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The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions, Volume 2

Tamil Inscriptions

part - iii

inscriptions of the CHOLA DYNASTY

No.75 On a pillar at uyyakkondan-tirumalai

This short inscription is engraved on a pillar in the south-east corner of the veranda which surrounds the shrine of the Ujjivanatha temple at Uyyakkondan-Tirumalai, a village 3 miles west of Trichinopoly. It records the gift of a perpetual lamp in the 34th year of the reign of Madirai-konda Ko-Parakesarivarman, i.e., of the Chola king Parantaka I. The donor was Pirantakan-Madevadigalar, a queen of Pirantakan-Kandaradittadevar. The only king with a similar name, of which we known, is Gandaradityavarman, the second son of Parantaka I. As the inscription belongs to the time of Parantaka I. himself, and as it prefixes the word Pirantakan to the name of Kandaradittadevar,[1] it is evident that Gandaradityavarman, the son of Parantaka I., is actually meant here. The name Parantaka also forms the first-member of the name of the queen of Kandaradittadevar; Pirantakan-Madev-adigalar probably means ‘the devotee (of the temple) of Mahadeva, (founded by) Parantaka (I.).’

The hitherto published inscriptions of Parantaka I. are dated in the 13th, 15th, 24th and 26th years of his reign. The latest sure date hitherto found is the 40th year in an inscription of the Panchanadesvara temple at Tiruvaiyaru.[2]

The large Leyden grant (I. 48 ff.) states that Gandaradityavarman, the second son of Parantaka I., “founded, for the sake (of bliss) in another (world), a large village, (called) by his own name, in the country on the northern bank of Kavera’s daughter (i.e., the Kaveri river).” This village appears to be identical with Gandaraditya-Chaturvedimangalam, which is mentioned in several Tanjore inscriptions[3] as belonging to a district on the northern bank (of the Kaveri), and with the modern Kandaradityam in the Udaiyarpalaiyam talluqa. The fifth of the nine Saiva hymns known as Tiruvisaippa was composed by Kandaradittan, who calls himself ‘king of the people of Tanjai,’ i.e., Tanjore, and must be accordingly identified with the Chola king Gandaradityavarman.[4] The carpenter Kandaraditta-Perundachchan in No. 66, paragraph 505, is apparently named after Gandaradityavarman, the granduncle of the then reigning king Rajarajadeva.

According to the subjoined inscription, the ancient name of Uyyakkondan-Tirumalai was Nandipanmamangalam, which suggests that the place may have been founded by one of the Pallava kings named Nandivarman. The temple was called Tirukkarkudi-Paramesvara. This enables us to identify it with Karkudi, a shrine, which is referred to in the Periyapuranam as situated in the Chola country to the south of the Kaveri river.

Translation

In the thirty-fourth year (of the reign) of Madirai-konda Ko-Parakesarivarman,— Pirantakan-Madevadigalar, the daughter of Mara-Perumal (and) queen of Pirantakan-Kandaradittadevar, gave ninety full-grown ewes, which must neither die nor grow old,[5] to (the temple of) Tirukkarkudi-Paramesvara at Nandipanmamangalam, a brahmadeya on the southern bank (of the Kaveri river), for supplying, every day as long as the moon and the sun endure, (one) urakku (stamped with) a trident,[6] in order to feed one sacred perpetual lamp which shall burn day and night. (The charity is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.

No. 76. Udayendiram Plates of Prithivipati II. Hastimalla.

 The subjoined inscription was first made known by the Rev. T. Foulkes in the Manual of the salem District, Vol. II, p. 369 ff. It is engraved on one of the five sets of copper-plates, which appear to have been discovered at Udayendiram in A. D. 1850 and are now in the possession of the Dharmakarta of the Saundararaja-Perumal temple at Udayendiram. I owe the opportunity of using the original plates to the courtesy of Mr. F.A. Nicholson, i.c.s..

The copperplates are seven in number. They measure about 8 ¾ to 8 7/8 by 3 ¼ inches. The edges of each plate are raised into rims for the protection of the writing, which is in very good preservation. The plates are strung on a copper ring, which had been already cut when Mr. Foulkes examined the plates. The ring is about ½ inch thick and measures about 5 ¼ inches in diameter. Its ends are soldered into the lower portion of a flower, which bears on its expanded petals a circular seal of about 2 1/8 inches in diameter. This seal, which I have figured in the Epigraphia Indica (Vol. III, p. 104, No. 4 of the Plate), bears, in relief, a bull couchant which faces the proper right and is flanked by two ornamented lamp-stands. Above the bull are an indistinct figure (perhaps a squatting male person) and a crescent, and above these a parasol between two chauris. Below the bull is the Grantha legend Prabhumeru. From the Udayendiram plates of the Bana king Vikramaditya II. We learn that his great-grandfather had the name or surname Prabhumeru. The occurrence of this name on the seal of the subjoined grant suggests that the Ganga king Prithivipati II. adopted a Bana biruda and placed it on his seal when the Bana kingdom was bestowed on him by the Chola king Parantaka I. As, however, the seal-ring had been already cut when Mr. Foulkes examined the plates, the possibility remains that, as in the case of the inscription No. 74, the present seal may have originally belonged to another set of plates, perhaps to those of Vikramaditya II.

The first five plates bear 28 Sanskrit verse in the Grantha alphabet. The alphabet and laguage of the two last plates (and of a portion of the last line of plate Vb) is Tamil. A few Tamil letters are used in the middle of the Sanskrit portion, viz., zei of Vaimbalguri in line 42, rum of Sripurambiya in line 45, and re of Parivi in line 62. A few words in Sanskrit prose and Grantha characters occur at the beginning of plate I and at the end plate VII (svasti sri, I. 1, and on namo Narayanaya, I. 101).

The Sanskrit portion opens with invocations of Vishnu and Siva (verses 1 and 2). The next few verses (3 to 11) contain a genealogy of the Chola king Parantaka I. Then follows a genealogy of the Ganga-Bana king Prithivipati II. surnamed Hastimalla (vv. 12 to 23), and the information that, with the permission of his sovereign Parakesarin or Parantaka I., he granted the village of Kadaikkottur to the village of Udayendu-chaturvedimangalam (vv. 24 to 26). Excluded from the grant was certain land, which belonged to the Digambara Jainas (v. 27 f. and I. 97 f.). The Tamil portion contains a minute description of the boundaries Kadaikkottur and adds that the grant was made by Sembiyan-Mavalivanaraya (i.e., the Ganga-Bana king Prithivipati II.) in the 15th year of the reign of Madirai-konda Ko-Parakesarivarman (i.e., the Chola king Parantaka I.), and that the granted village was clubbed together with Udyasandira-mangalam into one village, called Viranarayanachcheri in commemoration of Parantaka’s surname Viranarayana.

The Chola genealogy (vv. 3 to 11) may be subdivided into three portions, viz., mythical ancestors, ancient Chola kings, and direct predecessors of Parantaka I. The mythical ancestors (v. 3) are Brahma, Marichi, Kasyapa, the Sun, Rudrajit, Chandrajit and Sibi. The four first of these are named in the same order in the Udayendiram plates of Vira-Chola and in the Kalingattu-Parani; in the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula, Marichi is placed after Kasyapa. Sibi is mentioned by name in the large Leyden grant (I. 13) and alluded to in the Kalingattu-Parani (viii. 13) and in the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula (II. 20 to 22).

The ancient Chola kings to whom the subjoined inscription refers (v. 4), are Kokkilli, Chola, Karikala and Kochchankan.[7] The Leyden grant mentions the same persons in different order, viz., Chola (I. 17), Karikala (I. 24), Kochchankannan[8] (I. 25) and Kokkilli (I. 26). The Kalingattu-Parani alludes first to Kokkilli as having wedded a Naga princess (viii. 18), then to Kochchengan as contemporary of the poet Poygai (ibid.), and last to Karikala as having built embankments along the Kaveri river (Viii. 20), while the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula alludes first to Kokkilli (I. 19 f.), then to Karkala (I. 26), and last to Kochchengan (I. 27 f.). It will be observed that each of the four documents which record the names and achievements of these ancient Chola kings, enumerates them in different order. One of the four kings, Kokkilli, can hardly be considered a historical person, as he is credited with having entered a subterraneous cave and there to have contracted marriage with a serpent princess,[9] and as the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula places him before the two mythical kings Sibi and Kavera; and the king Chola of the Udayendiram plates and of the Leyden grant is nothing more than a personification of the Chola dynasty,— just as Pallava, the supposed son of the hero Asvatthaman and founder of the Pallava race.

The two remaining kings, Kochchengan and Karikala, are the heroes of two Tamil poems, the Kalavari by Poygaiyar and the Pattinappalai by Rudrangannanar. These two poemsmust be considerably more ancient than the Kalingattu-Parani, which belongs to the time of Kulottunga I. (A.D. 1063 to 1112), because the author of this poem (viii. 18 and 21) believed them to lbe actually composed before the time of Parantaka I. and during the very reigns of Kochchengan and Karikala. While the Kalingattu-Parani places Kochchengan before Karkala, who is represented as having inscribed on Mount Meru the history of his predecessors, and among them of Kochchengan (viii. 19), the Leyden grant calls Kochchengan a descendant of Karikala, and the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula refers to the two kings in the same order. The Leyden grant even represents the mythical king Kokkilli as a descendant of Kochchengan. A comparison of these conflicting statements shows that, at the time of the composition of the three documents referred to, no tradition remained regarding the order in which Kochchengan and Karikala succeeded each other. Probably their names were only known from ancient Tamil panegyrics of the same type as the Kalavari and the Pattinappalai. It would be a mistake to treat them as actual ancestors of that Chola dynasty whose epigraphical records have come down to us. They must rather be considered as two representatives of extinct dynasties of the Chola country, whose names had survived in Tamil literature either by chance or on account of their specially marked achievements.

To Karikala the Leyden grant (I. 24 f.) attributes the building of embankments along the Kaveri river. The same act is alluded to in the Kalingattu-Parani and the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula. The Kalingattu-Parani (viii. 21) adds that he paid 1,600,000 gold pieces to the author of the Pattinappalai. According to the Porunararrupadai, a poem by Mudattamakkanniyar, the name of the king’s father was Ilanjetchenni. The king himself is there called Karigal, i.e., ‘Black-leg’ or ‘Elephant-leg,’[10] while the Sanskritised form of his name, Karikala, would mean ‘the death of elephants.’ He is said to have defeated the Chera and Pandya kings in a battle fought at Vennil.[11] According to the Silappadigaram,[12] his capital was Kavirippumbattinam. In one of his interesting contributions to the history of ancient Tamil literature,[13] the Honourable P. Coomaraswamy allots Karikala to the first century A.D. This opinion is based on the fact that the commentaries on the Silappadigaram represent Karikala as the maternal grandfather of the Chera king Senguttuvan, a contemporary of Gajabahu of Ceylon. Mr. Coomaraswamy identifies the latter with Gajabahu I., who, according to the Mahavamsa, reigned from A.D. 113 to 135. With due respect to Mr. Coomaraswamy’s sagacity, I am not prepared to accept this view, unless the identity of the two Gajabahus is not only supported by the mere identity of the name, but proved by internal reasons, and until the chronology of the earlier history o Ceylon has been subjected to a critical examination.

The last of the four ancient Chola kings to whom the subjoined inscription refers is Kochchengan, i.e., ‘king Red-eye.’ Poygaiyar’s poem Kalavari, which has been translated into English by Mr. Kanakasabhai Pillai, describes the battle of Karumalam, in which Sengan defeated and captured a Chera king. The Kalingattu-Parani and the Vikkirama-Sora-Ula state that the prisoner was set at liberty by the king, after the Kalavari had been recited in the presence of the latter. The Leyden grant (I. 26) calls him “a bee at the lotus feet of Sambhu (Siva).”[14] By this is alludes to the fact that Sengan was considered as one of the sixty-three devotees of Siva. The Periyapuranam calls him the son of the Chola king Subhadeva by Kamalavati, and attributes to him the foundation of the Jambukesvara temple. His name is mentioned by two of the authors of the Devaram: Sundaramurti invokes him in the Tiruttondattogai, and refers to a temple which Kochchenganan had built at Nannilam; and Tirunanasambandar mentions two other temples which the Chola king Seyyagan[15] had built at Ambar and at Vaigal. The last two references prove that Sengan must have lived before the 7th century, to which, as shown by Mr. Venkayya, Tirunanasambandar belongs. Finally, Mr. Venkayya has found that the Nalayira-prabandham speaks of a visit of the Chola king Kochchenganan to the Vishnu temple at Tirunaraiyur.[16]

Verses 4 and 5 of the Udayendiram plates and lines 28 to 31 of the large Leyden grant mention the names of the grandfather and father of Parantaka I., Vijayalaya and Aditya I. Both kings are described in general terms, and no special deeds or events are noticed in connection with them. It may be concluded from this that they were insignificant princes, and that Parantaka I, was the actual founder of the Chola power. The king during whose reign the present grant was issued, bore various names. The Leyden grant (II. 32 and 40) calls him Parantaka. The same name occurs in verses 21 and 25 of the Udayendiram plates. He was also called Viranarayana, a name which occurs in verse 6, and which is presupposed by Viranarayanachcheri, as the granted village was termed after the name of “His Majesty” (I. 73 f.). Another name of his was Parakesarin (v. 24), which forms part of his Tamil designation Madirai-konda Ko-Parakesarivarman (I. 71), i.e., ‘king Parakesarivarman who took Madirai (Madhura).’ The conquest of Madhura and the defeat of its ruler, the Pandya king Rajasimha, is referred to in verses 9 and 11. Parantaka I. is also reported to have repulsed an army of the king of Lanka (Ceylon) and t o have earned by this feat the surname Samgramaraghava (v. 10). Hence he calls himself ‘Ko-Parakesarivarman who took Madirai (i.e., Madhura) and Iram (i.e., Ceylon)’ in some of his inscriptions.[17] H defeated among others, the Vaidumba king, “uprooted by force two lords of the Bana kings” (v. 9), and conferred the dignity of “lord of the Banas” on the Ganga king Prithivipati II. (v. 21). His queen was the daughter of a king of Kerala (v. 8). The Leyden grant (I. 35 f.) reports “(this) banner of the race of the Sun covered the temple of Siva at Vyaghragrahara with pure gold, brought from all regions, subdued by the power of his own arm.” As stated before, this verse refers to the gilding of the Kanakasabha or ‘Golden Hall’ at Chidambaram. Mr. P. Sundaram Pillai has pointed out that the expression ‘Golden Hall’ (Ponnambalam) occurs already in the Devaram of Appar (alias Tirunavukkaraiyar), the elder contemporary of Tirunanasambandar. Consequently, it seems that Parantaka I. did not gild the Chidambaram temple for the first time, but that he only re-gilded it. Mr. Sundaram adds that “Umapati Sivacharya, to whose statements we are bound to accord some consideration, ascribes, in the 14th century, the building of the Golden Hall and the town (Chidambaram) itself to a certain Hiranyavarman of immemorial antiquity.” Though the name Hiranyavarman actually occurs among the Pallava kings of Kanchi, it looks as if his alleged connection with the Golden Hall were only due to the circumstance that the word hiranya, ‘gold,’ happens to be a portion of his name. The gilding, or rather re-gilding, of the Chidambaram temple by Parantaka I. is alluded to in the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula (II. 30 to 32). The Kalingattu-Parani (viii. 23) mentions his conquest of Ceylon and Madhura. The same two conquests and the gilding of the Chidambaram temple are referred to in a hymn by Gandaraditya, the second son of Parantaka I. According to this hymn, the capital of Parantaka I. was Kori, i.e., Uraiyur, now a suburb of Trichinopoly. The present inscription is dated in the 15th year of his reign (I. 71 f.). A list of other inscriptions of his was given on page 374 above.

The genealogy of the Chola king Parantaka I. is followed by an account of the ancestors of his feudatory Prithivipati II. surnamed Hastimalla (vv. 12 to 23). This passage opens with a verse (12) glorifying the Ganga family, which is aid to have had for its ancestor the sage Kanva of the race of Kasyapa[18] and to have “obtained increase through the might of Simhanandin.”[19] As in the copper-plate grants of the Western Gangas, the first king of the Ganga dynasty is stated to have been Konkani, who resided at Kuvalalapura, the modern Kolar,[20] “who was anointed to the conquest of the Bana country,”[21] and who, in his youth, accomplished the feat of splitting in two a huge stone pillar with a single stroke of his sword.[22] The device on his banner is said to have been a swan (sitapinchha, v. 14). To the period between this mythical ancestor and the great-grandfather of Prithivipati II. the inscription (v. 15) allots the reigns of Vishnugopa, Hari, Madhava, Durvinita, Bhuvikrama, and “other kings” of Konkani’s lineage. The remainder of the genealogical portion of the inscription supplies the following pedigree of the Ganga kings:

Sivamara

Prithivipati I. 

Surnamed Aparajita.

Marasimha.

Prithivipati II.

Surnamed Hastimalla. 

Prithivikpati I. fought a battle at Vaimbalguri (v. 27) and lost his life in a battle with the Pandya king Varaguna at Sripurambiya (v. 18). Sripurambiya has to be identified with the village of Tiruppirambiyam near Kumbhakonam.[23] Mr. Venkayya has shown that this place is mentioned in the Devaram of Tirunanasambandar and Sundaramurti, and that king Varaguna-Pandya is referred to in the Tiruvilaiyadalpuranam.[24]

Prithivipati II. was a dependent of Parantaka I. and received from him the dignity of ‘lord of the Banas’ (v. 21), who had been conquered by the Chola king (v. 9). He defeated the Hill-chiefs (Girindra)[25] and the Pallavas (v. 23) and bore the titles ‘lord of Parivipuri’ and ‘lord of Nandi,’ i.e., of the Nandidurga hill near Bangalore. His banner bore the device of a blackbuck, his crest was a bull, and his drum was called Paisacha (v. 24). In the Tamil portion of the inscription, Prithivipati II. is referred to under the title Sembiyan-Mavalivanaraya (II. 72 and 101). The second part of this name consists of Mavali, the Tamil form of Mahabali, i.e., ‘the great Bali,’ who is considered as the ancestor of the Bana kings, and Vanaraya, i.e., Banaraja or ‘king of the Banas.’ The first part of the name, Sembiyan, is one of the titles of the Chola kings. The whole surname appears to mean: ‘(he who was appointed) Mahabali-Banaraja (by) the Chola king.’

According to verse 16, the Ganga king Prithivipati I. rendered assistance to two chiefs named Iriga and Nagadanta the sons of king Dindi, and defended the former of these two against king Amoghavarsha. This king can be safely identified in the following manner. The Chola king Rajaraja ascended the throne in A.D. 984-85; Rajaraja’s grand-uncle Rajaditya was slain by the Ganga king Butuga, who was a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III., before A.D. 949-50; Rajaditya’s father Parantaka I., who reigned at least 40 years, may accordingly be placed about A.D. 900 to 940. As Parantaka I. was a contemporary of the Ganga king Prithivipati II.— Amoghavarsha, the contemporary of Prithivipati I., must be identical with the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha I., who reigned from A.D. 814-15 to 876-78. Accordingly Marasimha, the son of Prithivipati I., must have reigned about A.D. 878 to 900, and must be distinct from another Marasimha, who reigned from A.D. 963-64 to 974-75.[26]

Of the localities mentioned in the grant proper, Udayendu-Chaturvedimangalam (v. 26) and Udayasandiramangalam (the Tamil spelling of Udayachandramangalam, II. 74 and 99 f.) are two different forms of the name of the modern village of Udayendiram, where the plates were found. In mentioning the name Udayachandramangalam, the subjoined inscription presupposes the existence of the lost original of the Udayendiram plates of Nandivarman Pallavamalla (No. 74), which record the foundation of that village in honour of the general Udayachandra. The village granted, Kadaikkottur, must have been situated close to Udayendiram, because it was clubbed together with the latter into one Village, called Viranarayanachcheri. Kadaikkottur was bounded on the south-east and north by the Palaru river (II. 78 and 96), which passed through the village near the eastern boundary of the latter (I. 75). The village belonged to Mel-Adaiyaru-nadu, a subdivision of the district of Paduvur-kottam (I. 73 f.).[27] As I have already stated on page 365, Mel-Adaiyaru-nadu[28] is the Tamil equivalent of Paschimasrayanadi-vishaya, the Sanskrit name of the district to which Udayendiram belonged in the time of Nandivarman Pallavamalla.

Translation

A.— Sanskrit portion

Hail! Prosperity!

(Verse 1.) May he (viz., Vishnu) incessantly grant you prosperity, the lord of Prosperity (and) master of the Universe, of whom the eight-bodied (Siva) himself became one half of the body;[29] from the lotus on whose navel the creator of the worlds was produced; (and) whose true nature the primeval speech (i.e., the Veda) reveals!

(V. 2) Let it far remove your sins, the being (viz., Siva) which is the enemy of Cupid; whose diadem is the moon; the dark (spot) on whose throat resembles a particle of a cloud; (and) in whose forehead is sunk a (third) reddish eye!

(V. 3.) From the lotus on the navel of Vishnu was produced Brahma; from his Marichi; from him (Kasyapa) the founder of a gotra (and) husband of Diti; from him the Sun, who is praised by (Indra) the lord of gods; from him Rudrajit, who was full of terrible power; from him the glorious Chandrajit; (and) in his race Sibi, the best of kings, who saved a pigeon (by offering his own flesh to a hawk).

(V. 4.) In his race, which was resplendent with the fame of Kokkilli, Chola and Karikala, (and) which was the birthplace of Kochchankan and other noble kings, was born the glorious (and) victorious Vijayalaya, whose footstool was worshipped by the best of kings.

(V. 5.) His son was Aditya, who overcame the whole crowd of exalted kings; whose splendor, being emitted to enter various countries, dispelled the darkness (which were) troops of enemies; who learned the true state (of the affairs of his enemies) from his spies; who made the excellent wheel (of his authority) roll with incessant speed; (and) to whom, the continually rising, joyfully bowed the four regions.[30]

(V. 6.) From him was born the glorious king Viranarayana, a jungle-fire to enemies, who, visibly (and) amply manifesting the glory of Chakradhara,[31] (which resides) in him, now wears for a long time, as easily as an arm-ring, the circle of the earth, together with the seven continents, oceans and mountains resting on (his) strong arm.

(V. 7.) He practiced many meritorious acts and gifts, (as) the hemagarbha (gift), the tulabhara (gift), gifts (of land) to Brahmanas, and (the building of) temples.

(V. 8.) As Sakra (Indra) the daughter of Puloman, as Sarva (Siva) the daughter of the lord of mountains, (and) as (Vishnu), the enemy of Kaitabha the daughter of the ocean, he married the daughter of the lord of Kerala.

(V. 9.) He uprooted by force two lords of the Bana kings and defeated the Vaidumba and many other kings in various regions. His army, having crushed at the head of a battle and Pandya king together with an army of elephants, horses and soldiers seized a herd of elephants together with (the city of) Madhura.

(V. 10.) Having slain in an instant, at the head of a battle, an immense army, dispatched by the lord of Lanka, which teemed with brave soldiers (and) was interspersed with troops of elephants and horses, he bears in the world the title Samgramaraghava, which is full of meaning.[32]

(V. 11.) When he had defeated the Pandya (king) Rajasimha, two persons experienced the same fear at the same time: (Kubera) the lord of wealth on account of the death of his own friend,[33] (and) Vibhishana[34] on account of the proximity (of the Chola dominions to Ceylon).

(V. 12.) May it be victorious, the Ganga family, at the beginning of which was the great sage Kanva, who was born in the excellent race of Kasyapa, (and) the power of whose austerities was very great; which obtained increase through the might of Simhanandin; (and which is) the best of victorious (dynasties)!

(V. 13.) In the great (city of) Kuvalalapura, which was the dwelling-place of Prosperity, resided a king whose name Konkani (was well known) on earth; who was a descendant of Kanva (Kanvayana); who became the first of the whole Ganga race; (and) who was anointed to the conquest of the Bana country (mandala).

(V. 14.) (While still) a youth, he who resembled the powerful Sisu (Kumara)[35] in gracefulness, split in two a huge stone pillar with the sword held in (his) hand at a single stroke. The crowds of enemies became afraid when they perceived at the head of the battle his lofty, excellent banner, which bore a beautiful swan.[36]

(V. 15.) In his lineage, which deserves respect because there were born (in it) the glorious Vishnugopa, Hari, Madhava, Durvinita, Bhuvikrama and other kings, was born Sivamara’s son, the glorious Prithivipati (I.), a matchless hero of wide fame.[37]

(V. 16.) By the promise of security, he who was unequalled by others, saved Iriga and Nagadanta, the sons of king (ko) Dindi, who were afraid,— the one from king Amoghavarsha, (and) the other from the jaws of death.

(V. 17.) At the head of a battle called (after) Vaimbalguri, he who had slain the army of the enemy with (his) sword, caused a piece of bone, which had been cut from his own body by the sharp sword, to enter the water of the Ganga.[38]

(V. 18.) Having defeated by force the Pandya lord Varaguna at the head of the great battle of Sripurambiya, and having (thus) made (his) title Aparajita (i.e., ‘the Unconquered’) significant, this hero entered the heaven of (his) friend (viz., Indra) by sacrificing his own life.

(V. 19.) His son was the glorious king Marasimha, the light of the Ganga family (and) the only abode of honor, who possessed the power of the sun in dispelling darkness,— a crowd of enemies.

(V. 20.) His son was called Prithivipati (II.), the foremost lion among kings, whose face beamed with kindness, who was exalted by birth, who kept the vow of (resembling) the Kalpa tree towards friends, who was the fire of death to enemies, and who bore, from the forehead to the feet, wounds received from the enemies in battle.

(V. 21.) This prince, a flamingo in the tank of the Ganga family, received from that[39] Parantaka, who attacked kings in battle, a grant (prasada) in the shape of a (copper) plate (patta),[40] which was the instrument of the attainment of the dignity (pada) of lord of the Banas (Banadhiraja).

(V. 22.) Oppressed by the Kali (age), the political crowd of virtues, viz., courage, liberality, gratitude, sweetness, courtesy, wisdom, patience, intelligence, purity, tranquility, dignity, mercy, forbearance, etc., forthwith joined, in order to rest without grief and fatigue, this Prithivipati (II.) because they thought that he was born of the race of Bali.[41]

(V. 23.) He deservedly bore the other name Hastimalla,[42] as he tore up the Hill-chiefs (Girindra) together with the Pallavas, as he was devoted to virtue, as his fingers (always) carried gifts, as he bore the earth, (and) as he was prosperous from birth;— [just as the divine elephant Airavata tears up large hills like sprouts, is beloved by Indra, carries rut on the tip of his trunk, bears the earth, and was born (from the milk ocean) together with the goddess of Prosperity].

(V. 24.) He whose banner bore (the emblem of) a black-buck, who was the lord (of the city) of Parivipuri, whose crest (anka) was a bull, whose drum (was called) Paisacha, who was fearless in battle, (and) who was the lord of Nandi,— though himself (called) Hastimalla,[43] on submitting a request, was commanded (accordingly) by king Parakesarin.[44]

(V. 25.) “The religious merit of those who perform (grants), and of those who protect (them), (is) equal. Therefore protect (the present gift)”: (Speaking) thus, the matchless hero Parantaka incessantly bows (his head, whose diadem are the lotus feet of Cupid’s enemy (Siva), to future kings.

(V. 26.) This king granted the land called Kadaikkottur, on his (viz., Hastimalla’s) behalf, to (the village of) Udayendu-chaturvedimangalam.

(V. 27.) The two pattis called Vidyadharipatti (and) Devapatti in this (village) had been formerly enjoyed by the Digambaras.

(V. 28.) The king made the gift excluding these two (patties) of that (village); for, these two were known to have formerly belonged to the Kshapanakas.[45]

B.— Tamil portion.

(Line 71.) In the fifteenth year (of the reign) of Madirai-konda Ko-parakesarivarman,— His Majesty (Peruman-adigal) had, at the request of Sembiyan Mavalivanarayar, converted (the village of) Kadaikkottur in Mel-Adaiyaru-nadu, (a subdivision) of Paduvur-kottam, together with Udayasandiramangalam, into a brahmadeya, called Viranarayanachcheri after his own name.

(L. 75.) the eastern-boundary of this (village is) a banyan tree (alam) on the east of (the land called) Idaiyarrukkollai on the east of the Palaru (river); going to the south of this, a marudu (tree);[46] and going to the south of this, the (channel called) Vayirakkal, which feeds the (tank called) Vinnamangalattareri.

(L. 78.) The southeastern boundary (is) the Palaru (river).

(L. 79.) The southern boundary (is) a group of nux vomica trees (etti); ascending to the west of this, a pit on the north of the waste land (of the village) of Sirrariyur; ascending to the west of this, a banyan tree at the outlet on the eastern side of the (tank called) Vinnappuliyaneri; ascending to the west of this, a crooked neem tree (vembu) on a large (piece of) barren ground; ascending to the west of this, an expanse of water; ascending to the west of this, a bush on the south of a cross-road[47] and indu (creepers);[48] and ascending to the west of this, the foot of a high hill.

(L. 83.) The western boundary (is) a resounding boulder; going to the north of this, the “cross-road of the three women;” and going to the north of this, the “horse’s halter.”

(L. 86.) Its northern boundary (is) Adiyaman-mundai;[49] descending to the east of this, Pidamburai (?); descending to the east of this, a pond with kura (shrubs);[50] descending to the east of this, a path (of the breadth) of one buffalo; descending to the east of this, a hillock near a banyan tree on the north of the (tank called) Kangayaneri; descending to the east of this, a large vein (?) of stone; descending to the east of this, a large boulder near a kallali;[51] descending to the east of this, a large turinjil (tree);[52] descending to the east of this, a large boulder; descending to the east of this, a stone wall (?) near a turinjil (tree); descending to the east of this, a pond near a tanakku (tree)[53] on the north-west of a bare cross-road, and a large boulder on the bare cross-road; descending to the east of this, a thicket of karai (shrubs);[54] and descending to the east of this, the bank of the Palaru (river).

(L. 96.) Having assembled accordingly (the inhabitants of) the district (nadu), having caused (them) to walk over (the boundaries of) the (granted) land, having planted stones and milk-bush (on the boundaries), having excluded the two patties called Vichchadiripatti and Devarpatti,[55] which had been formerly a pallichchandam,[56] (but) having included[57] the cultivated land situated within the above four boundaries, and having caused an edict (sasama) to be drawn up in accordance with the order of the king,— I, Sembiyan-Mavalivanarayan, gave (the above land), together with a gift of one thousand (gold coins), to all the inhabitants of Udayasandiramangalam.

(L. 101.) Om. Obeisance of Narayana!


[1] Compare Parantakan-Kundavaiyar, i.e., ‘Kundavai, (the daughter of) Parantaka (II.),’ in No.6, p. 68.

[2] No. 232 of 1894 in my Annual Report for 1894-95.

[3] No. 6, paragraph 14; No. 69, 78; and No. 70, 65.

[4] See Mr. P. Sundaram Pillai’s valuable article on the Age of Tirunanasambandar in the Madras Christian College Magazine, Vol. IX, pp. 344 and 511; and Ep. Ind. Vol. III, p. 280 f.

[5] I.e., which have to be replaced by fresh ones when they die or grow old; see Vol. I, p. 114, note 1.

[6] Sula is used for trisula.

[7] This is a Sanskritised form of the Tamil Kochchengan.

[8] This represents the Tamil Kochchengannan.

[9] According to the Perumbanarruppadai, a poem by Rudrangannanar (see Pandit Saminadaiyar’s edition of the Pattuppattu, Preface, p. 3), a Chola king of Nagapattinam (Negapatam), who is clearly a reminiscence of Kokkilli, entered the Naga world through a cavern, married a Naga princess, and became by her the father of Ilandiraiyan, a Tondaiman, i.e., king of Kanchi. In certain apocryphal works, this mythical being is called Adondai and represented as the son of Kulottunga-Chola (!); see Wilson’s Mackenzie Collection, Madras reprint, p. 209, Taylor’s Catalogue, Vol. III, p. 426 f., and Mr. Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. II, pp. 156, 159 and 213. The Kasakudi plates (No. 73, II. 101 f. and 116) mention ‘the tank of Tiralaya or Tiraiyan.’ The name of this tank is perhaps connected with Ilandiraiyan. If this were the case, it would prove the antiquity of the legend of Adondai.

[10] In support of the first of these two renderings it is alleged that he was accidentally burnt by fire in his youth; see Pandit Saminadaiyar’s Introduction to his edition of the Purananuru. Compare the similar name Pulikala, which Dr. Fleet derives from puli, ‘a tiger,’ and kalu, ‘foot’ or ‘leg;’ Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 231, note 2.

[11] Pattuppattu, p. 58; compare Kalingattu-Parani, viii. 19.

[12] See Pandit Saminadaiyar’s Introduction to his edition of the Purananuru.

[13] ‘A half-hour with two ancient Tamil poets;’ J. R. A. S., Ceylon Branch, 1894.

[14] The published translation of the Leyden grant erroneously connects this epithet with Kokkilli, to whom the second half of the verse refers. It also connects Karikala’s epithet arikala, i.e., ‘the death to enemies,’ with the preceding verse, and thus obtains a Chola king Arikala, while the actual name of Karikala’s ancestor was Panchapa, i.e., ‘the protector of the five (Pandavas);’ the same mythical king is alluded to in the Kalingattu-Parani, viii. 17, as having assisted the army of Dharma (Yudhishthira) in the Bharata war.

[15] Sembiyar seiyakanirei or seiyakan valavan.

[16] Tirumangaimannan’s Periyatirumori, verses 551 to 560.

[17] Madiraiyum Ezhamunkonda; No. 88 of 1892, Nos. 232 and 233 of 1894, and No. 15 of 1895. The Madras Museum plates of Ko-Parakesarivarman alias Uttama-Choladeva refer to the 18th year of “Para-kesarivarman who took Madhura and Ceylon;” see my Progress Report for October 1890 to March 1891, p. 5.

[18] In the copper-plate grants of the Western Gangas and in verse 13 of the present inscription, the gotra to which the first Ganga king, Konganivarman, belonged, is called Kanvayana.

[19] On Simhanandin see my remarks in the Ep. Ind., Vol. II, p. 186.

[20] The identity of both names is proved by the inscriptions of the Kolaramma temple at Kolar, in which Kolar is called Kuvalalapura. The Harihar grant seems to style Madhava II. ‘the lord of Kolalapura;’

[21] The Mallohalli grant seems to call Konganivarman ‘a jungle-fire in burning the extremely dense grass – the Banas;’ see Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 164, and Mr. Rice’s Mysore Inscriptions, p. 289.

[22] The same performance of Konganivarman is alluded to in most of the Western Ganga copper-plate grants. Dr. Fleet suggests that the stone pillar may be meant for a jayastambha;

[23] See Mr. Sewell’s List’s of Antiquities, Vol. I, p. 275. Tiruppirambiyam is No. 67 on the Madras Survey Map of the Kumbhakonam talluqa.

[24] Ind. Ant., Vol. XXII, p. 62 f. Varaguna-Maharaja is mentioned in an inscription of the Pandya king Ko-Maranjadaiyan at Tillasthanam; No. 51 of 1895 in my Annual Report for 1894-95.

[25] The Malapas or Hill-chiefs are mentioned among the enemies conquered by the Hoysala kings;

[26] Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 172; Ind. Ant., Vol. XII, pp. 255 and 270 f.; Mr. Rice’s Inscriptions at Sravana-Belgola, Introduction, p. 18; and his Inscriptions in the Mysore District, Part I, Introduction, p. 6 f.

[27] The country near Velur belonged to lPangala-nadu, lanother subdivision of Paduvur-kottam; see the Index to Vol. I, s.v. Paduvur-kottam, and Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 82.

[28] The Sanskritised form Aaeyara-rashtra occurs in another Udayendiram grant; Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 145.

[29] Viz., in the form of Harihara, which consists of Vishnu and Siva joined in one. Compare No. 73, verse 4.

[30] Every word in this verse also applies to the sun (aditya), whose name the king bore.

[31] This word has to be taken in two ways viz., as a synonym of chakravartin, ‘an emperor,’ and as an epithet of Vishnu, one of whose names (Narayana) forms part of the king’s name.

[32] The name Samgramaraghava, i.e., ‘(resembling) Rama in battle,’ was appropriate in his case, because he defeated an army of the king of Ceylon, just as rama had killed Ravana, the fabulous ruler of Lanka.

[33] This seems to imply that the Pandya king Rajasimha possessed great wealth, which was seized by the conquering Chola king.

[34] This is the name of Ravana’s younger brother, who was raised to the throne by Rama.

[35] This god is supposed to have split the mountain Krauncha.

[36] Sitapinchha is the same as svetagarut, which the Amarakosa (ii. 5, 23) gives as a synonym of hamsa.

[37] It is difficult to say which of the three words prithuyasas, prithivipati and ekavira is the actual name of the king. I select Prithivipati, because the same name is borne by another king in verse 20 and 22.

[38] It is not clear if the bone was cut out by one of the enemies or by himself, nor why it was subsequently immersed in the Ganga.

[39] This pronoun refers to the Chola king whose reign was described in verse 6 to 11.

[40] With pattamayah prasadah compare parasada-pattaka.

[41] In reality, Prithivipati II was not a descendant of Bali, the mythical ancestor of the Bana kings, but the Bana kingdom had been conferred on him, a Ganga, by Parantaka I.

[42] I.e., ‘the wrestler with elephants’ or ‘the best of elephants.’

[43] The lion and the elephant are considered as natural enemies. Hastimalla means ‘the best of elephants,’ and Parakesarin ‘the lion of enemies;’ hence the virodha.

[44] This seems to mean that Hastimalla received Parakesarin’s permission to make the present grant.

[45] The Kshapanakas are the same as the Digambaras in verse 27.

[46] Marudhu or marutham in Tamil and in Sanskrit is the tree Terminalia alata. It forms part ot Tiruvidaimarudhur or Madhyarjuna, the name of a famous shrine of Siva near Kumbhakonam, which Samkara is said in the Samkaravijaya to have visited; see Dr. Aufrecht’s Oxford Catalogue, p. 248a.

[47] kuruki is perhaps the same as kurukkupathai and kurukkuvazhi.

[48] According to the Tamil dictionaries, this is a thorny creeper, Mimosa rubicaulis.

[49] Adiyaman is probably the same as Adigaiman, ‘the king of Adigai,’ and mundai means ‘a shaven widow.’ Perhaps this fanciful name designated a bare rock, which resembled a human head in shape.

[50] Webera corymbosa.

[51] This may be the same as kallalam, Ficus virens.

[52] Mimosa amara.

[53] Morinda umbellate.

[54] Webera tetrandra.

[55] These two pattis are also referred to in verses 27 and 28 of the Sanskrit portion.

[56] This word means ‘a gift to a Jaina temple;’

[57] Literally, ‘not having excluded.’

Other Volumes

Volume 8

Chola Inscription

Volume 10

Telugu Inscriptions from Andra Pradesh

Volume 12

Pallava Inscriptions

Volume 14

Pandya Inscriptions

Volume 16

Telugu Inscriptions
of the Vijayanagara Dynasty

Volume 17

Inscriptions Collected During 1903-1904

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