The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Text of the Inscriptions

Part I    -Sanskrit Inscription

Part II  -Tamil & Grantha Ins.

Part III -Notes & Fragments

Part IV  -Addenda

Other Inscriptions

Tamil Inscriptions

Misc. Ins. from Tamil Country

Chola Inscriptions

Kannada Inscriptions

Telugu Ins. from Andhra Pradesh

Pallava Inscriptions

Pandya Inscriptions

Ins. of Vijayanagara Dynasty

Ins. during 1903-1904

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

PART-II

TAMIL AND GRANTHA INSCRIPTIONS

IV. - INSCRIPTIONS AT TIRUMALAI NEAR POLUR

NO.66. ON A BURIED ROCK IN FRONT OF THE GOPURA AT THE BASE OF THE TIRUMALAI HILL

This inscription is dated in the 21 year of Ko-Raja-Rajakesarivarman, alias Rajaraja-deva, and again ( in words)

in the twenty-first year of Soran Arumori, the lord of the river Ponni, i.e., of the Kaveri.  The greater part of the historical portion of this inscription is identical with that of the two Mamallapuram inscriptions Nos.40 and 41.  Iratt-padi is, however, omitted from the lists of the countries conquered by the king[1]. Consequently Rajaraja-deva must have taken possession of Irattapadi between his twenty-first and his twenty-fifth years, the dates of Nos. 66 and 40 respectively.

The inscription records that a certain Gunaviramamunivan built a sluice, which he called after a Jaina teacher, whose name was Ganisekhara_maru-Porchuriyan[2].  The Tirumalai Rock is mentioned under the name Vaigai-malai, “the mountain of Vaigai.” In Nos. 69 and 70, it is called Vaigai-Tirumalai, “the holy mountain of Vaigai.”  The name Vaigai seems to be connected with Vaigavur, the name of the village at the base of the rock, which occurs in Nos.67 and 68.

TRANSLATIION

Hail! Prosperity! In the 21st year of (the reign of) the illustrious Ko-Raja-Rajakesarivarman[3], alias the illustrious Rajaraja-deva, who, -while both the goddess of fortune and the great goddess of the earth, who had become his exclusive property, gave him pleasure,-was pleased to build a jewel-like hall at Kandalur and conquered by his army, which was victorious in great battles, Vengai-nadu, Ganga-padi, Nulamba-padi, Tadigai-padi, Kudamalai-nadu, Kollam, Kalingam and Ira-mandalam, which is famed in the eight directions; who,-while his beauty was increasing, and while he was resplendent (to such an extent) that he was always worthy to be worshipped,-deprived the Seriyas of their splendour,-and (in words) in the twenty-first year of Soran Arumori, who possesses the river Ponni, whose waters are full of waves,-Gunaviramamunivan, whose feet are worshipped by kings of destructive armies, the lord (? Ko) of the cool Vaigai,-having given a sluice, which is worthy of being preserved in a good state (and which is called) by the name of Ganisekhara-Maru-Porchuriyan, the pure master, who is skilled in the elegant arts and very clever,-saw the paddy grow for a long time on both sides of the high mountain of Vaigai (Vaigai-malai)[4]

NO.67. ON A PIECE OF ROCK ON THE TOP OF THE TIRUMALAI HILL

This inscription is dated in the 12th year of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias Udaiyar-Rajendra-Chola-deva.  It opens with a long list of the countries which the king had conquered.  Among these we find “the seven and a half lakshas (of revenue) of Irattapadi,” which Rajendra-Chola took from Jayasimha. This conquest must have taken place between his 7th and 10th years, as another of Rajendra-Chola’s inscriptions, which is dated in his 7th year,[5] does not mention it, while it occurs in some unpublished Tanjore inscriptions of the 10th year[6].  The Jayasimha of the present inscription can be no other than the Western Chalukya king Jayasimha III.  (about Saka 940 to about 964), who, according to the Miraj grant, “warred against the Chola,” and who, in another inscription, is called “the lion to the elephant Rajendra-Chola”.  Consequently, “the seven and a half lakshas of Irattapadi” have to be taken as designation of the Chalukyan empire, which, in two Eastern Chalukya grants, is called “the Dekhan which yields seven and a half lakshas.” As both Rajendra-Chola and Jayasimha III. boast of having conquered the other, it must be assumed that either the success was on both sides alternately, or that neither of the two obtained a lasting advantage.  If, in order to identify Rajendra-Chola, the enemy of Jayasimha III., we turn to the table of the Eastern Chalukya Dynasty, which is found on page 32, above, we find that he cannot be that Rajendra-Choda, who reigned from Saka 985 to 1034.  Undoubtedly, the enemy of Jayasimha III. was that Rajendra-Choda of the Suryavamsa,  whose daughter Ammanga-devi was married to the Eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja I.  (Saka 9454 to 985).  He is further identical with that Rajendra-Choda, who was the son of Rajaraja of the Suryavamsa, and whose younger sister Kundava was married to the Eastern Chalukya king Vimaladitya (Saka 937 (?) 944).  From certain Tanjore inscriptions it can be safely concluded, that he was the successor of his father Rajara-deva, whose time I have tried to fix in the introduction of No.40, above.  Rajendra-Chola’s name occurs also on the seal of the large Leyden grant, and he is in all probability identical with the Madhurantaka, i.e., “the destroyer of Madura,” who issued that grant after his father Rajaraja.

 Among the other countries, which Rajendra-chola is said to have conquered, the two first in the list are Idaiturai-nadu, i.e., the country of Edatore, the head-quarters of a talluqa in the Maisur District, and Vanavasi, i.e., Banavasi in the North Kanara District of the Bombay Presidency.  With Kollippakkai compare Kollipake, which, according to Mr.Fleet, was one of the Capitals of the Western Chalukya king Jayasimha III.  Iram or Ira-mandalam is Ceylon.  “The king of the South”  (Tennavan) is the Pandya king.  Of him the inscription says, that he had formerly given the crown of Sundara to the king of Ceylon, from whom Rajendra-Chola took that corwn of Sundara.  The name Sundara occurs in the traditional lists of Pandya kings.  In the present inscription, the term, “the crown of Sundara” seems to be used in t he sense of  “the crown of the Pandya king,”  and the composer of the historical part of the inscription seems to have known Sundra as a former famous member of  the Pandya dynasty.  But no conclusions as to the date of Sundara can be drawn from this mention of his name.  The names of the Pandya king, who was conquered by the king of Ceylon, and of the king of Ceylon, who was conquered by Rajendra-Chola, are not mentioned.  The inscription further records that Rajendra-Chola vanquished the Kerala, i.e., the king of Malabar.   With Sakkara-kottam, whose king Vikrama-Vira was defeated by Rajendra-Chola, compare Chakrakota, whose lord was conquered by the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI.,[7] and Chakragotta, which was taken by the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana.[8]
Madura-mandalam is the Pandya country, the capital of which was Madura.  Odda-vishya, the country of the Oddas or odras and U-cha of Hiuen-Tsiang, is the modern Orissa.  Kosalai-nadu is Southern Kosala, the Kiao-sa-lo of Hiuen-Tsiang, which, according to General Cunningham, corresponds to the upper valley of the Mahanadi and its tributaries.  Takkanaladam and Uttiraladam are Northern and Southern Lata (Gujarat). The former was taken from a certain Ranasura.  Further, Rajendra-Chola asserts that he conquered Vangala-desa, i.e., Bengal, from a certain Govindachandra and extended his operations as far as the Ganga.  The remaining names of countries and kings I have been unable to identify.

The inscriptions Tirumalai, i.e., “the holy mountain,” and records a gift to the temple on its top, which was called Kundavi-Jinalaya, i.e., the  Jina temple of Kundavai.  According to an Eastern Chalukya grant.  (and an unpublished Chidambaram inscription), Kundava (or Kundavai) was the name of the daughter of Rajaraja of the Suryavamsa, the younger sister of Rajaraja-Chola, and the queen of the Eastern Chalukya king Vimaladitya.  The Tanjore inscriptions mention another, still earlier Kundavai, who was the daughter of the Chola king Parantaka II., the elder sister of the Chola king Rajaraja-deva, and the queen of the Pallava king Vanyadeva.  It seems very probable that it was one of these two queens, viz., either the younger sister or the aunt of the then reigning sovereign Rajendra-Chola, who founded the temple on the top of the Tirumalai Rock and called it after herself.  As Tirumalai is much closer to the Pallava country, than to the country of the Eastern Chalukyas, we shall scarcely be wrong in attributing the foundation of the temple rther to the king’s aunt, who was a Pallava queen, than to his younger sister, who was marries to an Eastern Chalukya king.

According to this and the next inscription, the village at the foot of the Tirumalai Hill bore the name of Vaigavur and belonged to Mugai-nadu, a division of Pangala-nadu, which formed part of Jayankonda-Chola-mandalam.

With the text of the subjoined inscription, I have compared four other inscriptions of Rajendra-Chola, viz., 1. the inscription No.68, which is likewise dated in the 12th year ; 2. an undated inscription of the Kailasanatha Temple at Uttaramallur in the Chinglepet District, an impression of which I owe to the kindnes of Mr. R. Sewell ; 3. an inscriptionof the Brihadisvara Temple at Tanjore (15th year) ; and 4. an inscription of the Chidambaram Temple (24th year).

TRANSLATIION

Hail! Prosperity! In the 12th year of (the reign of) Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias Udaiyar Sri-Rajendra-Chola-deva, who,-during his long life (which resembled that of ) pure people, (and in which) the great goddess of the earth, the goddess of victory in battle, and the beautiful and matchless goddess of fortune, who had become his great queens, gave him pleasure, while (his own) illustrious queen was prospering,-conquered with (his) great and warlike army Idaiturai-nadu;Vanavasi, the roads, (to which are bounded by) continuous walls of trees; Kollippakkai, whose walls are surrounded by sulli (trees); Mannaikkadakkam of unapproachable strength ; the crown of the king of Iram, (which is situated in the midst of ) as rough sea ; the exceedingly beautiful crown of the queen of the king of that (country);the crown of Sundara, which the king of the South (i.e., the Pandya) had formerly given to that (king of Iram) ; the pearl-necklace of Indra ; the whole Ira-mandalam on the transparent sea; the crown praised by many, a family-treasure, which the spear-throwing (king of) Kerala usually wore ; the garland of the sun (?) ; many ancient islands, which are the old and great guards o the shoe, against which conches are dashed ; the crown of pure gold, worthy of Lakshmi, which Parasurma, who, out of anger, bound the kings twenty-one times in battle, having thought the fort o the island of Sandima (i.e., Santimat ?) unapproachable, had deposited (there); the seven and a half lakshas of Iratta-padi-through the conquest of which immeasurable fame arose-(of)

Jayasimha, who, out of fear and full of revenge, turned his back at Musangi(?) and hid himself; the high mountains of Navenedikkula;Sakkara-kottam (belonging to) Vikrama-Vira ; Madura-mandalam with the fort of Mudira-pada (?) Namanaikonam, which is surrounded by dense groves ; Panchappalli (belonging to) Venjilai-vira; the good Masuni-desa, where leaves and fruits are green ; the large heap of family-treasures, together with many (other) treasures, (which he carried away), after having seized Dhiratara of the old race of the moon, together with his family, in a fight which took place in the hall (at) Adinagar, (a city) which is famous for its unceasing abundance ; Odda-vishaya, whose copious waters are difficult to approach ; the good Kosalai-nadu, where Brahamas assemble; Dandabutti (i.e.,Danda-bhukti), in whose gardens bees abound, (and which he acquired) after having destroyed Dharmapala in a hot battle ; Takkana-ladam (i.e., Dakshina-Lata), whose fame reaches (all) directions, (and which he occupied) after having forcibly attacked Ranasura; Vangala-desa, where the rain does not last (long),  and from which Govindachandra, having lost his fortune, fled ; elephants of rare strength, (which he took away) after having been pleased to frighten in a hot battle Mahi-pala of Sangu-kottam (?), which touches the sea ; the treasures of women (?); Uttira-ladam (i.e., Uttara-Lata) on the great sea of pearls; and the Ganga, whose waters sprinkle tirthas on the burning sand:-

Chamundappai, the wife of the merchant Nannappayan, who lives at Perumbanappadi, (alias) Karaivari-malliyur, gave a tirunanda lamp to the temple (called) Sri-Kundavai_jinalaya (on) the holy mountain (Tirumalai) (at) the pallichchandam[9] of Vaigavur in Mugai-nadu, a division in the middle of Pangala-nadu, (which forms part) of Jayankonda-Sora-mandalam.

Postscript.

Twenty kasus were given for one (lamp) and ten kasus for the sacred food.

No.68. ON A ROCK BURIED UNDERNEATH THE STEPS BETWEEN THE GOPURA AND THE PAINTED CAVE

Like the preceding inscription, this one is dated in the 12th year of Ko-Parakesari-varma, alias Udaiyar Rajendra-Chola-deva. It records the gift of a lamp to the god of the Tirumalai Temple, who seems to have been called Arambhanandin, and allots money for the maintenance of this lamp and of another lamp, which had been given by “Sinnavai, the queen of the Pallava king.” Like Kundavai, the queen of the Pallava king Vandyadeva, this was probably a Chola princess, who was married to a Pallava king.

TRANSLATIION

Hail! Prosperity! In the 12th year of (the reign of) Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias Udaiyar Sri-Rajendra-Chola-deva, etc.,-Ilaiyamni-nangai gave one tirunanda lamp to the god of the holy mountain (Tirumalai) (at) the palichchandam of Vaigavur in Mugai-nadu, a division in the middle of Pangala-nadu, (which forms part) of Jayankonda-Sora-mandalam.  Twenty kasus were given for cultivating the land (granted) for (the maintenance of) this (lamp).  By (the produce of) this land, this lamp (shall be kept up) daily as a nanda lamp for Arambhanandin, the lord of this temple, as long as the moon and the sun endure.  Sixty kasus were given for one nanda lamp, which had been given, for as long as the moon and the sun endure, by Sinnavai, the queen of the Pallava king.

NO.69. ON THE WALL OF A MANDAPA AT THE BASE OF THE TIRUMALAI ROCK, TO THE LEFT OF THE ENTRANCE

This inscription is dated in the tenth year of Ko-Maravaraman Tribhuvanachakravartin Vira-Pandya-deva and records the building of a sluice at Vaigai-Tirumalai.

TRANSLATIION

Hail! Prosperity! In the tenth year of Ko-Maravaraman Tribhuvanachakravartin, the illustrious Vira-Pandya-deva,-Ambala-Perumal, alias Sinattaraiyan, the headman (kiran) (of) Pandaiyur-mangalam in Tiruunaippadi-nadu, (a division) of Rajaraja-vala-nadu, caused to be built a sluice for the Madageri (tank) (near) the holy mountain of Vaigai (Vaigai-Tirumalai).  Let this pious work be victorious!

NO.70. ON THE WALL OF A MANDAPA AT THE BASE OF THE TIRUMALAI ROCK, TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENTRANCE,-FIRST INSCRIPTION

This inscription is dated in the 12th year of Rajanarayana Sambuvaraja and records the setting up of a Jaina image on Vaigai-Tirumalai, i.e., on the holy mountain of Vaigai.

TRANSLATIION

Hail! Prosperity! In the 12th year of Rajanarayana Sambuvaraja,-Nal-lattal, the daughter of  Mannai-Ponnandai, (an inhabitant) of Ponnur, caused the blessed Vihara-nayanar, Poneeyil-natha, to be raised to the holy mountain of Vaigai (Vaigai-Tirumalai). Let this pious work be victorious !

NO.71. ON THE WALL OF A MANDAPA AT THE BASE OF THE TIRUMALAI ROCK, TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENTRANCE,-SECOND INSCRIPTION

TRANSLATIION

A Well, which was given, (in order to procure merit) to Sirrinangai,[10] the pious gift of the brothers of the eldest son of Idaiyaran Appan, (an inhabitant) of Arul-mori-devar-puram.

NO.72. ON THE WALL OF A MANDAPA AT THE BASE OF THE TIRUMALAI ROCK.

This inscription is dated in the Ananda year, which was current after the expiration of the Saka year 1296, and during the reign of Ommana-udaiyar, the son of Kambana –udaiyar and grandson of Vira-Kambana-udaiyar. Like NO.52, above, the inscription is a receipt for the cost of some land, which a certain Vishnu-Kambuli-nayaka seems to have bought from the villagers of Sambukula-Perumal-agaram, alais Raja-gambhira-chaturvedi-mangalam.

[11] This village belonged to Murugamangalam-parru in Mandaikula-nadu, a division of Palakunra-kottam, which formed part of Jayankonda-Chola-mandalam.  The four last lines, which consist of signatures, have not been transcribed, as they are somewhat obliterated.  The following  are the readable names of villages, which occur at the beginnings of the different signatures:[12]-Kumandur, Murugappadi, Periya-Katteri, Vangipp[u]ram.

TRANSLATIION

Let there be prosperity! Hail! On the day of (the nakshtra) Uttirattadi[13], which corresponds to Monday, the eight lunar day of the former half of the month of Dhanus of the Ananda year, which ws current after the Saka year 1296 (had passed), during the reign of the illustrious mahamandalika, the conqueror of hostile kings, the destroyer of those kings who break their word, the lord of the eastern, southern, western and northern oceans, the illustrious Ommana-udaiyar, the son of the illustrious Kambana-udaiyar, who was the  son of the illustrious Vira-Kambana-udaiyar,- whereas the great people of Sambukula-Perumal-agaram, alias Rajagambhira-chaturvedi-mangalam (in) Muruga-mangala-parru, (which belongs) to Mandaikula-nadu, (a division) of Palakunra-kottam in Jayankonda-Sora-mandalam, gave to the illustrious Vishnu-Kambulinayaka . . . . . of Alasu-nadu, within Tulu-nadu[14], a document (pramana) about the cost of land . . . . [15]-We, the great people, (hereby declare, that we,) having thus agreed, gave a document about the cost of land to the illustrious Vishnu-Kambuli-nayaka.  At the pleasure of these great people, I, Ankarai Sridhara-bhatta of Sambukula-Perumal-agaram wrote this document about the cost of land; this is (my) signature.

NO.73. IN A SMALL SHRINE BELOW THE PAINTED CAVE AT TIRUMALAI, FIRST INSCTIPTION

TRANSLATIION

Hail! Prosperity! Arishtanemi-acharya of Kadaikkottur, a pupil of Para-Vadimalla[16] of Tirumalai, caused the image of a yakshi  to be made.

NO.74. ON THE OUTER WALL OF THE DOORWAY, WHICH LEADS TO THE PAINTED CAVE AT TIRUMALAI, TO THE LEFT ON ENTRANCE

This inscription is dated in the twentieth year of Tirbhuvanachakravartin Rajaraja-deva, which, according to the Poygai inscription (Nos.59 to 64), would correspond to the Saka year 11.57-58.  The donor was Rajagambhira-Sambuvarayan, who bore the birudas Attimallan[17] and Sambukala-Perumal (i.e.,the Perumal of the Sambu race).[18]

The object granted seems to have been the village of Rajagambhira-nallur, which had evidently received its name from that of the donor.[19]

TRANSLATIION

Hail! From the twentieth year of the illustrious Tribhuvanachakravartin, the illustrious Rajaraja-deva, forward,-I, Attimallan Sambukula-Perumal, Rajagambhira-Sambuvarayan, gave to Andangal Pangalarayar, the son of Ilala-Peruman of Viranpakkam in Tamanur-nadu (a dvision) of Jayankonda-Sora-mandalam, (the village of) . . . . . alias  Rajagambhira-nallur, in the middle of Pangala-nadu, (a division) of Palakunra-kottam, as his property, (including) the wells underground, the trees over ground and the boundaries in the four directions, with the right to sell, mortgage or exchange it.

NO.75. ON THE OUTER WALL OF THE DOORWAY, WHICH LEADS TO THE PAINTED CAE AT TIRUMALAI

This inscription is much obliterated. It contains of a passage in Tamil prose, a Sanskrit verse in the Saradula metre, and another Tamil prose passage, and records some gifts made by Vyamukta-sravanojjvala or (in Tamil) Vidu-kadaragiya-Perumal, alias Atigaiman[i][20] of the Chera race.  The name of the capital of this prince seems to have been Takata.  He was the son of some Rajaraja and a descendant of a certain Yavanika, king of Kerala, or (in Tamil) Erini, king of Vanji.  The king repaired the images of a yaksha and a yakshi, which had been made by Yavanika, placed them on the Tirumalai Hill, presented a gong and constructed a channel.  The Tirumallai Hill is here called Arhasugiri (the excellent mountain of the Arha[t] and (in Tamil) Engunavirai-Tirumalai (the holy mountain of the Arhar).  According to the Sanskrit portion of the inscription, it belonged to the Tundira-mandala; this seems to be a Sanskritised form of the well-known Tondai-mandalam.

TRANSLATIION

Hail! Prosperity! Atigaiman[i] of the Sera race placed on (the hill the images of) a yaksha and gave a channel, which he had constructed (for feeding) the Kadapperi (tank).

(The images of) the two lords of the yakshas, which were made on the excellent mountain of the Arha[t][21] in the country (mandala) called Tundira by the illustrious and pious king of Kerala, called Yavanika, were afterwards rescued from ruin by Vyamukta-srvanojjvala, the lord of Taka[t]a and son of the illustrious Rajaraja, an eminent prince, who was the ornament of his (Yuvanikas) race.

Vidu-kadaragiya-Perumal. . . . . repaired the broken remains (of the images) of a yaksha and a yakshi, which had been given by Erini, the lord of the race of the kings of Vanji, and placed them, (on) this holy mountain (Tirumalai) of the god who possesses the eight qualities.

NO.76 INSIDE THE DOORWAY, WHICH LEADS TO THE PAINTED CAVE AT TIRUMALAI, TO THE RIGHT

This inscription consists of a Sanskrit verse, which is a duplicate of that occurring in No.75.

NO.77. INSIDE THE DOORWAY, WHICH LEADS TO THE PAINTED CAVE AT TIRUMALAI, TO THE LEFT

TRANSLATIION

Hail! Prosperity! Kariya-Perumal, alias Vairadarayan, the son of Ambar-udaiyan Ayan, gave a sluice, in order to raise the water to the Kadapperi (tank) at Tirumalai.  Let this meritorious gift be victorious !


[1] The same is the case in the large Leyden grant (Dr.Burgees’ Arch.Survey of  S.India, Vol.IV, p.210) and in an inscription published by S. M. Nates Sastri (Madras Christian College Magazine, Vol. V, p.36), both of which are likewise dated in the twenty-first year.

[2] Ganisekhara means “the chief of (Jaina) teachers.” With Maru compare Marudeva (alias Nabhi) and Marudevi, the names of the Arhat Rishabha (Satrumjaya-mahatmya, iii, 7 ; Kalpasutra, edited by Jacobi, p.74, line 2).  Porchuriyan means “the golden sun”.

[3] Instead of raja, this inscription uses the Tamil form iraja, and consequently, instead of Ko-Raja, which is found in the Mamallapuram inscriptions Nos.40 and 41, the form Ko-v-raja.

[4] This seems to mean nothing but that he lived to an old age.

[5] Madras Christian College Magazine, Vol. V, p.41.

          [6] The conquest of “the high mountains of Navanedikkula (?)” took also place between the 7th and 10th years but subsequently to the war against Jayasimha.

[7] Dr. Buhler’s Vikramankacharita, sarga iv, verse 30.

[8] Mr. Fleet’s Kanarese Dynastics, p.66.

[9] This term probably means “a village belonging to a temple” “a holy village;”

[10] This seems to have been a female relative of the donors.  The title target="_self" nangai, ‘lady,’ is also borne by a female person in No.68, line 24.

[11] These two names of the village are evidently derived from Rajagambhira-Sambuvarayan and his biruda Sambukula-Perumal ; See No.74.

[12] “the signature of Jayankonda-Sora-Brahma-rayan, the village-accountant of this place.”

[13][13] Sanskrit Uttara-bhadrapada

[14] This is the Northern Kerala, the country of the Tuluvas

[15] The passage left out describes in detail the land, which was valued at 40 pon, and which consisted of 32 kanis = 4,000 kuris of wet land (nilam), of 2,000 kuris of dry land (kollai) and of some houses (manai)

[16] A Jaina teacher of this name, who was a contemporary of a king Krishnaraja, is metioned in an unpublished inscription from Sravana-Belagola.

[17] This is probably the Sanskrit Hastimalla.

[18] A Sambuvarayan with different birudas occurs in the Poygai inscription (Nos.59 to 64) 

[19] Compare Sambukala-Perumal-agaram, alais Rajagambhira-chaturvedi-mangalam in No.72.

[20] This might be meant for Ati-igai-mani, “he whose pride consists in excessive liberality.”

[21] Arha is probably a vulgar form for Arhat.

 

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