AND GRANTHA INSCRIPTIONS
AT AND NEAR VIRICHIPURAM
INSIDE THE FRONT GOPURA OF THE VIRINCHIPURAM TEMPLE, SECOND
INSCRIPTION TO THE RIGHT
inscription is dated during the reign of
Virapratapa-Devaraya-maharaja (of Vijayanagara) and in the Visvavasu
year, which was current after the expiration of the Saka year
1347. It refers to q
question of the sacred law (dharma) of the Brahmanas,
which was settled by the Brahmanas of the kingdom of Padaividu,
among whom Karnata, Tamir, Telugu and Lata Brahmanas are
representatives signed an agreement to the effect, that henceforth
marriages among their families had only to be concluded by kayadana,
i.e., that the father had to give his daughter to the bridegroom
gratuitously. Both the
father who accepted money, and the bridegroom who paid money for the
bride, should be subject to punishment by the king and to
excommunication for their caste. This practice was evidently adopted
on the authority of the canonical works on sacred law, which condemn
in strong terms the payment of money for the bride, and use the term
asura-vivadha for a marriage thus concluded.
The four forms of marriage permitted to Brahmanas are
mere varieties of the marriage by kanyadhana.
the end of the inscription a large number of signatures of Brahmans
are attached. This part
of the original is obliterated to such an extent that a satisfactory
transcript cannot be given. In
some cases, the places where the single Brahmanas came from,
are registered. As the
identification of these localities might be useful for fixing the
extent of the kingdom of Padaividu, I subjoin those which may be
read with certainty: Kalanjiyam,Kamalapadam, Marudam,
Mangalam, Araiyapadi, Kannamangalam
A[ga]tterippattu, Enadapadi. Two
other inscriptions mention Gudiyattam
as belonging to the kingdom of Padavidu
or Padavedu. The
kingdom of Padaividu (Padaivittu rajyam) was called after the
town of Padaividu, now Padavedu in the Polur Talluqa of the North
Arcot District. According
to two Vijayanagara inscriptions, it formed a district of
Tondai-mandalam. The name Padaividu means
“an encampment” and seems to owe its origin to a temporary camp
of some king, around which a city arose in course of time
there be Prosperity! Hail! On the day of (the nakshatra) Anusham
which corresponds to Wednesday, the sixth lunar day, the 3rd
(solar day) of the month of Panguni
of the Visvavasu year, which was current after the Saka year
1347 (had passed), while
the illustrious maharajadhiraja-parameswara, the illustrious
Virapratpa-Devaraya-maharaja was pleased to rule the earth,-the
great men of all branches of sacred studies of the kingdom (rajyam)
of Padaividu drew up, in the presence of (the god) Gopinatha
(of) Arkapushkkarini, a document (which contains) an
agreement fixing the sacred law. According to
(this document), if the Brahmanas of this kingdom (rajyam)
of Padaividu, viz., Kannadigas, Tamiras, Telungas, Ilalas,etc.,of
all gotras, sutras, and
a marriage, they shall, from this day forward, do it by kanyadana.
Those who do no adopt kanyadana, i.e., both those who
give away after having received gold, and those who conclude a
marriage after having given gold, shall be liable to punishment by
the king and shall be excluded from the community of Brahmanas. These
are the contents of the document which was drawn up.
following are the signatures of the great men of all branches of
ON A STONE BUILT INTO THE FLOOR OF THE COURTYYARD OF THE
inscription records that in the Saumya year, which was
current after the expiration of Saka 1471, the pavement of the outer
courtyard of the Virincipuram Temple was laid by Bommuu-nayaka, who
is evidently the same person as Sinua-Bommu-nayaka or Bomma-nripati
On this occasion, the other inscribed stones which are noticed in
part III, must have found their way into the floor of the temple.
there be prosperity! On Thursday, the day of (the nakshtra) Punarvasu,
which corresponds to the seventh lunar day of the former half of the
month of Mesha of the Saumya year, which was current
after the Salivaha-Saka year
1471 (had passed),-in order to procure religious merit to
Machcha (?)-nayaka (of) Velur,-prince Bommu-nayaka laid the
pavement round the whole (temple).
ON A STONE AT THE SOUTH ENTRANCE OF VIRINCHIPURAM
inscription is dated during the reign of Venkatapati-deva-maharayar
and in the Nadana year, which was current after the
expiration of the Saka year 1514.
it records that Periya-Erama-nayaka of Punnarrur granted a
house (manai) and some land for a matha to
The grant was made at the margasahayesvara Temple of
On the 6th solar day of the month of Tai of the Nadana
year, which was current after the Saka year 1514 (had
passed), while the illustrious mahamandalesvara, the hero
(Ganda) the dagger (Kattari), the hawk (Saluva),
the illustrious Venkatapati-deva-maharayar was pleased to rule the
earth, -in the presence of (the god) Margasahayesvara (of)
Tiru-Viranchapuram,-Periya-Erama-nayaka (of) Punnarrur
ordered a house (manai) on the northern side of the holy
street (tiru-vithi) of Vandarayan (to be given for) a matha
to Anada-Namasivaya-pandaram, the worshipper (i.e.pupil?) of
the guru Namasivaya-murti (of) Chidambarma, in order
to procure religious merit to Samkarappa-nayaka Ayan, the son of
This house for the matha consists of 1 house to the
east of the house of Trayambaka and to the west of the house of Murti-manikkam, and of a
house-garden of 41 feet. To this meritorious gift of a mahta
we gave, with a libation o water, for each day a kuruni
of rice (? Prasada) under mortgage,
and the connexion under mortgage with (a piece of) land in the agrahara
(of) Urandan-tangal. The
succession of sons (which consists of) the succession of
shall enjoy this mahta as long as the moon and the sun
endure. Whose ever
injures this meritorious gift of a matha, that man shall
incur the sin of one who has killed a black cow on the bank of the
OF THE PERUMAL TEMPLE AT POYGAI NEAR VIRINCHIPURAM
inscriptions (Nos.59 to 64) are dated during the reign of a king
called Tribhuvanachakravartin Rajaraja-deva.
His twenty-second year corresponded to Saka 1160 (Nos.59 and
60), his twenty-fourth year to Saka 1161 (Nos.61 and 62) and his
twenty-eighth year was current after the expiration of Saka 1165
(No.64). Accordingly, the first year of his reign corresponded to
the Saka year 1137-38.
inscription record that the Kerala merchant Adi-Rama, an inhabitant
of “the Hill-country,” i.e., of Malayalam, granted three
villages, which he had bought from a certain Sambuvarayan, to the
temple, on the walls of which the inscriptions are found.
The temple had two names:1.Arulala-Perumal of Poygai alias
The technical meaning of chitra-meri, “the beautiful
plough-tail,” is not clear. The
remainder of the second name means “the Vishnu temple
of the Hill-country.” Probably the donor Rama himself had founded
the temple and called it after his native country, viz., Malayalam.
full name of Sambuvarayan, from whom Rama bought the three villages
which he granted to the Poygai Temple, was Sengeni-Virasani-Ammaiappan
(or Ammaiyappan) Aragiya-Soran, alias Edirilli-Sora-Sambuvarayan.
He seems to have been a vassal of Rajaraja-deva.
59. ON THE BASE OF THE NORTH WALL
inscription is dated in the twenty-second year of Tribhuvancachakravartin
Rajaraja-deva and in the Saka year 1160.
It records the gift of the village of Kumaramangalam, which
was situated east of Korra-mangalam, north-west of Aimbundi-which
lay to the north of Poygai, alias Rajendra-Chola-nallur-and
south of the Palaru. Aimbundi
is the old name of the
modern village of Ammundi;it occurs also in an Ammundi inscription,
which will be noticed in Part III (No.131).
The Palaru is the well-known Palar, the chief river of the
North Arcot District.
Prosperity! [In the month of] Tai of
the twenty-second year of the illustrious Tribhuvanachakravartin,
the illustrious Rajaraja-deva, which was current during the Saka
year one thousand one hundred and sixty,-I,
Sengeni-Virasani-Ammaiyappan, who has gained victory standing by
himself, who shows his sword, Aragiya-Soran, alias Edrilli….,
after having received gold from Rama the Kerala, a slave (i.e., worshipper)
of Aya-inar,-gave to the Vishnu temple
of Chitra-meri-Malai-mandala, alias (the temple of)
Arulala-Perumal, (at) Poygai, alais Rajendra-Sora-nallur,
(the village of) Kumara-mangalam as exclusive property, to
last as long as the moon and sun;-the boundary on the western side
is to the eat of the tiwari stone put up at the extremity of
the boundary o Aimbundi;the boundary on the northern side is to the
south of the (river) Palaru;-the trees over ground and the
wells underground, the wet land
and the dry land, included within these boundaries in the
four directions; including taxes for the village-police, the rice in
unripe (fruit) in Karttika, and all other revenue in
money; the tax on looms, the tax on shops, the tax on goldsmiths,
the tax on oil-mills, the tax on Ajivakas, and all (other)
ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE EAST WALL
this inscription only the date remains, which is the same as in
Prosperity! In the twenty-second year of Tribhuvanachakravartin, the
illustrious Rajaraja-deva, which was current during the Saka year
one thousand one hundred and sixty. . . . .
ON THE BASE OF THE SOUTH WALL
inscriptions is dated in the twenty-fourth year of Tribhuvanacharavartin
Rajaraja-deva, and in the Saka year 1161.
It records the gift of the village of Puttur.
Prosperity! From the month of Tai of the twenty-fourth year
of the illustrious Tribhuvanachakravartin, the illustrious
Rajaraja-deva, which was current during the Saka year one thusand
one hundred and sixty-one,-I, Virasani-Ammaiyappan Aragiya-Soran, alias
Edirili-Sora-Sambuvarayan, after having received gold from Rama
the Kerala, a worshipper of Aya-inar (and an inhabitant) of
Malai-mandalam,-gave to the Vishnu temple of
Chitra-meri-Malai-mandala, alias (the temple of) Arulala-Perumal,
(at) Poygai, alias
Rajendra-Sora-nallur, (the village of) Puttur as
exclusive property:-the trees over ground and the wells underground,
the wet land and the dry land, included within the boundaries in the
four directions; all the revenue in paddy, excluding tolls and the
small tax for the village-police, and including the three handfuls
of paddy (?);the rice in Karttika, the money in Karttika,
the unripe (fruit)
the money from water and land, the tax on oil-mills, the money from
(the sale of) the fish in the tank,…..the money for
documents, and all other revenue in money;the antarayam;
including all (other) revenue in paddy and revenue in money,
including (that for) one Vetti.
62. ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE EAST WALL
inscription is a duplicate of No. 61. At the end some words are
63. ON THE BASE OF THE EAST WALL
short inscription refers to the
gift of the village of Puttur,
which is also recorded in the two preceding inscriptions.
merchant Adi-Rama the Kerala, who lived in Malai-nadu, where the
goddess with the red flower (Lakshmi) resides, having
decorated Arulalar (of) Poygai, and hving acquired as
exclusive property (the village of) Puttur, made it his (the
ON THE NORTH WALL
inscription is dated in the 28th year of Rajaraja-deva,
which was current after the expiration of the Saka year 1165.
It records the gift of the village of Attiyur.
Prosperity! From the month of Kurkataka of the 28th
year of the illustrious Rajaraja-deva, which was current after the
Saka year one thousand one hundred and sixty-five (had passed),-I,
Sengeni-Virasani-Ammaiappan Aragiya-soran, alias Edrilli-Sora-Sambuvarayan,
after having received gold from the Kerala merchant Rama, a
worshipper of Aya-inar,-gave to the Vishnu temple of
Chitra-meri-Malai-mandala, alias (the temple of) Arulala-Perumal
(at) Poygai, (the village of) Attiyur as a divine gift
(devadana) and as exclusive property;-the trees over ground
and the wells underground, the wet land and the dry land, included
within the boundaries in the four directions, excluding the land (called)
Pallichchandam, Tukkai-patti, Pidari-Patti,Bhatta-vritti
the revenue in paddy, excluding (the revenue for) one Vetti,
tolls, and the tax for the overseer of the village-police and the
accountant, and including the three handfuls and paddy (?); the
taxes in money, including (that for) cloths of males and
females,. . . . . . the money for documents, . . . . . veli-payaru,
the gleaned rice, .
. . . . the tax on oil-mills and the tax on Ajivakas; including all
other revenue in paddy and revenue in money.
ON THE WEST AND SOUTH WALLS OF THE ISVARA TEMPLE AT VAKKANAPURAM
inscription records, that a number of people agreed to found a
temple, called Okkaninra-nayanar, and granted to it three velisof
land belonging to Tiru-Virunchapuram, i.e., Virinchipuram,
and a tirumadaivilagam.
Okkaninra-nayanar ws evidently the name of the Vakkanapuram Temple,
and may be connected wit hthe modern name of the village. A shrine
god, who issupposed to preside over the temple treasure, seems to
have been attached to the temple.
some land was granted to Varittunai-nayanar, “the lord who is a
companion on the road .” This
is the Tamil equivalent of Margasahayesvara, the name of the
Virinchipuram Temple, which occurs in No.58.
whole grant was entrusted to a certain Kambavna-bhatta, whose name
also appears among the signatures, which are attached to this
document. Among these
there are some curious denominations, which show that
the villagers were fond of bearing royal names.
Thus we find Vira-Sora-Brahma-rayan, Minavarayan
Devarayan, Nandivarman, Muvendirayan
and Chedirayan. One of
the witnesses signs half in Tamil half in Sanskrit; another was
called after Sirrambalam and a third hailed from Periya-nadu.
there be prosperity! According to the pleasure of
Chandesvara-nayanar, (the following gifts were made over) to
the month of Karttika of the Siddharthin year forward, the lord
Okkaninra-nayanar shall be placed in the dry land to the south of
the Devaneri (tank), (which belongs) to the dry land of
Tiru-Viunchapuram, the Okkaninran-eri (tank) shall be
constructed, and the reclaimable land below this tank and in other
places, which are above the level of this water, shall be reclaimed.
After they are reclaimed, three velies of land below
this tank shall be placed at the disposal of this lord
Okkaninra-nayanar as a divine gift, as a saravamanya (and) from
taxes, to last as long as the moon and the sum.
With the exception of these three velis of land, the
elevated land shall be a dive gift to the lord Varittunai-nayanar.
(All the land) which pays taxes,-including the
door-money (vasalpanam), which will be taken from all houses
built round and in front of the holy temple of this
Okkaninra-nayanar,-shall belong to this Okkaninra-nayanar as the
environs of his temple (tirumadavilagam), which shall be a saravamanya
(and) free from (other) taxes.
and four naris
of paddy and a quarter panam shall be taken, including
all conditions (?Upadhi), per hundred kuris of the
elevated land, which is reclaimed, in the year during which it is
reclaimed, with the exception of those environs of the temple and
the three velis of land, (which form) that divine
gift. [the meaning of
the next three clauses, which contain some unintelligible terms,
seems to be, that in the next-following year, one quarter, in the
next, one half, and in each further year, three quarters more than
in the first year should be taken.]
A document to this effect shall be engraved on the holy
Let the blessed Mahesvesvara protect this (gift).
is the signature of the magistrate (adhikaram) Ilakkappan.
This is the signature of Kambavana-bhatta.
This is (the signature) of Dakshinamurti-bhatta.
This is the signature of Tiruchchirrambala-bhatta.
This is the signature of Appar-andi.
This is the signature of Sama-Brahma-rayan.
This is the signature of
the illustrious Mahesvara-vearan.
This is the signature of Minavarayan.
This is the signature of Devarayan. This is the signature of
Nandivarman. This is the signature of Abhimanabhushana-velan.
This is the signature of Muvendirayan, the account (kanakku)
of the temple. This
is the signature of Chedirayan.