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Friday, February 23, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

PART-II

TAMIL AND GRANTHA INSCRIPTIONS

III.-INSCRIPTIONS AT AND NEAR VIRICHIPURAM

NO.56. INSIDE THE FRONT GOPURA OF THE VIRINCHIPURAM TEMPLE, SECOND INSCRIPTION TO THE RIGHT

This inscription is dated during the reign of Virapratapa-Devaraya-maharaja (of Vijayanagara) and in the Visvavasu year, which was current after the expiration of the Saka year 1347.  It refers to q question of the sacred law (dharma) of the Brahmanas, which was settled by the Brahmanas of the kingdom of Padaividu, among whom Karnata, Tamir, Telugu and Lata Brahmanas are mentioned.  Their representatives signed an agreement to the effect, that henceforth marriages among their families had only to be concluded by kayadana, i.e., that the father had to give his daughter to the bridegroom gratuitously.  Both the father who accepted money, and the bridegroom who paid money for the bride, should be subject to punishment by the king and to excommunication for their caste. This practice was evidently adopted on the authority of the canonical works on sacred law, which condemn in strong terms the payment of money for the bride, and use the term asura-vivadha for a marriage thus concluded.  The four forms of marriage permitted to Brahmanas are mere varieties of the marriage by kanyadhana.

To the end of the inscription a large number of signatures of Brahmans are attached.  This part of the original is obliterated to such an extent that a satisfactory transcript cannot be given.  In some cases, the places where the single Brahmanas came from, are registered.  As the identification of these localities might be useful for fixing the extent of the kingdom of Padaividu, I subjoin those which may be   read with certainty: Kalanjiyam,Kamalapadam, Marudam, Mangalam, Araiyapadi, Kannamangalam[1] A[ga]tterippattu, Enadapadi.  Two other inscriptions mention Gudiyattam[2] and Vallam[3] as belonging to the kingdom of Padavidu[4] or Padavedu.  The kingdom of Padaividu (Padaivittu rajyam) was called after the town of Padaividu, now Padavedu in the Polur Talluqa of the North Arcot District.  According to two Vijayanagara inscriptions, it formed a district of Tondai-mandalam[5]. The name Padaividu means “an encampment” and seems to owe its origin to a temporary camp of some king, around which a city arose in course of time[6]

TRANSLATION

Let there be Prosperity! Hail! On the day of (the nakshatra) Anusham[7] which corresponds to Wednesday, the sixth lunar day, the 3rd (solar day) of the month of Panguni[8] of the Visvavasu year, which was current after the Saka year 1347 (had passed),  while the illustrious maharajadhiraja-parameswara, the illustrious Virapratpa-Devaraya-maharaja was pleased to rule the earth,-the great men of all branches of sacred studies of the kingdom (rajyam) of Padaividu drew up, in the presence of (the god) Gopinatha (of) Arkapushkkarini, a document (which contains) an agreement fixing the sacred law. According  to (this document), if the Brahmanas of this kingdom (rajyam) of Padaividu, viz., Kannadigas, Tamiras, Telungas, Ilalas,[9]etc.,of all gotras, sutras,  and  sakhas conclude a marriage, they shall, from this day forward, do it by kanyadana. Those who do no adopt kanyadana, i.e., both those who give away after having received gold, and those who conclude a marriage after having given gold, shall be liable to punishment by the king and shall be excluded from the community of Brahmanas. These are the contents of the document which was drawn up.

The following are the signatures of the great men of all branches of sacred studies:-

NO.57. ON A STONE BUILT INTO THE FLOOR OF THE COURTYYARD OF THE VIRINCHIPURAM TEMPLE

This inscription records that in the Saumya year, which was current after the expiration of Saka 1471, the pavement of the outer courtyard of the Virincipuram Temple was laid by Bommuu-nayaka, who is evidently the same person as Sinua-Bommu-nayaka or Bomma-nripati of Velur[10]. On this occasion, the other inscribed stones which are noticed in part III, must have found their way into the floor of the temple.

TRANSLATION

Let there be prosperity! On Thursday, the day of (the nakshtra) Punarvasu, which corresponds to the seventh lunar day of the former half of the month of Mesha of the Saumya year, which was current after the Salivaha-Saka  year 1471 (had passed),-in order to procure religious merit to Machcha (?)-nayaka (of) Velur,-prince Bommu-nayaka laid the pavement round the whole (temple).

No.58. ON A STONE AT THE SOUTH ENTRANCE OF VIRINCHIPURAM

This inscription is dated during the reign of Venkatapati-deva-maharayar[11] and in the Nadana year, which was current after the expiration of the Saka year 1514.  it records that Periya-Erama-nayaka of Punnarrur granted a house (manai) and some land for a matha to  Ananda-Namasivaya-pandaram.  The grant was made at the margasahayesvara Temple of Tiru-Virinchapuram (Virinchipuram).

TRANSLATION

Hail! On the 6th solar day of the month of Tai of the Nadana year, which was current after the Saka year 1514 (had passed), while the illustrious mahamandalesvara, the hero (Ganda) the dagger (Kattari), the hawk (Saluva), the illustrious Venkatapati-deva-maharayar was pleased to rule the earth, -in the presence of (the god) Margasahayesvara (of) Tiru-Viranchapuram,-Periya-Erama-nayaka (of) Punnarrur ordered a house (manai) on the northern side of the holy street (tiru-vithi) of Vandarayan (to be given for) a matha to Anada-Namasivaya-pandaram, the worshipper (i.e.pupil?) of the guru Namasivaya-murti (of) Chidambarma, in order to procure religious merit to Samkarappa-nayaka Ayan, the son of Maya(?)-nayaka(of) Velur.  This house for the matha consists of 1 house to the east of the house of Trayambaka and  to the west of the house of Murti-manikkam, and of a house-garden of 41 feet. To this meritorious gift of a mahta we gave, with a libation o water, for each day a kuruni[12] of rice (? Prasada) under mortgage,[13] and the connexion under mortgage with (a piece of) land in the agrahara (of) Urandan-tangal.  The succession of sons (which consists of) the succession of pupils[14] shall enjoy this mahta as long as the moon and the sun endure.  Whose ever injures this meritorious gift of a matha, that man shall incur the sin of one who has killed a black cow on the bank of the Ganga.

INSCRIPTIONS OF THE PERUMAL TEMPLE AT POYGAI NEAR VIRINCHIPURAM

These inscriptions (Nos.59 to 64) are dated during the reign of a king called Tribhuvanachakravartin Rajaraja-deva.  His twenty-second year corresponded to Saka 1160 (Nos.59 and 60), his twenty-fourth year to Saka 1161 (Nos.61 and 62) and his twenty-eighth year was current after the expiration of Saka 1165 (No.64). Accordingly, the first year of his reign corresponded to the Saka year 1137-38.

The inscription record that the Kerala merchant Adi-Rama, an inhabitant of “the Hill-country,” i.e., of Malayalam, granted three villages, which he had bought from a certain Sambuvarayan, to the temple, on the walls of which the inscriptions are found.  The temple had two names:1.Arulala-Perumal of Poygai alias Rajendra-Chola-nallur, and 2.Chitra-meri-Malai-mandala-Vinnagara.  The technical meaning of chitra-meri, “the beautiful plough-tail,” is not clear.  The remainder of the second name means “the Vishnu temple[15] of the Hill-country.” Probably the donor Rama himself had founded the temple and called it after his native country, viz., Malayalam.

The full name of Sambuvarayan, from whom Rama bought the three villages which he granted to the Poygai Temple, was Sengeni-Virasani[16]-Ammaiappan (or Ammaiyappan) Aragiya-Soran, alias  Edirilli[17]-Sora-Sambuvarayan[18]. He seems to have been a vassal of Rajaraja-deva.

No. 59. ON THE BASE OF THE NORTH WALL

This inscription is dated in the twenty-second year of Tribhuvancachakravartin Rajaraja-deva and in the Saka year 1160.  It records the gift of the village of Kumaramangalam, which was situated east of Korra-mangalam, north-west of Aimbundi-which lay to the north of Poygai, alias Rajendra-Chola-nallur-and south of the Palaru.  Aimbundi is the old name of  the modern village of Ammundi;it occurs also in an Ammundi inscription, which will be noticed in Part III (No.131).  The Palaru is the well-known Palar, the chief river of the North Arcot District.

TRANSLATION

Hail! Prosperity! [In the month of] Tai  of the twenty-second year of the illustrious Tribhuvanachakravartin, the illustrious Rajaraja-deva, which was current during the Saka year one thousand one hundred and sixty,-I, Sengeni-Virasani-Ammaiyappan, who has gained victory standing by himself, who shows his sword, Aragiya-Soran, alias Edrilli…., after having received gold from Rama the Kerala, a slave (i.e., worshipper) of Aya-inar,[19]-gave to the Vishnu temple of Chitra-meri-Malai-mandala, alias (the temple of) Arulala-Perumal, (at) Poygai, alais Rajendra-Sora-nallur, (the village of) Kumara-mangalam as exclusive property, to last as long as the moon and sun;-the boundary on the western side is to the eat of the tiwari stone put up at the extremity of the boundary o Aimbundi;the boundary on the northern side is to the south of the (river) Palaru;-the trees over ground and the wells underground, the wet land  and the dry land, included within these boundaries in the four directions; including taxes for the village-police, the rice in Karttika,  the unripe (fruit) in Karttika, and all other revenue in money; the tax on looms, the tax on shops, the tax on goldsmiths, the tax on oil-mills, the tax on Ajivakas, and all (other) revenue.

NO.60. ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE EAST WALL

Of this inscription only the date remains, which is the same as in No.59.

TRANSLATION

Hail! Prosperity! In the twenty-second year of Tribhuvanachakravartin, the illustrious Rajaraja-deva, which was current during the Saka year one thousand one hundred and sixty. . . . .

NO.61. ON THE BASE OF THE SOUTH WALL

This inscriptions is dated in the twenty-fourth year of Tribhuvanacharavartin Rajaraja-deva, and in the Saka year 1161.  It records the gift of the village of Puttur.

TRANSLATIION

Hail! Prosperity! From the month of Tai of the twenty-fourth year of the illustrious Tribhuvanachakravartin, the illustrious Rajaraja-deva, which was current during the Saka year one thusand one hundred and sixty-one,-I, Virasani-Ammaiyappan Aragiya-Soran, alias Edirili-Sora-Sambuvarayan, after having received gold from Rama the Kerala, a worshipper of Aya-inar (and an inhabitant) of Malai-mandalam,-gave to the Vishnu temple of Chitra-meri-Malai-mandala, alias (the temple of) Arulala-Perumal, (at) Poygai,  alias  Rajendra-Sora-nallur, (the village of) Puttur as exclusive property:-the trees over ground and the wells underground, the wet land and the dry land, included within the boundaries in the four directions; all the revenue in paddy, excluding tolls and the small tax for the village-police, and including the three handfuls of paddy (?);the rice in Karttika, the money in Karttika,  the unripe (fruit)  in Karttika, velipayaru,[20] the money from water and land, the tax on oil-mills, the money from (the sale of) the fish in the tank,…..the money for documents, and all other revenue in money;the antarayam;[21] including all (other) revenue in paddy and revenue in money, including (that for) one Vetti.

No. 62. ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE EAST WALL

This inscription is a duplicate of No. 61. At the end some words are lost.

No. 63. ON THE BASE OF THE EAST WALL

This short inscription refers to the  gift of the village of  Puttur, which is also recorded in the two preceding inscriptions.

TRANSLATIION

The merchant Adi-Rama the Kerala, who lived in Malai-nadu, where the goddess with the red flower (Lakshmi) resides, having decorated Arulalar (of) Poygai, and hving acquired as exclusive property (the village of) Puttur, made it his (the god’s) village.

No.64. ON THE NORTH WALL

This inscription is dated in the 28th year of Rajaraja-deva, which was current after the expiration of the Saka year 1165.  It records the gift of the village of Attiyur. 

TRANSLATIION

Hail! Prosperity! From the month of Kurkataka of the 28th year of the illustrious Rajaraja-deva, which was current after the Saka year one thousand one hundred and sixty-five (had passed),-I, Sengeni-Virasani-Ammaiappan Aragiya-soran, alias Edrilli-Sora-Sambuvarayan, after having received gold from the Kerala merchant Rama, a worshipper of Aya-inar,-gave to the Vishnu temple of Chitra-meri-Malai-mandala, alias (the temple of) Arulala-Perumal (at) Poygai, (the village of) Attiyur as a divine gift (devadana) and as exclusive property;-the trees over ground and the wells underground, the wet land and the dry land, included within the boundaries in the four directions, excluding the land (called) Pallichchandam,[22] Tukkai-patti, Pidari-Patti,[23]Bhatta-vritti and Vaidy-vritti;[24] the revenue in paddy, excluding (the revenue for) one Vetti, tolls, and the tax for the overseer of the village-police and the accountant, and including the three handfuls and paddy (?); the taxes in money, including (that for) cloths of males and females,. . . . . . the money for documents, . . . . . veli-payaru,  the gleaned rice, . . . . . the tax on oil-mills and the tax on Ajivakas; including all other revenue in paddy and revenue in money.

No.65. ON THE WEST AND SOUTH WALLS OF THE ISVARA TEMPLE AT VAKKANAPURAM NEAR VIRINCHIPURAM

This inscription records, that a number of people agreed to found a temple, called Okkaninra-nayanar, and granted to it three velis[25]of land belonging to Tiru-Virunchapuram, i.e., Virinchipuram, and a tirumadaivilagam.[26] Okkaninra-nayanar ws evidently the name of the Vakkanapuram Temple, and may be connected wit hthe modern name of the village. A shrine of Chandesvara-nayanar,[27]the god, who issupposed to preside over the temple treasure, seems to have been attached to the temple.

Further, some land was granted to Varittunai-nayanar, “the lord who is a companion on the road .”  This is the Tamil equivalent of Margasahayesvara, the name of the Virinchipuram Temple, which occurs in No.58.

The whole grant was entrusted to a certain Kambavna-bhatta, whose name also appears among the signatures, which are attached to this document.  Among these there are some curious denominations, which show that  the villagers were fond of bearing royal names.  Thus we find Vira-Sora-Brahma-rayan, Minavarayan[28] Devarayan, Nandivarman, Muvendirayan[29] and Chedirayan.  One of the witnesses signs half in Tamil half in Sanskrit; another was called after Sirrambalam and a third hailed from Periya-nadu.

TRANSLATIION

Let there be prosperity! According to the pleasure of Chandesvara-nayanar, (the following gifts were made over) to Arvar Kambavana-bhatta.

From the month of Karttika  of the Siddharthin year forward, the lord Okkaninra-nayanar shall be placed in the dry land to the south of the Devaneri (tank), (which belongs) to the dry land of Tiru-Viunchapuram, the Okkaninran-eri (tank) shall be constructed, and the reclaimable land below this tank and in other places, which are above the level of this water, shall be reclaimed.  After they are reclaimed, three velies of land below this tank shall be placed at the disposal of this lord Okkaninra-nayanar as a divine gift, as a saravamanya (and) from taxes, to last as long as the moon and the sum.  With the exception of these three velis of land, the elevated land shall be a dive gift to the lord Varittunai-nayanar.  (All the land) which pays taxes,-including the door-money (vasalpanam), which will be taken from all houses built round and in front of the holy temple of this Okkaninra-nayanar,-shall belong to this Okkaninra-nayanar as the environs of his temple (tirumadavilagam), which shall be a saravamanya (and) free from (other) taxes.  One kalam[30] and four naris[31] of paddy and a quarter panam shall be taken, including all conditions (?Upadhi), per hundred kuris of the elevated land, which is reclaimed, in the year during which it is reclaimed, with the exception of those environs of the temple and the three velis of land, (which form) that divine gift.  [the meaning of the next three clauses, which contain some unintelligible terms, seems to be, that in the next-following year, one quarter, in the next, one half, and in each further year, three quarters more than in the first year should be taken.]  A document to this effect shall be engraved on the holy mountain (tirumalai)[32] Let the blessed Mahesvesvara protect this (gift).

This is the signature of the magistrate (adhikaram) Ilakkappan.  This is the signature of Kambavana-bhatta.  This is (the signature) of Dakshinamurti-bhatta.  This is the signature of Tiruchchirrambala-bhatta.  This is the signature of Appar-andi.  This is the signature of Sama-Brahma-rayan.  This is the signature of  the illustrious Mahesvara-vearan.  This is the signature of Minavarayan.  This is the signature of Devarayan. This is the signature of Nandivarman. This is the signature of Abhimanabhushana-velan.  This is the signature of Muvendirayan, the account (kanakku) of the temple.  This is the signature of Chedirayan.


[1] This village is situated in the Arni Jagir, about half-way between Arni and Vellore;it is spelt “kunnamangalam” in the official List of Indian Post offices, Calcutta, 1886.

[2] Head-quarters of a talluqa of the North Arcot District.

[3] In the Vandavasi Talluqa of the same district.

[4] Ind.Ant., Vol. XIII, p.132. Padavidu-rajya occurs also in two inscriptions published by Dr. Oppert (Madras Journal for 1881, pp 251 and 257);Patavita-rajya in a grant of Saka 1460, the Vilambin year, from Sriperumbudur (Sewell’s Lists, Vol.II, p.266), for the original of which I am indebted to Mr.J.Lee Warner, the Collector of Chingleput.

[5] The Padavedu inscription No.81 mentions Tondai-mandalattu Padaivittu rajyam. According to the Kondyata grant (Ind Ant., Vol. XIII, p.132) the Padavidu-maharaja belonged to the Jayankonda-Tonda-mandala.

[6] Thus the present residence of the Sindhia at the foot of the Gwalior Fort still bears the name of Lashkar, i.e., “camp.”

[7] Sanskrit Anuradha

[8] Sanskrit Phalguni

[9] Sanskrit Lata, the old name of Gujarat.

[10] See the introduction of No.43.

[11] This is Venkata I. of Karnata, whose grants range between Saka 1508 and 1535 ; see Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIII, p.155

[12] A dry-measure equal to a marakkal.

[13] It appears that the land mentioned below was mortgaged to the matha as a guarantee for the regular supply of the rice.

[14] This clause seems to imply, that the matha was to be inherited by the sishyas of the donee, just as in other cases a grant to a Brahmana is successively enjoyed by his sons, grandsons and further decendants.

[15] This translation of Vinayaga rests on an ancient inscription of the Vaikunta-Perumal Temple at Kanchipuram, in which the Saskrit Vishnugriha corresponds to the Tamil Vinnagara, which might however, also mean “the celestial city”

[16] i.e., “the thunderbolt to heroes.”

[17] I.e., “the unopposed”

[18] No.64, lines 24 f.

[19] This is probably a name of Vishnu.  It might mean:”he who is without a mother”, and correspond to the Sanskrit Aja, “the unborn.”

[20][20] The literal meaning of this term would be “the hedge-beans.”

[21] This seems to be the name of some sort of revenue (dya).

[22] Pallichchendam probably means “temple-land” just as palli-gramam “a village belongs to a temple.” In the inscriptions Nos.67 and 68, pallichchendam seems to be used in the sense of palligramam itself.

[23] Patti means “a measure of land sufficient for a sheep-fold;” compare Kuttali-patti in No.42, above.  Tukkai is the same as Tukkai, i.e., Durga, and Pidari is a form of Kali.

[24] I.e., (the land) enjoyed by the Bhattas and enjoyed by the Vaidyas.

[25] 1 veli consists 5 Kanis, 1 Kani of 100 kuri is equal to 576 square feet.

[26] This term seems to signify “the envirens of a temple;” compare No.86 line 24.

[27] Compare Adidasa Chandesvara in six other inscriptions (Nos.84,85,89,110, 112 and 131), and Adichandesvara in Carr’s, Seven Pagodas, pp.121,128.  The Tanjore Temple also contains a small shire of Chandesvara.

[28] Minavan, “the bearer of the fish-banner,” is an epithet of the Pandya kings.

[29] This stands porbably for Muv-ven-irayan. Muvvendu would be a synonym of  Muvarasar, “the three kings,” i.e., Seran, Soran and Pandiyan.

[30] Equal to 12 marakkals.

[31] Equal to 1/8 marakkals.

[32] By this temple itelf seems to be meant. 

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