tree); descending to the east of
this, a pond near a tanakku (tree)
on the north-west of a bare cross-road, and a large boulder on the bare
cross-road; descending to the east of this, a thicket of karai (shrubs);
and descending to the east of this, the bank of the Palaru (river).
(L. 96.) Having assembled accordingly (the
inhabitants of) the district (nadu), having caused (them) to walk
over (the boundaries of) the (granted) land, having planted
stones and milk-bush (on the boundaries), having excluded the two patties
called Vichchadiripatti and Devarpatti,
which had been formerly a pallichchandam,
(but) having included
the cultivated land situated within the above four boundaries, and having
caused an edict (sasama) to be drawn up in accordance with the order of
the king,— I, Sembiyan-Mavalivanarayan, gave (the above land), together
with a gift of one thousand (gold coins), to all the inhabitants of
(L. 101.) Om. Obeisance of