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The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions, Volume 2

Tamil Inscriptions

part - iii

INSCRIPTIONS  OF THE TANJAVUR TEMPLE

ADDITIONAL INSCRIPTIONS IN THE TANJAVUR TEMPLE AND OTHER MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS

No.63 On the outside of the north enclosure

From the published portion of No. 63, we learn that this inscription consists of a list of shepherds who had to supply ghee for temple lamps from the milk of a number of cattle, which had been presented to the temple before the 29th year of the reign of Rajarajadeva by the king himself and by others, or bought from the funds of the temple. To each lamp were allotted 96 ewes,[1] or 48 cows, or 16 she-buffaloes. The daily supply for each lamp was one urakku of ghee.

Translation

1. Hail! Prosperity! Until the twenty-ninth year (of the reign) of Ko-Rajakesarivarman, alias Sri-Rajarajadeva, who, in his life of growing strength, during which,  (in) the belief that, as well as the goddess of fortune, the goddess of the great earth had become his wife, he was pleased to destroy the ships (at) Kandalur-Salai the conquered by his army, which was victorious in great battles, Vengai-Nadu, Ganga-padi, Nulamba-padi, Tadigai-padi, Kudamalai-nadu, Kollam, Kalingam, Ira-mandalam, (the conquest of which) made (him) famous (in) the eight directions,[2] and the seven and a half lakshas of Iratta-padi,  deprived the Seriyas (i.e., the Pandyas) of (their) splendour at the very moment when (they were) resplendent (to such a degree) that (they were) worthy to be worshipped everywhere;[3] cattle had been given by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva[4] for (burning) sacred lamps before the lord of the Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple); (other) cattle had been given by (other) donors; and (other) cattle were represented by funds (mudal),[5] as money (kasu) had been paid (for their purchase into the temple treasury). (These) cattle were assigned to shepherds (Idaiyar), who had to supply ghee for the sacred lamps (from their milk), at the rate of ninety-six ewes, or forty-eight cows, or sixteen she-buffaloes for each sacred lamp. Besides, calves and bulls which were given along with cows, (had to be reckoned) as cows; lambs and rams which were given along with ewes, as ewes; and buffalo calves and he-buffaloes which were given along with she-buffaloes, as she-buffaloes. The shepherds, who had received the battle, themselves and their people, (viz.,) their relations, and the relations of the latter, had to supply ghee the treasury of the lord, as long as the moon and the sun endure, at the daily rate of (one) urakku of ghee by the Adavallan (measure) for each sacred lamp. (The names of these shepherds) were engraved on stone as follows:

2. The cattle, which had been given by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva, were assigned to sacred lamps as follows: 

3. From forty-eight cows, which were assigned to the shepherd Surri Pakkaran (i.e., Bhaskara), who resides in the [Gandha]rva Street within the limits of Tanjavur, he himself and his relations, (viz.) his uterine brothers [Surri] Nara[ n ] an (i.e., Narayana) and Surri {Sira]lan,[6] and (his) uncle’s son [So]lai Kuravan,[7] [the shepherd] . . . . . . . who resides at Paru[vur] in Vadakarai-kunra-kurram, alias Ut[tunga]tunga-valanadu, . . . . . . . . [have to supply] for one sacred lamp . . . . . . . .

No. 64. On the outside of the north enclosure

As appears from its 1st paragraph, this inscription is a continuation of No. 63. The published portion of the 2nd paragraph refers to a shepherd who had received 96 ewes,[8] viz., 69 ewes given by Rajarajadeva, and 27 ewes purchased for 9 kasu, in order to supply ghee for a temple lamp. 

Translation

1. Hail! Prosperity! There were engraved on stone (the names of the shepherds) to whom had been assigned, for (burning) sacred lamps, cattle given by the lord Sri Rajarajadeva, cattle given by (other) donors, and cattle which were represented by funds, as kasu and akkam[9] had been paid (for their purchase into the temple treasury): 

2. [To] the shepherd . . . . . . . who resides in the Gandharva Street within the limits of Tanjavur, were assigned sixty-nine ewes out of the cattle which had been given by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva; and (to the same shepherd) were given nine kasu out of the money which had been deposited by the Perundaram [Ut]tarang-udaiyan Kera[la-Vi]dividangan,[10] alias [Vil]llava-Muvenda-Velan, for (burning) a sacred lamp, which he had vowed (to put up) because the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva did not take his lamp, which he had vowed (to put up) because the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva did not take his life[11] in the battle of Kori.[12] [At the rate of three ewes for each kasu,[13] this comes to twenty-seven ewes. Altogether, (the shepherd received) ninety-six ewes. From (these)]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

No. 65 On the outside of the North enclosure

This inscription records an order of king Rajarajadeva, by which he assigned a daily allowance of paddy to each of forty-eight persons, whom he had appointed before the 29th year of his reign, in order to recite the Tiruppadiyam in the temple, and to two persons who had to accompany the others on drums. This statement is of considerable importance for the history of Tamil literature[14] as an unmistakable proof of the existence of the Saiva hymns which go by the name of padigam or padiyam, and which are collected in the Devaram, in the time of Rajaraja. The names of the fifty incumbents serve to corroborate this identification of the Tiruppadiyam with the Devaram, as part of them are derived from the names of the three authors of the Devaram, viz., Tirunanasambandan (paragraph 7) or Sambandan (10, 22, 34, 38, 42), Tirunavukkaraiyan[15] (6, 12, 14, 19, 28, 43, 45), and Nambi-Aruran (41, 44) or Aruran (19, 22). The name of two other incumbents, Siralan (13, 15), is derived from Siraladevar, one of the sixty-three Saiva devotees, who is referred to in No. 43, paragraph 19. A number of other names pre-suppose the existence of certain Saiva temples, which without exception, are mentioned in the Periyapuranam.  Among these are the temples at Tiruvanjiaym (2), Arur (8) or Sri-Arur (21), Tiruvaymur (3), Maraikkadu (41) or Tirumaraikka[du] (17), Aiyaru (46), and perhaps Tiruvidaimarudur (51). The name Venkadan (16, 27, 29, 36, 40) is derivd from Venkadu or Tiruvenkadu, after which the mother of the saint Siraladevar was called Tiruvenkattur-Nangai.[16] The god at Chidambaram is alluded to by the names Ambalavan (11), Ambalattadi (4, 47), Ambalakkuttan(18), Kuttan (20, 26, 29, 31, 49), Tillaikkuttan (49), Tillaikkaraisu (33), and Eduttapadam (9, 24, 32).

The name Tiruvenaval (3) is identical with tiru-ven-naval,the sacred white jambu tree” in the Saiva temple on the island of Srirangam near Trichinopoly. This temple is now called Jambukesvara, Tiruvanaikkaval[17] or (by the Post Office) Tiruvanaikkoyil. The first of these three names means “(the image of) Isvara (i.e., Siva) (under) the jambu (tree),” and the two others are corruptions of the ancient name of the locality, viz., Tiruvanaikka, “the sacred elephant-grove.” The full designation of the god, as used in the Jambukesvara inscriptions, is “the lord of the sacred elephant-grove (Tiruvanaikka), alias the lord of the three worlds, who is pleased to reside gladly under the shade of the sacred white jambu tree (tiru-ven-naval).” This name and the modern name Jambukesvara refer to an ancient legend, which is thus narrated in the Periyapuranam (p. 239 of the Madras edition of 1888):  “In a grove near the Chandratirtha (i.e., the Moon-tank) in the Chola country, a linga of Siva made its appearance under a white jambu tree (ven-navel). This was daily worshipped by a white elephant. Therefore the place received the name of “the sacred elephant-grove” (Tiruvanaikka). Over the linga, a spider constructed a canopy, in order to prevent dry leaves from dropping on the linga. When the elephant saw the cobwebs, he tore them down, because he considered them out of place. The spider became angry, crawled into the trunk of the elephant and bit it. The animal dashed its trunk on the ground and died. So did the spider. In due course, the spider was reborn as the son of the Chola king Subhadeva and of lhis queen Kamalavati. The boy received the name Ko-Sengannan[18] and inherited his father’s kingdom. He possessed the faculty of remembering his former births and constructed a temple of Siva near the white jambu tree in the sacred elepohant-grove, where he, as a spider, had formerly worshipped the linga.” A distinct allusion to this legend occurs in a Jambukesvara inscription of the Pandya king Ko-Maravarman, alias Kulasekharadeva, which mentions, “the sacred street called after (the god) who transformed a spider into a Chola (king).”[19] That the legend, and the Jambukesvara temple itself, was in existence in about A.D. 1000, may be concluded from the subjoined inscription, in which the word tiruve[n]naval forms part of the name of one of the donees.

Of historical interest is the name Rajadittan (47), which appears to have been bestowed on its bearer in commemoration of Rajaditya, the Chola contemporary of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III.

Translation

1. Hail! Prosperity! Until the twenty-ninth year (of the reign) of Ko-Rajakesarivarman, alias Sri-Rajarajrajadeva, who, in his life of growing strength, during which,  (in) the belief that, as well as the goddess of fortune, the goddess of the great earth had become his wife,  he was pleased to destroy the ships (at) Kandalur-Salai, and conquered by his army, which was victorious in great battles, Vengai-nadu, Ganga-padi, Tadigai-padi, Nulamba-padi, Kudamalai-naldu, Kollam, Kalingam, Ira-mandalam, (which was the country) of the Singalas who possessed rough strength, the seven and a half lakshas of Iratta-padi, and twelve thousand ancient islands of the sea,  deprived the Seriyas of (their) splendor at the very moment when (they were) resplendent (to such a degree) that (they were) worthy to lbe worshipped everywhere;  the lord Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple),  forty-eight musicians (Piddarar), one person who should constantly beat the small drum[20] in their company, and one person who should constantly beat the big drum (kotti-mattalam)[21] in their company. These fifty persons were to receive from the city treasury of the lord a daily allowance (nibandha) of three kuruni of paddy each, (measured) by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari. Instead of those among these persons, who would die or emigrate,[22] the nearest relations of such persons were to receive that paddy and to recite the Tiruppadiyam. If the nearest relations of such persons were not qualified themselves, they were to select (other) qualified persons, to let (these) recite the Tiruppadiyam, and to receive that paddy. If there were no near relations to such persons, the (other) incumbents of such appointments[23] were to select qualified persons for reciting the Tiruppadiyam, and the person selected was to received the paddy in the same way, as that person (whom he represented), had received it. Accordingly, (the names of these fifty persons) were engraved on stone, as the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva had been pleased to order:  

2. To Palan (i.e., Bala) Tiruvanji[ya]ttadigal,[24] alias Rajaraja-Pichchan, alias Sadasivan, three kuruni  of paddy per day.

3. To Tiruvenaval Sembor[chodi], alias Dakshina-Meru-Vitanka-Pichchan, alias Nana-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

4.To Pattalagan[25] [Am]balattadi,[26] alias Manotma-Sivan,[27] three kuruni of paddy per day.

5. To Pattalagan Siru[d]aikkaral,[28] alias Purva-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

6. To Porchuvaran Tirunavukkaraiyan, alias Purva-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

7. To Maevan (i.e, Mahadeva) Tirunanasambandan, alias Nana-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

8. To Kayilayan (i.e., Kailasa) Arur, alias Darma-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

9. To [Set]ti Eduttap[adam],[29] alias Kavacha-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

10. To Iraman (i.e., Rama) Sambandan, alias Satya-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

11. To Amba[la]van-van-[Pa]t[ta]rga[l][30] . . . . . . alias Vama-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

12. To Kam[b]an Tirunavukkaraiyan, alias Sadasivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

13. To Nakkan (i.e., Nagna) Siralan, alias Vama-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

14. To [A]ppi Tirunavukkaraiyan, alias Natra-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

15. To Sivakko[ru]ndu[31] Siralan, alias Dharma-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

16. To Ainnurruvan Venkadan, alias Satya-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

17. To Araiyan A[nu]kkan, alias Tirumaraikka . . . . . [alias Dharma-Si]van, three kuruni of paddy per day.

18. To Araiyan Am[bala]kkuttan,[32] alias Om[ka]ra-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

19. To Aruran Tirunavukaraiyan, alias Nana-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

20. To Kuttan[33] Maalaichchilam[b]u, alias Purva-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

21. To Ainnurruvan Siy[a]rur,[34] alias Ta[tpuru]sha-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

22. To[Samba]ndan Aruran, alias Vama-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

23. To Araiyan Pich[chan], alias Dharma-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

24. To Ka[syap]an Edutta[pa]da-Pichchan, alias Rudra-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

25. To Subrahmanyan [A]chchan, alias Dharma-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

26. To Kuttan Amarabhujamgan, alias Satya-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

27. To . . . . . . . . Venkadan, alias Aghora-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

28. Todevan Tirunavukkaraiyan, alias Vijnana-Sivan, three kurni of paddy per day.

29. To Kuttan Venkadan, alias Rudra-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

30. To Ainnurruvan Tiru[va]y[mu]r,[35] alias Aghora-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

31. To Tirumalai Kuttan, alias Vama-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

32. To Ainnurruvan Eduttapadam, alias Dharma-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

33. To Araiyan Tillaikkaraisu,[36] alias Purva-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

34. To Ka[li] Sambandan, alias Dharma-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

35. To Ka[p]alika-Vali, alias Nana-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

36. To Venkadan Namassiva[yam], alias Rudra-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

37. To Sivan Anantan, alias Yoga-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

38. To Sivakkoru[ndu] Sambandan, alias Aghora-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

39. To [Iraman Kanava]di (i.e., Ganapati), alias Nana-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

40. To [Pi]chchan Venkadan, alias Aghora-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

41. To Maraikkadan[37] Nambi-Aruran, alias Nana-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

42. To So[m]an (i.e., Soma) Sambandan, alias Nana-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

43. To Satti (i.e., Sakti) Tirunavukkaraiyan, alias [Is]sana-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

44. To Porchuvaran Nambi-A[ruran], alias Dharma-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

45. To Achchan Tirunavukkaraiyan, alias Netra-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

46. To Aiyaran[38] Pennorbagan,[39] alias Hrida[ya-Si]van, three kuruni of paddy per day.

47. To Rajadi[tt]an Ambalattadi, alias Sikha-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

48. To[S]elvan Ka[na]vadi Te[m]ban, alias [Dharma-Si]van, three kuruni of paddy per day.

49. To Kuttan Tillaikkuttan,[40] alias Nana-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day.

50. For beating the small drum, to Suryadeva-Kramavittan,[41] alias . . . . . . Vidanga-Udukkai-Vijjadiran,[42] alias Soma-Sivan, the son of [Ta]ttaya-Kramavittan of [Dv]edaigomapuram,[43] three kuruni of paddy per day.

51. For beating the big drum, to Gunappu[ga]r Marudan,[44] alias Sikha-Sivan, three kuruni of paddy per day. 


[1] In No. 6, paragraphs 18 and 21, the same numbers of ewes are allotted to ten lamps.

[2] The composer adds this epithet to Iramandalam evidently because the latter is the eighth item in the list of Rajaraja’s conquests.

[3] The above translation of this passage slightly differs from that which I gave on former occasions. A further change would be necessary, if a various reading, which occurs in an inscription of the 20th year at Somur near Karuvur in the Coimbatore district, in an inscription of the 29th year at Melpadi near Tiruvallam in the North Arcot district, and in three inscriptions of the 1[7]th, 24th and 29th years at Ukkal near Mamandur in the same district, should prove correct. These five inscriptions read Thozhuthagai instead of thozhuthaga. Accepting this, we would have to translate: “(who) deprived) the Seriyas of (their) splendor at the very moment when Udagai, which is worshipped everywhere, was (most) resplendent,” and to assume that Udagai was a city which Rajarajadeva took from the Pandyas. The storming of Udagai is actually mentioned in the Kalingattu-Parani, canto viii. Verse 24; and this verse probably refers to a reign of Rajaraja, because the following verse (25) mentions the invasion of Mannai on the bank of the Ganga, and the annexation of Kadaam (by his successor Rajendra-Chola)

[4] In two previously published inscriptions (No. 3, paragraphs 5 and 6, and No. 59, paragraphs 2, 3, 4, 9 and 11), the word malu, ‘cattle’ was taken in the unusual sense of ‘gold.’ The present inscription shows, however, the Rajaraja actually gave cattle to the temple. Hence the translation has probably to be changed into: “the cattle which the king had seized,” & c.

[5] On two former occasions (No. 3, paragraph 1, and No. 59, paragraph 1), the expression mudal-ana was translated by ‘of the first quality,’ which I now consider less probable.

[6] This person is evidently called after Siraladevar, one of the characters of the Periyapuranam; see page 172, note 2.

[7] This is the Tamil form of gurava, which occurs in Sanskrit inscriptions instead of guru; see Ind. Ant.,

[8] This number of ewes was required for each lamp according to No. 63, paragraph 1.

[9] According to No. 6, paragraphs 15 and 20, and No. 24, paragraph 3, one akkam is 1/12 kasu.

[10] According to the introduction of the Periyapuranam, Vidividangan was the name of the son of mythical Chola king Manu, to whom reference is made on page 154 of this volume

[11] This translation of Uthai uttamal is purely tentative.

[12] Kori is a name of Uraiyur, the supposed ancient capital of the Cholas, near Trichinopoly. The donor appears to have incurred Rajaraja’s disfavour for having lost the battle, but to have been subsequently pardoned.

[13] The same rate is referred to in No. 6, paragraphs 18 and 21.

[14] I avail myself of this opportunity for drawing attention to a discovery, which my First Assistant, Mr. Venkayya, has made in an inscription in the Vishnu temple of Ranganatha at Srirangam near Trichinopoly. This inscription is dated in the 18th year of the reign of Kulottunga-Chola I. (A.D. 1081) and makes provision for offerings on three nghts, during which the text (beginning with) “Tettarundiral” was recited before the god. This text is the second chapter of the sacred hymns of Kulasekhara, one of the twelve Vaishnava saints whose works are incorporated in the Nalayiraprabandham. Accordingly, Kulasekhara must have lived before the end of the 11th century, and not in the 12th or 13th century, as Dr. Caldwell (Comparatvive Grammar, p. 143 o the Introduction) conjectured.

[15] In the Madras Christian College Magazine for November 1893, Mr. Venkayya has shown that this devotee was probably a contemporary of the two Pallava kings Mahendravarman I and Narasimhavarman I.

[16] See No. 43, paragraph 16. Tiruvenkadu is in the Sirgari (Shiyali) talluqa of the Tanjore district.

[17] The form Annaikkaval occurs in the Vikkirama-Soran-Ula; Ind. Ant., Vol. XXII, pp. 143 and 149.

[18] This king is considered as one of the sixty-three devotees of Siva; see p. 152 f.

[19] Silanthiyai cholanaki aana thiruthervu.

[20] Udukkai corresponds to the Sanskrit hudukka.

[21] Mathalam is derived from the Sanskrit mardala.

[22] Anathesam is evidently a vulgar corruption of the Sanskrit anyadesa.

[23] This meaning of niyayattar or niyayangalilar may be derived from one of the clauses in No. 66, paragraph 1. As suggested on page 96, note 3, niyayam, ‘an appointment,’ may be a corruption of the Sanskrit nyasa.

[24] I.e.,”the devotee of Tiruvanjiaym.” This Saiva shrine is mentioned in the Periyapuranam as Vanjiyam, and is now called Srivanchiyam. It is situated in the Nannilam talluqa of the Tanjore district; see Mr. Sewell’s Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p. 276.

[25] This word may be a corruption of the Sanskrit bhattaraka.

[26] This name means “he who dances in the (Golden) Hall,” and is synonymous with Nataraja, the deity of the Chidambaram temple.

[27] The first part of this compound may be a corruption of Manonmani, a name of Parvati.

[28] I.e., “(the worshipper of) the feet of Sri.”

[29] This name means “he who lifts his leg (in dancing),” and is synonymous with Nataraja, as Ambalattadi in paragraph 4. The same word occurs in No. 27, paragraph 1, and on page 131, note 5, text line 9.

[30] I.e., “the devotee (bhakta) of the god of the (Golden) Hall (at Chidambaram).”

[31] I.e., “the sprout of Siva.”

[32] I.e., “the dancer in the (Golden) Hall (at Chidambaran).”

[33] This is the same as Ambalakkuttan in paragraph 18.

[34] This and Sriyarur (in the first verse quoted in p. 153) are Tamil forms of Sri-Arur, i.e., Arur (Paragraph 8 of the present inscription) or Tiruvarur in the Negapatam talluqa of the Tanjore district.

[35] Tiruvaymur, which is called Vaymur in the Periyapuranam, belongs to the Negapatam talluqa of the tanjore district; see Mr. Sewell’s lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p. 282.

[36] I.e., “the king (or god) of Tillai (Chidambaram).”

[37] Maraikkadu is the Tamil equivalent of the Sanskrit Vedaranyam, the name of a place near Point Calimere, which is mentioned kin the Periyapuranam. The form Tirumaraikka[du] occurs in paragraph 17.

[38] Aiyaru or Tiruvaiyaru, i.e., ‘the sacred five rivr,’ is a place on the northern bank of the Kaveri, 7 miles north of Tanjavur. The name Tiruvaiyaru and that of its Saiva temple Panchnadisvara, refer to the five principle rivers of the delta of the Kaveri.

[39] This is the Tamil equivalent of the Sanskrit Ardhanarisvara.

[40] I.e., “the dancer at Tillai (Chidambaram).”

[41]  This is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit Kramavid, ‘one who knows the Kramapatha.’

[42] I.e., “(he who resembles) a Vidyadhara (in beating) the small drum.”

[43] The same place is mentioned in lines 158 and 421 of the large Leyden grant.

[44] This name is perhaps connected with Tiruvidaimarudur, a sacred place in the Kumbhakonam talluqa, which is referred to in the PeriyapuranamI.

Other Volumes

Volume 8

Chola Inscription

Volume 10

Telugu Inscriptions from Andra Pradesh

Volume 12

Pallava Inscriptions

Volume 14

Pandya Inscriptions

Volume 16

Telugu Inscriptions
of the Vijayanagara Dynasty

Volume 17

Inscriptions Collected During 1903-1904

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