The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Brihadhiswara Temple Inscriptions 

Part I

Part II

Part III

Part IV

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

TANJAVUR Brihadhiswara TEMPLE Inscriptions

INSCRIPTIONS ON THE WALLS OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE

No. 91. On the north wall of the central shrine, lower tier.[1]

 This inscription contains a list o silver utensils presented by king Rajarajadeva to the temple. They are said to have borne the names Sivapadasegaran and Sri-Rajarajan[2] and to have been procured from three sources, viz., (1) the king’s treasures, (2) the booty acquired in the war against the Chera king and the Pandyas in Malai-nadu and (3) the silver seized in the same campaign. The list, however, begins with the gifts made from the treasures seized after defeating the Chera king and the Panyas in Malai-nadu. No mention of the other two items occurs in the preserved portion of the inscription. But as lines 2 to 4 are considerably damaged, causing almost the complete disappearance of several paragraphs in each case, we cannot be quite sure that the other two items are not mentioned. In fact as the enumeration of the vessels is repeated in different parts of the inscription, it may be presumed that the other items are also referred to in the damaged portions. For instance, bowls (mandai) are enumerated in paragraphs 43 to 59 and in paragraphs 128 – 9 ; censers (kalasappanai) in paragraphs 65 to 75 as well as in paragraph 122 ; small baskets in paragraph 81 as well as in 130 ; spittoons (padikkam) in paragraph 107 as well as in 139. It is very unlikely that the utensils described in the latter part of the inscription were omitted by mistake when the earlier part was engraved. At the end of the inscription three images of Sri-Vasudeva made of silver are mentioned. Perhaps these were made from the silver seized in the campaign against the Chera king and the Pandyas in Malai-nadu. The gold emblems and ornaments seized in the same war are referred to in No. 1, paragraph 51, No. 3, paragraphs 5 and 6, No. 59, paragraphs 2, 3, 4, 9 and 11 and in No. 93 below.

It is worthy of note that this is the only inscription of the temple which mentions presents made of silver. Most of the other inscriptions record gifts of gold. It looks as if the king had more gold and precious stones at his disposal than silver.

Translation.

Hail ! Prosperity ! The sacred silver utensils (tirupparigalam), etc., bearing the sacred names Sivapadasegaran and Sri Rajarajan presented by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva until the twenty-ninth year (of his reign) to the supreme lord of the Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple),— (viz.) (1) the sacred silver utensils etc., presented from his (own) treasures (2) the sacred silver utensils, etc.,[3] acquired after defeating the Chera king and the Panyas in Malai-nadu and (3) the sacred utensils, etc., made from the silver acquired (as booty) after defeating the same (enemies) – were engraved (i.e., recorded) on stone after (they) had been weighed with the stone called (after) Adavallan.

2. (The following are) those given from the treasures seized after defeating the Chera king and the Pandyas in Malai-nadu :-

3. One trumpet (kalam) (consisting of) three hundred and seven . . . . . . . . . . . . of silver.

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [trumpet] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6. One trumpet, (consisting of) three hundred and one karanju and a half of silver.

7. One trumpet, (consisting of) three hundred and one karanju . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of silver.

8. One trumpet, (consisting of) two hundred and [ninety]-seven karanju and a half of silver.

9. One trumpet, (consisting of) [two hundred] and ninety-two karanju and a half of silver.

10. One trumpet, (consisting of) two hundred and eighty-one karanju and three quarters of silver.

11. One trumpet, (consisting of) two hundred and seventy-nine karanju and three-quarters of silver.

12. One trumpet, (consisting of) two hundred and twenty-five karanju of silver.

13. One trumpet, (consisting of) two hundred and eight karanju, nine manjadi and (one) kunri of silver.

14. One [dish] (taligai), (consisting of) nine hundred and seventy-three karanju of silver.

15. One dish, (consisting of) nine hundred and eighty-two karanju of silver.

16. One dish, (consisting of) nine hundred and eighty-one karanju of silver.

17. One dish, (consisting of) nine hundred and eighty karanju of silver.

18. One dish, (consisting of) nine hundred and seventy-[eight karanju] of silver.

19. [One dish], (consisting of) nine hundred and seventy-seven karanju and a half of [silver].

20. One dish, (consisting of) nine hundred and seventy-three karanju and a half of silver.

21. One dish, (consisting of) nine hundred and seventy-one karanju of silver.

22. One dish, (consisting of) nine hundred and seventy karanju of silver.

23. One dish, (consisting of) nine hundred and sixty-[four] karanju of silver. [Abut four paragraphs are completely damaged here.][4]

24. One dish] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [of silver].

25. One dish, (consisting of) five hundred and ninety-one karanju of silver.

26. One dish, (consisting of) five hundred and nine karanju of silver.

27. One dish, (consisting of) four hundred and sixty-one karanju of silver.

28. One dish, (consisting of) four hundred and thirty-one karanju of silver.

29. One dish, (consisting of) three hundred and eighty-one karanju and a half of silver.

30. One dish, (consisting of) three hundred and seventeen karanju and a half of silver.

31. One dish, (consisting of) two hundred and eighty-seven karanju of silver.

32. One dish, (consisting of) two hundred and eighty-four karanju of silver.

33. One dish, (consisting of) two hundred and seventy karanju of silver.

34. One dish, (consisting of) two hundred and sixty-two karanju of silver.

35. One dish, (consisting of) two hundred and twelve karanju and a half of silver.

36. Two (dishes, consisting of) three hundred and eighty-four karanju of silver – at one hundred and ninety-two karanju of silver for one dish.

37. One dish, (consisting of) one hundred and eighty-nine karanju of silver.

38. One dish, (consisting of) one hundred and eighty-five karanju of silver.

39. One dish, (consisting of) one hundred and seventy-[eight] karanju of silver.

40. One dish, (consisting of) one hundred and sixty-six karanju and a half of silver.

41. One dish, (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  karanju . . . . . . . . . . . . . of silver.

42. One dish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  [About four paragraphs are completely damaged here.][5]

43. One bowl, (mandai), (consisting of) three hundred and ninety-one karanju of silver.

44. One bowl, (consisting of) three hundred . . . . . . . . . . . . . .three karanju of silver.

45. One bowl, (consisting of) two hundred and forty karanju of silver.

46. One bowl, (consisting of) two hundred and twenty-seven karanju of silver.

47. One bowl, (consisting of) two hundred and twenty-six karanju of silver.

48. Four (bowls), (consisting of) nine hundred karanju (of silver) – at two hundred and twenty-five karanju of silver for one bowl.

49. Two (bowls), (consisting of) four hundred and forty-eight karanju of silver – at two hundred and twenty-four karanju of silver for one bowl.

50. Two (bowls), (consisting of) four hundred and [sixty]-six karanju of silver – at two hundred and [thirty]-three karanju of silver for one bowl.

51. One bowl, (consisting of) two hundred and twenty-one karanju of silver.

52. One bowl, (consisting of) two hundred and twenty karanju of silver.

53. Two (bowls), (consisting of) four hundred and thirty-eight karanju of silver – at two hundred and nineteen karanju of silver for one bowl.

54. One bowl, (consisting of) two hundred and eighteen karanju of silver.

55. One bowl, (consisting of) two hundred and seventeen karanju of silver.

56. One bowl, (consisting of) [two] hundred and fifteen karanju of silver.

57. One bowl, (consisting of) two hundred . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  of silver. [About four paragraphs are almost completely damaged here as in the previous line].[6]

58. One bowl, (consisting of) one hundred and seventy-seven karanju and a half of silver.

59. One bowl, (consisting of) one hundred and sixty-five karanju of silver.

60. One water-pot (kudam), (consisting of) seven hundred and five karanju of silver.

61. One water-pot, (consisting of) six hundred and ninety-two karanju of silver.

62. One water-pot, (consisting of) six hundred and twenty karanju of silver.

63. One water-pot, (consisting of) five hundred and ninety-five karanju of silver.

64. One water-pot, (consisting of) five hundred and ninety karanju of silver.

65. One censer (kalasappanai), (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . twenty karanju of silver.

66. One censer, (consisting of) nine hundred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karanju of silver.

67. One censer, (consisting of) seven hundred and ten karanju of silver.

68. One censer, (consisting of) five hundred and fifty-eight karanju of silver, including four karanju and (one) kunri of gold laid [over it].

69. One censer, (consisting of) five hundred and thirty-seven karanju of silver.

70. One censer, (consisting of) [five hundred and four] karanju of silver.

71. One censer, (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy-one karanju of silver.

72. One censer, (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty karanju of silver.

73. One censer, (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hundred and forty-six karanju . . . . . . .

74. One censer, (consisting of) three hundred and seventy-nine karanju of silver.

75. One censer, (consisting of) one hundred and forty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karanju of silver. [Five or six paragraphs are completely damaged here].[7]

76. One [basket with a spout] (mukku-vattagai[8]), (consisting of) four hundred and eleven karanju of silver.

77. One basket with a spout, (consisting of) four hundred . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of silver.

78. Two (baskets with spouts), (consisting of) two hundred and seventy-eight karanju of silver – at [one hundred] and thirty-nine karanju of [silver for one basket with a spout].

79. One basket with a spout, (consisting of) one hundred and ten karanju of silver.

80. One basket with a spout, (consisting of) one hundred and seventy-five karanju and a half of silver.

81. One small basket (kai-vattagai), (consisting of) five hundred and sixty-seven karanju and half of silver.

82. One cup (vattil), (consisting of) fifty-six karanju and a half of silver.

83. One cup, (consisting of) fifty-two karanju and a quarter of silver.

84. One cup, (consisting of) fifty-one karanju of silver.

85. One cup, (consisting of) fifty karanju and a half of silver.

86. One cup, (consisting of) forty-five karanju and a half of silver.

87. One cup, (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karanju of silver.

88. One cup, (consisting of) forty-three karanju of silver.

89. One cup, (consisting of) forty-one karanju and a half of silver.

90. [One cup], (consisting of) forty karanju and a half of silver.

91. Two (cups), (consisting of) [seventy]-six karanju of silver – at thirty-[eight karanju] of silver for one cup.

92. One cup, (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of silver.

(Five or six paragraphs are completely damaged here].[9]

93. [Of this paragraph only the word karanju is preserved.]

94. One cup, (consisting of) twenty-nine karanju of silver.

95. One cup, (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . .  karanju and a half of silver.

96. One cup, (consisting of) twenty-six karanju of silver.

97. Three (cups), (consisting of) seventy-five karanju of silver – at twenty-five karanju of silver for one cup.

98. One cup, (consisting of) twenty-four karanju and . . . . . . . . . . . of silver.

99. Two (cups), (consisting of) forty-one karanju and a half of silver – at twenty karanju and three quarters of silver for one cup.

100. One cup, (consisting of) twenty karanju and a half of silver.

101. One cup, (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . silver.

102. One cup, (consisting of) thirty-seven karanju of silver.

103. One receptacle for sacred ashes (madal), (consisting of) twenty-nine karanju of silver.

104. One pingalam[10] (consisting of) one hundred and fifty-nine karanju of silver.

105. One pingalam, (consisting of) one hundred and fifty-five karanju of silver.

106. One kachcholam[11], (consisting of) twenty-seven karanju and a half of silver.

107. One spittoon (padikkam), (consisting of) seven hundred and thirteen karanju of silver.

108. One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karanju of silver.

109. One [spittoon] with three . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and two rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .three hundred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of silver.

[Five or six paragraphs are completely damaged here].[12]

110. One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (consisting of) thirty-two karanju and a half of silver.

111. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [fifty] karanju . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

112. One . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . (consisting of) one hundred and seventy-eight karanju of silver.

113. One ladle (sattuvam), (consisting of) one hundred and forty-one karanju of silver.

114. One ladle, (consisting of) seventy-three karanju and a half of silver.

115. One spoon for (serving) ghee (ney-muttai), (consisting of) eighty-seven karanju of silver.

116. One spoon for (serving) ghee, (consisting of) thirty-nine karanju of silver.

117. One spoon for (serving) ghee, (consisting of) twenty-[six] karanju of silver

118. One [water-pot] (kudam), (consisting of) nine hundred and seventy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of silver.

119. One water-pot, (consisting of) nine hundred and fifty-two karanju of silver.

120. One water-pot, (consisting of) nine hundred and forty-seven karanju of silver.

121. One water-pot, (consisting of) nine hundred and forty-nine karanju and three quarters of silver.

122. One censer (kalasappanai), (consisting of) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karanju of silver.

123. One [pot] (kalasam), (consisting of) five hundred and four karanju and a quarter of silver.

124. One pot, (consisting of) five hundred and one karanju and a quarter of silver.

125. One [pot], (consisting of) four hundred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karanju and a quarter of silver.

126. One pot, (consisting of) four hundred and eighty-three karanju of silver.

127. One pot, (consisting of) four [hundred] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [karanju and a half] of silver.

[Five or six paragraphs are completely damaged here].[13]

128. One bowl (mandai), (consisting of) two hundred and [ninety]-six karanju and a half of silver.

129. One bowl, (consisting of) two hundred and ninety-one karanju and a quarter of silver.

130. One [small] basket (kai-vattagai), (consisting of) nine hundred and seventy karanju of silver.

131. One long receptacle for sacred ashes (nedu-madal), (consisting of) one hundred and ninety-six karanju of silver.

132. One long receptacle for sacred ashes, (consisting of) one hundred and eighty-eight karanju and a half of silver.

134. Three (salvers), (consisting of) one hundred and forty-six karanju and a quarter of silver – at forty-eight karanju and three quarters of silver for one salver (tattam).

135. Three (salvers), (consisting of) one hundred and forty-five karanju and three quarters, two manjadi and (one) kunri of silver – at forty-eight karanju and a half, two manjadi and (one) kunri of salver for one salver.

136. Two (salvers), (consisting of) ninety-seven karanju and four manjadi of silver – at forty-eight karanju and a half and two manjadi of silver for one salver.

137. One salver, (consisting of) forty-eight karanju and a half of silver.

138. [One salver], (consisting of) forty-seven karanju and a quarter of silver.

139. One spittoon (padikkam), (consisting of) one thousand one hundred and [ninety]-nine karanju of silver.

140. One betel-leaf salver (ilaittattu), (consisting of) one thousand two hundred and twenty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of silver.

141. One betel-leaf salver, (consisting of) one thousand . . . . . . . . . . . . of silver.

[Five or six paragraphs are completely damaged here].[14]

142. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one hundred and seventy-five karanju . . . . . ..

143. One aureola (prabhai) of this god, (consisting of) two hundred and thirty-two karanju of silver.

144. One (image of) Sri-Vasudeva, (consisting of) [one thousand] and forty-three karanju of silver.

145. One aureola of this god, (consisting of) two hundred and eleven karanju and a half of silver.

146. One (image of) Sri-Vasudeva, (consisting of) one hundred and thirty karanju of silver.

147. One aureola of the same god, (consisting of) seventeen karanju and a quarter of silver, including (one) karanju and a half and (one) kunri of gold laid over (its) rays (sudar).

148. One (image of) Sri-[Vasu] deva, (consisting of) three hundred and fifty-four karanju of silver. 

No. 92. On the South wall, Third tier.[15]

This inscription records the assignment of certain villages in Tondai-nadu or Jayangonda-Chola-mandalam, Pandi-nadu or Rajaraja-mandalam, Ganga-padi, Nulamba-padi also called Nigarili-Sora-padi, Malai-nadu and Iram (Ceylon) or Mummadi-Chola-mandalam. This is, consequently, the continuation of No. 4, which registers the gift by Rajarajadeva of villages in the Chola country (Sora-mandalam) and in other countries (puramandalangal). The villages of the former are enumerated in Nos. 4 and 5, and those of the other provinces in the present inscription. The latter is considerably damaged. The number of villages outside the Chola country whose revenues were assigned to the temple is, however, comparatively small. None the less, they show that the conquest of those provinces claimed for Rajarajadeva in his numerous Tamil inscriptions was not a mere victorious inroad but a more or less permanent occupation of them. The omission of minute details of measurement which are mentioned in connection with the villages of the Chola country is a point worthy of note. The previous owners and ryots are declared, in most cases, to have been replaced. Evidently, the original holdings were altered and those holders who were prepared to accept the conqueror’s proposals were put in. Outside the Chola country, the revenue payable to the king was partly in kind and partly in gold or money, while the villages paying revenue in money was comparatively rare in the Chola country. In Ceylon, which was called Mummadi-Chola-mandalam, the villages were required to remit the revenue partly in paddy and partly in iluppai-pal[16], which was evidently required for the lamps to be burnt in the temple. This again shows the king’s solicitude to provide for the requirements of the temple.

Among the villages and subdivisions of provinces mentioned in the inscription, Oyma-nadu is an ancient territorial designation known to early Tamil literature. It is the tract of country in which the modern town of Tindivanam in the South Arcot District is situated.[17] Consequently, the village of Perayur in Oyma-nadu has to be looked for in the neighbourhood of Tindivanam. Padi-nadu in Ganga-padi has been located by Mr. Rice in the Mysore District of the Mysore State.[18] The village of Alur in Padinadu may be identical with Alur in the Chamarajnagar taluka of the Mysore District where a Tamil inscription of the time of the Chola king Vijaya-Rajendradeva has been found by Mr. Rice (Ch. 69). The villages of Kusavur and Kudalur belonged to Parivai-nadu in Nulamba-padi alias Nigarili-Sora-padi. Parivai-nadu probably owes its name to the Bana capital Parivai or Parivipuri,[19] which may be identified with Parigi in the Anantapur District. Nulamba-padi also called Nigarili-Sora-padi appears to have extended into the Anantapur District, as Hemavati (called Penjeru in inscriptions) was its ancient capital.[20] I have not been above to identify Pudukkodu in Vellappa-nadu, a district of Malai-nadu. Four villages of Malai-nadu seem to have been assigned (paragraphs 8 to 11). But their assessment is not specified.

To territorial divisions of Ceylon are mentioned, viz., Mappisumbu-kottiyaram and Kanakkan-kottiyaram. The former was called Rajaraja-valanadu and the latter Vikrama-Chola-valanadu, while Ceylon itself was known as Mummadi-Chola-mandalam. The fiscal terms pavumanaittum payappagadi and taranduvachchal I am unable to explain. But the fact that five villages in Ceylong were required to contribute to the expenses of the Tanjore temple shows that the island was a province of the Chola empire during the reign of Rajaraja I.

Translation.

Hail ! Prosperity ! (The village of) Perayur in Perayur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Oyma-nadu, (a district) of Tondai-nadu alias Jayangonda-Sora-mandalam, had (its) previous owners replaced and ryots removed. The revenue paid by this village as tax, including karanmai and miygatchi and excess or deficiency (in measurement) is . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . six kalam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . three nari of paddy, measured by the marakkalcalled (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari. The gold (due from the same village) is one hundred and nine karanju, nine manjadi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . had (its) previous owners replaced and ryots removed. The revenue paid by this village as tax, including karanmai and miygatchi and excess or deficiency (in measurement), is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. of paddy measured by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari. The gold (due from the same village) is two hundred and two karanju, [thirteen] manjadi, one-tenth and three-fortieths.

3. (The village of) Andak[kudi] in Perumbur-nadu, (a district) of Pandinadu alias Rajaraja-mandalam, had (its) previous owners replaced. The revenue paid by this village as tax,— including irai-kadan [ura] vukol-[nilan]-kasu, katchi-erudukasu and urkkaranju-kasu on the land of this village, (viz.,) sixteen and a half (veli), four ma, three kani and kir-arai,[21]— together with karanmai and miygatchi and excess or deficiency (in measurement) and excluding the land (mudal[22]) (set off against?) . . . . . . . . . . . . and paravirai which (constitute the) portion (vagai) of the cultivators (vellan),— is (one) hundred and twenty-three kalam, seven kuruni and seven nari of paddy, measured by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari. (The money due from the same village) is two hundred and eighty-four kasu and a half, two-twentieths and one-eightieth and one hundred and sixtieth.

4. (The village of) Alur in Padi-nadu, (a district) of Ganga-padi, had (its) previous owners replaced. The [gold] paid by this village as tax including karanmai and miygatchi and excess of deficiency (in measurement) is five hundred karanju.

5. (The village of) I . . . . . . . . . . . mur in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nadu, (a district) of Ganga-padi, had (its) previous owners [replaced]. The gold paid as tax including karanmai and miygatchi and excess or deficiency (in measurement) is [five hundred] karanju.

6. The revenue paid as tax by (the village of) Kusavur, a devadana and brahmadeya in Parivai-nadu, (a subdivision) of Nula[mba-padi alias Nigarili-Sora]padi, is [nin] thousand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . of paddy measured by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari.

7. The revenue paid as tax by (the village of) Kudalur, a devadana and brahmadeya in Parivai-nadu, (a subdivision) of [Nulamba]-padi alias Nigarili-Sora-padi, is twelve thousand eight hundred and forty-two kalam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of paddy measured by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari. The gold (due from the same village). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  including . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and [mi]ygatchi and excess or deficiency (in measurement).

9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . had (its) previous owners replaced. It was granted with karanmai and miygatchi and excess or deficiency (in meaurement).

10. (The village of) Pudukkodu in Vellappa-nadu, (a subdivision) of Malai-nadu, had (its) previous owners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . including . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . [of Vellappa-nadu in Malai]-nadu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It was granted with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [mi]ygatchi and excess or [deficiency] (in measurement).

12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mappisumbu-kottiyaram alias Rajaraja-valanadu, (a district) of [Iram alias Mumma[di-Sora-mandalam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The revenue paid as tax including . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . payappagadi taranduvachchal is three thousand one hundred and sixty-four kalam, two tuni and two nari of paddy, measured by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari ; and (the money) twelve and a half kasu ; (also) two kalam . . . . . . . . . . . . of iluppai-pal.

13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in Mappisumbu-kottiyaram alias Rajarajavalanadu, (a district) of Iram alias Mummadi-Sora-mandalam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . land (measuring) . . . . . . . . .. . . . and a quarter. The revenue paid as tax including pavumanaittum payappagadi tarandavachchal is [one hundred] and seventeen kalam, two tum, three kuruni, and two nari of paddy measured by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari ; and (the money) twenty-two kasu ; and iluppai-pal, three kalam, (one) kuruni and four nari.

14. The land in . . . . . . . . . . . nattu . vitti. In Mappisumbu-Kottiyaram alias Rajaraja-valanadu, (a district) of Iram alias Mummadi-Sora-mandalam (measuring) (one) hundred and eighty-three and three ma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pavumanaittum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by the mara[kkal] called (after) Adavallan which is equal to a rajakesari . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . six ; and iluppai-pal, four kalam and six nari.

15. The land in Masar, (a village) of Kanakkana-kottiyaram alias Vikkirama-Sora-valanadu, (a district) of Iram alias Mummadi-Sora-mandalam, (measuring) three hundred and fifty-three and two ma and a half . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . including pavumanaittum payappagadi taranduvachchal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four hundred and fifty-eight and three-fourths.

16. The land I. n a., (a village) of [Kanakkan-kottiyaram] alias Vikkirama-Sora-valanadu – (a district) of Iram [alias Mummadi-Sora-mandalam] (measuring) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one ma and a half . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pavumanaittum payappagadi taranduvachchal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

No. 93. On the South wall, third tier.[23]

This inscription enumerates the jeweled ornaments presented by the king out of the treasures seized from the Cheras and Pandyas and out of his own treasures. They comprise necklaces; armlets; bracelets; rings; sandals made of wood, covered with gold plates and set with jewels ; and others. Four of the rings had the nine gems set on them, viz., diamond, sapphire, pearl, topaz, cinnamon stone, coral, emerald, lapis lazuli and ruby. The mention of the nine gems occurs only here among the Tanjore inscriptions. Another interesting ornament is what is known as sonagachchidukkin-kudu. It is not clear what a sidukku was and where it was worn.[24] But that the ornament was made after the fashion of the Jonakas is very interesting. The donor in No. 28 above was apparently a Sonagan. One of the donors mentioned in No. 95 below (paragraphs 45, 74 and 75) is the Jonaka Savur Paranjodi. The Jonakas were, therefore, known in Tanjore about the time of which we are speaking. The Muhammadans who are at present denoted by the term jonaka are altogether precluded, as they had not come to the south at the time. Perhaps, there were some reminiscences of Greek influence which had prevailed at the time when mercantile relations existed between the South of India and the Roman Empire. It may also be that Savur Paranjodi was an Arab from the west coast. In any case, it is worthy of note that he had assumed the purely Hindu name Paranjodi.

This inscription is probably a continuation of Nos. 3 and 59 above, which give a list of ornaments made of gold and jewels presented by the king.

Translation.

Hail ! Prosperity! In the 29th year (of the reign) of king Rajakesarivarman alias Sri-Rajarajadeva, who,— in the belief that as well as the goddess of fortune, the goddess of the great earth had become his wife,— was pleased to destroy the ships (at) Kandalur-Salai, and conquered by (his) exceedingly brave and victorious army, Vengai-nadu, Ganga-padi, Tadigai-padi, Nulamba-padi, Kudamalai-nadu, Kollam, Kalingam, Ira-mandalam, (the conquest of which) made (him) famous (in) the eight directions, and the seven and a half lakshas of Iratta-padi,— and who deprived the Seriyas of (their) splendour at the very time when his strength shone so as to be worshipped in all quarters at all times —  the sacred ornaments (tiru-vabharanangal) (set) with jewels (ratnam), presented until the 29th year (of the king’s reign) to the supreme lord[25] (paramasvamin) of the Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple) by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva, from the treasures which he had seized after defeating the Chera king and the Pandyas and from his own treasures . . . . . . . . . . . . . set in gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jewels strung . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . Excluding the thread[26] (saradu), the frames (sattam) and the copper nails (seppani) and including the lac (arakku) and the pinju among the jewels set (without gold ?), were engraved (i.e., recorded) on stone as follows, after having been weighed with the stone called (after) Dakshinameru-Vitankan.

2. One necklace (kandanan) weighing (altogether) one hundred and seventy karanju and seven manjadi and worth five hundred kasu. On (it) were set fifteen rubies, sixteen emeralds and [twenty]-eight diamonds, and forty pearls in all, (viz.,) polished pearls, kurumuttu and payittam were stitched (on it.)

3. One necklace, weighing, — inclusive of the twenty-four diamonds, twenty-three rubies and six emeralds set on (it),-one hundred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karanju and a quarter and worth three hundred and sixty kasu.

4. One necklace, weighing,-inclusive of the sixty-four diamonds, three rubies and four emeralds set on (it), — sixty – [four] karanju, six manjadi and (one) kunri, and worth two hundred and twenty kasu.

5. One necklace, with one sapphire (nilam), (viz.,) a komalam, strung on (it), weighing fifty-one and a quarter karanju [and worth] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kasu.

6. One necklace, with a center piece (set with) jewels and weighing altogether sixty-four karanju and a quarter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [and worth] two hundred and fifty-two [kasu]. On (it) were set sixty-six diamonds, forty-three rubies, thirty-four emeralds and twelve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [chains] (tudar).

7. One necklace, set with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8. One composite necklace (?pulligai-kandanan), weighing, — inclusive of the seventy-six diamonds, twenty-four rubies and fourteen emeralds set on the three strings (nan), — one hundred and twenty karanju, and worth three hundred and one kasu.

9. One composite necklace, with one ball (? Kandu), [forty] rubies, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. emeralds . . . . . . . . . . . . . .[sapphire] . . . . . . . . . . . . . set on (it) . . . . . . . . . . . and worth one hundred and one kasu.

10. One composite necklace, weighing, inclusive of the fifty-four diamonds, and seven rubies set on (it), eighty-three karanju and one-eighth, and worth two hundred and . . . . . . . and a quarter kasu.

11. One garland of rays (pasamalai[27]), weighing altogether . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . nine . . . . . . . . . . . . and worth . . . . . . . . . . . . . hundred . . . . . . . . . . . . .  kasu. On (it) were set seventy-five diamonds, seventy rubies and forty-one potti ; and eighty-three pearls in all, (viz.,) polished pearls small pearls and nimbolam, were strung (on it).

12. [One] . . . . . . . . . . . weighing, inclusive of the forty-five diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rubies, ten emeralds and thirty-nine potti [set on] (it) and . . . . . . . . . . . pearls . . . . . . . . . . . twenty-four karanju and six manjadi, and worth one hundred and two kasu and a quarter.

13. One marriage-badge (tali) or rubies, weighing, inclusive of the eight diamonds and one ruby set on (it) and one ruby, (viz.) a halahalam, [stitched] (on it) . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty kasu.

14. One sacred armlet (sri bahuvalaya), weighing, inclusive of the two crystals (palingu), one agavisadi, one amethyst (sugandhi) and three kuppi fastened on (it) . . . . . . . . . . . . karanju and one manjadi, and worth fifty-five kasu and a quarter.

15. One sacred armlet, weighing, — inclusive of the one ruby, one amethyst, three inferior rubies (kuruvindam) and three kuppi set on (it), — twenty-nine karanju, seven manjadi and (one) kunri, and worth . . . . . . . . . . . four kasu.

16. One breast-plate (padakkam), weighing,— inclusive of the inferior ruby set on (it),— nine karanju, (one) manjadi, and worth twenty-seven kasu.

17. One jeweled bracelet (ratnavalaiyil), weighing,— inclusive of the forty-five rubies set (on it),— nine karanju, (one) manjadi and eight ma, and worth [twenty] kasu and a half and one-twentieth.

18. One jeweled bracelet, weighing,— inclusive of the twenty rubies twenty emeralds set on (it),— four karanju and [eight] manjadi, and worth . . . . . . . . . . . . kasu and a quarter.

19. One jeweled bracelet, weighing,-inclusive of the eighteen rubies and eighteen emeralds set on (it) . . . . . . . karanju and half . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20. . . . . . . . . . . . .weighing,— inclusive of . . . . . . . . . . the eight rubies, — fourteen karanju and a half and four manjadi and worth thirty-two kasu and three-quarters.

21. One jeweled bracelet, weighing, — inclusive of the twenty pearls, twenty rubies and forty potti set on (it),-sixteen karanju and a half and two manjadi, and worth forty-five kasu.

22. One jeweled bracelet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  and two manadi, and worth [thirty] kasu.

23. One sacred arm-ring (tirukkaikkarai),-weighing, inclusive of . . . . . . . . diamonds, thirty-four rubies and eighteen emeralds set on (it), — nine karanju and a half, three manjadi and (one) kunri, and worth thirty kasu and a quarter.

24. One jeweled bracelet (ratnakatakam), weighing, — inclusive of the thirty-six diamonds, twenty-five rubies and ten emeralds set on (it), — nine karanju and a half, three manjadi and (one) kunri, and worth . . . . . . . . . . . . kasu.

25. One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rubies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . three-fourths and (one) manjadi, and worth . . . . . . . . kasu and a quarter.

26. One coral bracelet (pavara-kadagam),— inclusive of the ten corals set on (it),— [twenty karanju], nine manjadi and three-tenths, and worth thirty-eight kasu.

27. One coral bracelet, weighing,— inclusive of the ten corals set on (it),— twenty karanju, three quarters of a manjadi and [eight] tenths, and worth forty-one kasu and a half.

28. [One] sacred girdle (tiruppattigai) with string (nan), the principal ruby (?arasimanikkam), eye (padugan), kallippu, large string (perum nan), with small bells (kingini) stringed mango-shaped beads (mangay) and front-piece (having) ornamental knobs (kimbirimugam), weighing,— inclusive of the [fifteen nimbolam], sixteen . . . . . . . . and nineteen potti,— two hundred and forty-three karanju and a half, three manjadi and three-tenths, and worth four hundred and six kasu.

29. One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . weighing, inclusive of the five diamonds set on (it) . . . . . . . rubies . . . . . . . . . . three-fourths (of a karanju ?) and (one) kunri and worth two kasu.

30. One pearl uruttu, weighing,— inclusive of the three [diamonds], three rubies and three potti set on (it), and one pearl (each of ?) nimbolam and varai stitiched (on it), — three quarters (of a karanju), three manjadi and (one) kunri, and worth twenty kasu.

31. One pearl uruttu, weighing,— inclusive of the three diamonds, three rubies and three potti set on (it) ; one pearl (each of ?) nimbolam and varai stitiched (on it) . . . . . . . . . . . . manjadi, (one) kunri, and worth twenty kasu.

32. One ruby uruttu, weighing,— inclusive of the three diamonds, three rubies and three emeralds set on (it) and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stitched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

33. One ruby uruttu, weighing,— inclusive of the three diamonds, three rubies and three emeralds set on (it) and one ruby (each of ?) sattam and ilaisuni[28] stitched (on it), — (one) karanju and three quarter and three manjadi, and worth twenty-five kasu.

34. One diamond uruttu weighing,— inclusive of the five diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  rubies . . . . . . . . . rubies . . . . . . . . . . . . set on (it), three quarters (of a karanju) and seven ma, and worth . . . . . . kasu.

35. One sonagachchidukkin-kudu[29], weighing, — inclusive of the nine rubies and nine emeralds set on (it),-three quarters (of a karanju), four manjadi and (one) kunri, and worth four kasu.

36. One sonagachchcidukkin-kudu, weighing,-inclusive f the nine rubies and nine emeralds set on (it),— (one) karanju, nine . . . . . . . . . and worth four kasu and one-twentieth.

37. [One] jeweled [ring] (ratna-modiram), weighing,— inclusive] of . . . . . . . . . . . . .twelve . . . . . . . . . and one . . . . . . . . . . . . [set on] (it),— [two karnaju and three quarters and four] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and worth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kasu.

38. One jeweled ring, weighing,— inclusive of the four diamonds and one ruby set on (it),— (one) karanju and . . . . . . . . manjadi, and [worth] . . . . . . . . . [kasu].

39. One [jeweled] ring, weighing, -inclusive of the one sapphire set on (it),— seven manjadi and (one) kunri and worth one kasu.

40. One [jeweled ring], weighing, — inclusive of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  rajavarttam set on (it), — (one) karanju and nine manjadi, and worth two kasu.

41. One jeweled ring, weighing,— inclusive of the one inferior ruby (kuruvindam) set on (it),— half a karanju, four manjadi and (one) kunri and worth one kasu.

42. One nine-jewelled ring (nava-ratna-modiram),— inclusive of one diamond one sapphire, [one] pearl, one topaz (pushyaraga[30]), one cinnamon stone (komedagam), one coral, one emerald, one lapis lazuli (vidurya) and one ruby set on (it),— . . . . . . . karanju and three quarters two manjadi and (one) kunri, and [worth] . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . [kasu].

43. One nine-jewelled ring, weighing,— inclusive of the nine gems (set on it),— two karanju and [six] manjadi, and worth five kasu.

44. One nine-jewelled ring, weighing,— inclusive of the nine gems (set on it),— (one) karanju, three manjadi and (one) kunri, and worth three kasu.

45. One nine jeweled ring, weighing,-inclusive of the nine gems (set on it),— two karanju, seven manjadi and (one) kunri, and worth three kasu.

46. [One] . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . weighing,— inclusive of the two rubies, three . . . . . . . . . . . and one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . set on (it),— sixty-seven karanju and a half, three manjadi and (one) kunri, and worth . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . [kasu].

47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .weighing,— inclusive of the one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of superior quality (kunaviyadu) adhering [to the ore][31], with several cavities[32] and white specks, (set on it),— one hundred and eighty-one karanju, and worth five hundred kasu.

48. One prishtakandigai, weighing,— inclusive of the four diamonds, twenty-six kuppivayiram four crystal diamonds, six potti and nine inferior rubies (kuruvindam) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . set on (it) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty-five karanju and three quarters, three manjadi and (one) kunri, and worth one hundred and three kasu.

49. One sacred pearl ornament (sri-chhandam[33]), weighing altogether thirty-eight karanju, seven manjadi and nine tenths and worth forty kasu. On (it) were set four diamonds, eight rubies, (viz.,) nalam and komalam and five emeralds ; (on it) were strung (or) stitched in all . . . . . . . . . . pearls, viz., round pearls, roundish pearls, polished pearls, nimbolam, payittam, ambumudu, sakkattu, (pearls) of brilliant water and red water, (pearls) with rubbed surface and those with cracked surface.[34]

50. One sandal for the sacred right foot, weighing,— inclusive of the ten crystals and thirty-eight crystal diamonds fastened on (it),— twenty-eight karanju and a quarter, and worth fifty-seven kasu.

51. One sandal for the sacred left foot, weighing,— inclusive of the ten crystals and thirty-eight crystal diamonds fastened on (it),— twenty-eight karanju and a quarter, and worth fifty-seven kasu.

52. One sandal for the sacred right foot, (made) of wood and covered over with gold (plates), weighing one hundred and ten [karanju], inclusive of the ninety-seven superior rubies, (viz.,) halahalam and komalam, and, the fifty diamonds set on (it), and the wood and the fastenings. (Its) price (was) two hundred kasu.

53. One sandal for the sacred left foot, (made) of wood and covered over with gold (plates), weighing one hundred and thirteen karanju, inclusive of the ninety-eight superior rubies, (viz.,) halahalam and komalam and fifty-one diamonds set on (it), and the wood and the fastenings. (Its) price (was) two hundred kasu.

54. One sandal for the sacred right foot, (made) of wood and the upper part covered over with gold (plates), weighing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . one quarter inclusive of the four superior rubies (viz.,) komalam and halahalam, and twenty-five potti set on (it) ; the one hundred and eighty crystals and three hundred and fourteen diamond crystals fastened (on it) ; and the wood and the fastenings. (Its) price (was) sixty-five kasu.

55. One sandal for the sacred left foot, (made) of wood and the upper part covered over with gold (plates), weighing one hundred and forty karanju and a quarter, inclusive of the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rubies (viz.,) komalam and halahalam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . set on (it) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . three hundred and twenty-one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the wood and the fastenings. (Its) price (was) sixty-five kasu.

56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . presented out of the treasures which the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva had seized after defeating the Chera king and the Pandyas . . . . . . . . . . . . . manjadi and six tenths (On it) were fastened [forty]-one crystals, weighing, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . manjadi ; seventy-seven crystal diamonds, weighing (one) manjadi and (one) kunri ; eighteen potti, weighing eight manjadi and four tenths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . weighing two karanju and nine manjadi ; the total weight being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two manjadi and (one) kunri . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  weighed by the Dakshinameru-Vitankan ; sixty-four pearls in all strung (on it) out of the pearls which the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva had poured out as flowers at the sacred feet and with which he had worshipped the feet of the god, (viz.) round pearls, roundish pearls, polished pearls and small pearls, weighing……………….manjadi. The total weight (was) ninety-one karanju and a half and (one) manjadi and the price two hundred kasu.


[1] No. 36 of 1897.

[2] These names are not used in the body of the inscription for the utensils presented. There seems to be a reference to the conferment of these two titles on the king in No. 1, paragraph 55. The king is said to lhave presented a number of trumpets made of gold on the occasion.

[3] The phrase velliyin thiruparikalangalulittan is repeated three times in the original for the sake of clearness.

[4] See note 1 on page 416 above.

[5] See note 1 on page 417 above.

[6] See note 3 on page 417 above.

[7] See note 3 on page 417 above.

[8] See note 2 on page 418 above.

[9] See note 3 one page 418 above.

[10] I have not been able to find out what this word signifies.

[11] For the meaning of this word, see note 1 on page 408.

[12] See note 1 one page 418.

[13] See note 1 on page 419 above.

[14] See note 2 on page 419 above.

[15] No. 37 of 1897.

[16] The word iluppai-pal means ‘milk of (the tree) Bassia long folia.’ It was apparently the oil expressed from the seeds of the tree that had to be supplied to the Tanjore temple. This oil is even now used largely for burning lamps in the Tamil country.

[17] See my Annual Report for 1899-1900, paragraph 19 ; also the Director-General’s Annual for 1905-06, Part II, page 181.

[18] See his Mysore and Coorg from the inscriptions, page 154.

[19] Above, page 388, verse 24 and Epigraphia Indica Vol. IV, p. 222.

[20] Mr. Rice’s Mysore and Coorg from the inscriptions, p. 59.

[21] This is (1/320) x ½

[22] This rendering of mudal is made probable by paragraph 3 of No. 5 above.

[23] No. 38 of 1897.

[24] From No. 51 above, paragraph 39 it appears that sidukku was an ornament worn by women.

[25] Udaiyar is evidently an attribute of paramasvamin and, as such, is left untranslated

[26] I am not quite sure that pesiyum is. The word does not appear to be here used in the same sense as in No. 4 above, line 6 of the first section and No. 5, text-line 1.

[27] Pasamalai occurs in No. 56 above, paragraph 7 as an ornament of the Sun-god and is translated “garland of rays.”

[28] The sattam is a variety of ruby appears from page 85 above, text-line 5. Ilaisuni is evidently the same as lasuni which seems to be a property of rubies (p. 78 above, paragraph 3 and p. 85, text line 6), and which has been translated ‘white specks’ (ibid., p. 88)

[29] Muttin-sidukku occurs on page 211 above, text-line 343. Sonagachchidukku is apparently a sulukku made after the fashion of the Jonakas.

[30] Pushyaraga is evidently the same as pushparaga.

[31] Parru seems to be the same karparru which has been translated ‘such as still adhere to the ore ;’ see pp. 81 and 88 above.

[32] Kurivu has been rendered ‘cavities’ (above p. 81, paragraph 3 and p. 88, paragraphs 3 and 6).

[33] See note 1 on p. 40 above.

[34] Tolteyndana (p. 42 above paragraph 31) has been translated by ‘(pearls) with rubbed surface’ and tolidandaga by ‘(pearls) with cracked surface’ (p. 188 above, paragraph 20)

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