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Saturday, March 03, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS

VOLUME XIII

INSCRIPTIONS OF RAJAKESARIVARMAN 

No. 101.

(A.R. No. 149 of 1928.)

Tiruppalanam, Tanjore Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the west wall of the central shrine, Apatsahayesvara temple.

This is an incomplete and damaged inscription recording the endowment of a land made after purchase and reclamation, by Nakkan Kanjan, a merchant of Tiruppalanam, for the maintenance of two gardeners employed for the upkeep of the two flower gardens given to the temple by his father Visakan Nakkan.

No. 102.

(A.R. No. 23 of 1931.)

Tirukkodikaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the west wall of the central shrine, Tirukkotisvara temple.

This is one of several earlier inscriptions on loose which were lying in the temple and were collected and re-engraved on its walls by the order of the king’s mother Sembiyan-Mahadevi in the reign of Uttama-Chola, when the temple was rebuilt by her of stone from its original brick structure (M. E. R. 1931, II. 9). It registers a sale of land, free of taxes, executed by the sabha of Naranakka-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadya village of Nallarrur-nadu on the north bank, to the temple at Tirukkodikka.

No. 103.

(A.R. No. 123 of 1931.)

Tiruchchatturai, Tanjore Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the north wall of thecentral shrine, Odanavanesvara temple.

This inscription is damaged and the portion from the 5th line onwards is engraved in smaller characters. It seems to record an endowment in land for feeding two Brahmans, a Brahman who man and some yogis in the temple every day, made by two ladies Nakkan Kavadiyakkan and her sister Nakkan Vichchiyakkan, both daughters of a certain Devanar of the village. As both these persons also figure in No. 122 of 1931 of the 23rd year of Parantaka I, the present record is attributed to Sundara-Chola in the M. E. R. for 1931, II. 4. But it may with greater possibility, be assigned to Parantaka’s son and nearer successor Gandaraditya.

No. 104.

(A.R. No. 7 of 1905.)

Kilur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the central shrine, Virattanesvara temple.

This records a gift of 90 sheep and a lamp-stand (Ila-vilakku) for burning a lamp in the temple of Tiruvirattanattu-Andar at Tirukkovalur in Kurukkai-kurram, a subdivision of Miladu, by Pulisayyan Sami Abbai alias Malada-Madeviyar, the wife of Vikramachola-Maladudaiyar and the daughter of the Pandya king. The alphabet of the inscription closely resembles that of No. 8 of 1905 engraved below this, which is one of Rajendra-Chola I.

No. 105.

(A.R. No. 329 of 1906.)

Tirumalpuram, Arkonam Taluk, North Arcot District.

On the north wall fo thecentral shrine, ruined Vishnu temple.

This records a gift of sheep for a lamp in the temple of [Go]vindapadininrarulina-Perumanadigal by Soman Sankaranarayanan, the headman of Kurukadi.

No. 106.

(A.R. No. 171 of 1907.)

Tiruppalatturai, Trichinopoly Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On the west wall of the central shrine, Adimulesvara temple.

This inscription records an endowment of some lands made by Balasiriyan Bhattan Sivan Kuttan of Adanur, to the temple of Tirupparrurai-Mahadeva at Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam, to provide for the maintenance of some servants in the temple, for burning a perpetual lamp before the deity and for the midday offerings. The taxes, on these lands were to be paid by the Big Assembly of the village in return for a lump-sum deposit of 50 Ilakkasu made with them by the donor. The details of the date given, viz., Mithuna, Tuesday, Chittirai, seem to correspond to A.D. 961, May 28, though they are not enough for verification of its correctness. The inscription may be one of Sundara-Chola.

No. 107.

(A.R. No. 565 of 1908.)

This is identical with No. 106 above.

No. 108.

(A.R. No. 236 of 1911.)

Kumbakonam, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the west wall of the central shrine, Nagesvara temple.

This registers an endowment of 70 Ilakkasu in gold, made in the 3rd year of Parakesarivarman ‘who took the head of Vira-Pandya’ by Devan Kuppai of the Virasola-terinja-Kaikkolar community (See No. 45 above) to the temple of Tirukilkottattu-Paramasvami at Tirukkudamukkil, a devadana in Pambur-nadu, on the northern bank (of the Kaveri). Out of the interest on this amount, offerings and worship were to be provided thrice a day to the silver image (of the god ?) set up in the temple by the donor. The reason for this agreement after the lapse of some time is not clear. The inscription being obviously of the time of a Rajakesari who was the successor of ‘Parakesari’, the victor over Vira-Pandya’, i.e., Aditya II Karikala, it should be assigned to Rajaraja I.

No. 109.

(A.R. No. 74 of 1914.)

Kamarasavalli, Udayarpalayam Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On the south wall of the central shrine, Karkotakesvara temple.

This records a gift of two adjoining plots of land measuring together one ma, after purchasing them from their owners, by Balasiriyan Bhattan Sivan Kuttan of Adanur (the donor mentioned in No. 106 above) to provide for the supply of sidari and other ingredients for fumigation during the daily services in the temple of Tirunallur-Mahadeva at Kamaravalli-chaturvedimangalam, a devadana and brahmadeya in Innambar-nadu. The inscription also states that the land was made tax-free in consideration of 12 kasu received from the donor by the Perunguri-Perumakkal (Elders of the Assembly) of the village, who met for the purpose before the mandapa heralded by the blowing of a pair of kalam. Among the boundaries are mentioned the channel Kodandarama-vaykkal and the road Solamahadevi-vadi. Kodandarama was a surname of Aditya I (Travancore Arachaeological Series, Vol. III, part I, p. 109), and also of Rajaditya, the son of Parantaka (No. 318 of 1904). The inscription seems to be assignable to Sundara-Chola Parantaka II, and the date corresponds to A.D. 961, January 4. The details however, viz., Makara, Friday, Punarvasu, are not capable of verification.

No. 110.

(A.R. No. 103 of 1914.)

Tiruverumbur, Trichinopoly Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On the north wall of the central shrine, Pipilikesvara temple.

This records an agreement by the assembly (Perunburi-sabhai) of Srikantha-chaturvedimangalam, exempting from the several kinds of taxes, 2 veli and 7 ma of land endowedafter purchase and left in their charge, by Velan Viranarayanan alias Sembiyan Vedivelar of Sirudavur in Kiliyur-nadu for feeding 15 Brahmans in the feeding house on the hill of Tiruverumbiyur-Alvar every day. A lump sum is said to have been paid by the donor towards these taxes to the assembly. This person has figures as the builder of the Srivimana of the temple in other epigraphs of the place including No. 104 of 1914, dated in the 7th year of Rajakesarivarman. As this last inscription makes mention of a channel called Uttamasilivaykkal, evidently after a son of Parantaka I, all these records have to be assigned to a successor of his, either Gandaraditya or Parantaka II Sundara-Chola, both of whom were Rajakesarins, as against the view expressed in M.E.R. 1915, II, 20, referred them all to Aditya I on the basis of the astronomical details contained in them. It is quite likely that these details would yield alternate equivalents for dates later than Parantaka I.

No. 111.

(A.R. No. 117 of 1914.)

On the west wall of the same shrine.

This records an endowment of ma of land to the temple of Mahadeva on the hill at Srikantha-chaturvedimangalam, to provide for the supply of an ulakku of ghee every day for a perpetual lamp in the temple, by Tayan Kanamudaiyan, a resident of the village, who also made it tax-free by a lump-sum payment of gold to the sabha.

No. 112.

(A.R. No. 126 of 1914.)

On the south wall of the same shrine.

This records a gift of forty-five sheep for burning a lamp in the day-time in the temple of Tiruverumbi[y*]ur-Devar by Kalladai Peruman, a Vellala resident of Srikantha-chaturvedimangalam, and his wife Paraman Kallai.

No. 113.

(A.R. No. 132 of 1914.)

One the same wall.

This records a gift of 34 sheep for burning a lamp during the three services in the temple of Alvar on the hill at Tiru[v*]erumbiyur, and of a lamp-stand for the same, by Narayana-Kramavittan, son of Manacha(sa)rman of Kavanur, a member of the Alum-ganam of Srikantha-chaturvedimangalam.

No. 114.

(A.R. No. 133 of 1914.)

One the same wall.

This seems to be an inscription of Sundara-Chola.  The details of the date given, viz., Mithuna, Wednesday, Svati, correspond to A.D. 961, May 29.  This records an undertaking given by the Perunguri-sabhai of Srikantha-chaturvedimangalam who held their sitting on the hill of Tiruverumbiyur-Alvar, that they would not confiscate the property (devasvam) of the temple on grounds of default in the payment of taxes as the temple was not bound to pay any kind of taxes.  The assembly also declared that they would ostracize such a person as suggested, ordered or himself made the confiscation, and would treat him as “an annoyance to the village,” besides making him liable for fine at the hands of Mahesvaras.

No. 115.

(A.R. No. 359 of 1917.)

Tiruvandarkovil (near Pondicherry, French India).

On the north wall of the central shrine, Panchanadesvara temple.

This registers a sale of some plots of land to the temple of Tiruvarai-Nakkan-koyil-Paramasvamin at Tribhuvanamahadevi-chaturvedimangalam, by the perunguri-perumakkal (assembly) of thevillage,effected in the 28th year of Kannaradeva (Rashtrakuta Krishna III) as compensation for the silver and gold vessels and jewels of the temple which had been utilized by them for sabha-viniyoga (expenses?) in former years.  The sabha refer in this sale transaction to a land endowed by them to the temple as devadana in the 14th year of king Parantaka I.  The Rajakesarivarman of this inscription should evidently refer to the Chola king who reigned after the 28th year of the Rashtrakuta king, i.e., A.D. 967 and, as such he can be identified with Rajaraja I.   (M.E.R. 1918, II. 23).  The name of the village seems to indicate its origin to Tribhuvanamahadevi, a queen of Parantaka I.

No. 116.

(A.R. No. 135 of 1918.)

Tiruvaiyaru, Tanjore Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the south wall of the central shrine, Panchanadesvara temple.

The inscription is damaged and incomplete.  It seems to record a gift of 25 kalanju of gold for the endowment of a piece of land after purchasing it (probably tax-free) from the nagarattar of Sivapuri, for a lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tiruvai-aru by Payitangi Valuva-Nagani, the wife of Nagakumaran Vadavi-Araiyan  of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kalakkudi.  Both Sivapuri and Kalakkudi are in the Tinnevelly district.

No. 117.

(A.R. No. 346 of 1918.)

Palur, Trichinopoly Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On the north wall of the central shrine, Sundaresvara temple.

This records an endowment of land, one veli in extent, as tax-free devadana for the requirements of daily offerings and worship and a perpetual lamp in the temple of Paramesvara at Tiruppaluvar in Vilattur-nadu, by Mahimalaiya Irukkuvel alias parantakan Virasolan.  The donor seems to have belonged to the family of Irukkuvels of Kodumbalur figuring in the Pudukkottai inscriptions, and should have been a feudal chief under Parantaka I  or II.  The Rajakesari of this inscription might therefore refer to Gandaraditya  or Sundara-Chola.  Since however, the record mentions a lunar eclipse in the month of Kanya – one occurred in A.D. 954 (September 15) and another in A.D. 955 (September 4) – it is more probably that of the former.

No. 118.

(A.R. No. 348 of 1918.)

On the same wall.

This is an incomplete inscription.  This seems to have been intended in its original form to record an endowment of another half a veli and half ma of land by the same chief in addition to the gift mentioned in No. 117 above for providing offerings, etc., on a bigger scale.  From the disposition of the stones containing this and the preceding record and also No. 141 below, it appears as if they belonged to another temple and were used again after dismantlement in the construction of the present structure.  This is also probably an inscription of Gandaraditya.

No. 119.

(A.R. No. 565 of 1920.)

Udayargudi (near Kattumannarkoyil), Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the central shrine, Anantesvara temple.

This records a gift of 13 kalanju of gold for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Tiruvanantisvara[m*]-Udaiyar at Viranarayana-chaturvedimangalam on the north bank, by Irayur Sottai Aiyanambi-Bhatta a resident of Sridhara-Narayanachcheri (quarter) of the village.  The shepherds of the place with whom this money was entrusted agreed to the daily supply of an ulakku of ghee for the purpose.  This may be a record of either Gandaraditya or Sundara-Chola.

No. 120.

(A.R. No. 27 of 1922.)

Tiruvamattur, Villupuram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of a room inside the ardha-mandapa, Abhiramesvara temple.

This records the gift of a perpetual lamp made to the temple of Paramasvamin at Tiruvamattur a devadana in Vavalur-nadu by a certain Siriyamarayan and his brothers, on behalf (or in memory ?) of Sandirachchan, son of Kali alias Minavan-Marayan of Tennavanmadevi (village) in Ve[n]-nadu-perhaps in expiation of some wrong done by them to the latter.

No. 121.

(A.R. No. 47 of 1923.)

Pullalur, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On stones built into the walls of the Kamakshiyamman shrine, Kailasanathan temple.

This records the decision of the assembly of Parmesvara-chaturvedimangalam (evidently the present Pullalur) in Eyir-kottam including the samvatsara-variya-perumakkal (members of the Annual Superivision Committee) and two other dignitaries Piranadhi[karigal], to purchase back and reassign the land which had originally belonged to the temple of Tirumerrali-Mahadeva at the village, for providing with the income there from for the sacred bath of the deity and worship and offerings during the three services in the temple every day.  It was also resolved by them to form a flower-garden for the temple with the patti land to the north and west of the temple compound.

No. 122.

(A.R. No. 337 of 1927.)

Tiruppurambiyam, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the south wall of the central shrine, Sakshisvara temple.

This records a gift of 90 sheep entrusted to two local residents, for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Bhattala(ra)ka at Tiruppurambiyam, by a shepherd of Kuvaru named Nattuvitanka-Perumanradi.  Twelve of these having died, the deficiency is said to have been made up by a certain Malavadi Kannan.

No. 123.

(A.R. No. 135 of 1929.)

Lalgudi, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On the base of the outer north wall of the Amman shrine, Saptarishisvara temple.

This is an inscription of Rajaraja I.  Its continuation is lost after the 4th line.  It registers an endowment of twelve kalanju of gold by Ta[t*]ta Narayani the wife of a local resident, Kausikan Bhattan Adityan Ta[t*]tan of Sirukottaiyur, providing with the interest (pilavu-palisai) thereon for the sacred bath of the deity with 108 pots of water on the day of Vishu in Aippigai month, in the temple of Tirunachchiyur-Mahadeva at Manarkal, a brahmadeya in Kila[r*]k-kurram, a subdvision of Mala-nadu on the northern bank.

No. 124.

(A.R. No. 175 of 1929.)

Govindaputtur, Udaiyarpalaiyam Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On the south wall of the central shrine, Gangajatadhara temple.

This inscription is left unfinished towards the end.  It records the endowment of lands got tax-free after purchase in the village Periyavanavanmadevi-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya on the northern bank (of the river), by Ambalavan Paluvur Nakkan alias Rajaraja-Pallavaraiyan, to provide for the several requirements in connection with the daily worship and offerings to the deity and on special days of the year, in the temple of Sri Vijayamangalat[tu*]-Devar.  The value in paddy of each item of expenditure is given for estimating the total annual requirement of the temple to be met from the produce of the lands.  The donor figures largely in the records of Uttama-Chola as an officer of the king with the title Vikramasola; and he is surmised to have been held in high esteem under Rajaraja I also as evidenced by his new title Rajaraja-Pallavaraiyan (M.E.R. 1929, II. 29).

No. 125.

(A.R. No. 17 of 1931.)

Tirukkodikaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the north wall of the central shrine, Tirukkotisvara temple.

This is stated to be a copy of an old inscription.  It records an agreement by the sabha of Tirukkodika alias Kannamangalam in nallarrur-nadu on the northern bank (of the river), to make immune from all taxes, a piece of land sold by them to a resident of the village by name Attiraiyan Kilavan Kodikavan who endowed it to the temple of Mahadeva as melukkuppuram, i.e., for the maintenance of a servant for cleaning the premises.

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