ON THE WALLS OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE
57 On the outside of the east
inscription is engraved on the left of the entrance to the second gopura, the inside of which
bears the inscriptions Nos. 24 to 28. Paragraph 1 states, that it is the
continuation of another inscription, now much obliterated, to the north
of “the gate of Rajaraja,” i.e., to the right of the second gopura.
As the preserved
portion of the inscription is not dated, it remains doubtful if it has
to be assigned to the reign of Rajarajadeva or to that of
Rajendra-Choladeva. It consists of a list of villages, which had to
supply watchmen for the temple.
As, — after the stone had been inscribed on the north of the sacred
gate (tiru-vasal) of [Sri]-Rajaraja........ up to the shrine (alaya)
of Isanamurti, — the space at that spot was not sufficient, the
portion which was missing there, was engraved on stone at this spot,
(as follows) : -
The members of the assembly of Rajasraya-chaturvedimangalam in
Uraiyur-kurram, (a subdivision) of Keralantaka-valanadu, have to
supply two temple watchmen.
The members of the assembly of Arinjigai-chaturvedimangalam
in the same nadu have to supply one temple watchman.
The villagers of Va[ya]lur in the same nadu have to supply one
The villagers of Karuppur in the same nadu have to supply [one] temple
[The members of the assembly] of......... tandalai in Mi[ko]t[ta-nadu], (a subdivision) of
[Keralantaka-va]landau, have to supply one temple watchman.
The [members of the assembly of] Utta[masili]-chaturvedimangalam in
Vila-nadu, (a subdivision) of Pandyakulasani-valanadu, have to
supply one temple watchman.
The members of the assembly of Soramahadevi-chaturvedimangalam in the
same nadu have to supply one temple watchman.
The members of the assembly of Idaiyarru-mangalam in Idaiyarru-nadu, (a
subdivision) of Pandyakulasani-valanadu, have to supply one temple
The members of the assembly of Nallur, alias
Panchavamahadevi-chaturvedimangalam, in Nallur-nadu, (a subdivision)
of Nittavinoda-valanadu, have to supply one temple watchman.
The villagers of Kundavai-nallur in Ka[rambai-nadu], (a subdivision)
of Nittavinoda-valanadu, have to supply one temple watchman.
The villagers of Kundavai-nallur in [Kir]ar-kurram, (a subdivision)
of Nitta-vinoda-vala[nadu], have to supply one temple watchman.
The members of the assembly of Irumbudal, alias
Manukulasulamani-chaturvedimangalam, in A[vur-ku]rram, (a subdivision)
of Nittavinoda-valanadu, have to supply one temple watchman.
The villagers of [V]ilattur in Avur-kurram, (a subdivision) of
the same nadu, have to supply [one] temple watchman.
The members of the assembly of Ja[nan]atha-chturvedimanagalam in
(a subdivision) of [Nitta]vi[noda-va]landau, have to supply one
The members of the assembly of Sirrina[var], alias
Paramesvara-chaturvedimangalam, in the same nadu have to supply
one temple watchman.
The members of the assembly of [Ki]........ [p]undi, alias
Olokamahade[I]chat]rvedimangalam, in Venni-kurram, (a subdivision)
of Nittavinoda-va[landau], have to supply one temple watchman.
The members of the assembly of Puva[nu]r, alias
Avanikesari-chaturvedimangalam, in the same [nadu] have to supply
one temple watchman.
The members of the assembly of [P]erunangai-mangalam in the same nadu
have to supply one temple watchman.
The villagers of Sirrambar in Pambuni-kurram, (a subdivision) of
[Nittavi]-noda-va[lana]du, have to supply [one] temple watchman.
58. On the outside of the north enclosure.
outer face of the North wall of the temple enclosure bears five
inscriptions, one of Kulottunga and four of Rajarajadeva. Of these, only
the top lines are visible, while the lower portions are buried
underground to a depth of about five feet. With the permission of the
Municipal authorities, I excavated the whole of the first inscription,
as it is the only inscription of Kulottunga at Tanjavur. It is dated in
the 15th year of the reign of Ko-Rajakesarivarman, alias Kulottunga-Cholada,
and opens with a panegyrical introduction, which describes the
achievements of this king. Mr. V. Kanakaabhai pillai has already
published an inscription of the 42nd year of the same reign
at Tirukkarukkunram in the Chingleput district.
I have copies of a number of others. Three of these have the same
introduction as the Tanjavur and Tirukkarukkunram inscriptions, viz.,
one of the 18th year at the Ranganatha temple, Srirangam, one
of the 45th year at Alangudi in the Tanjore district, and one
of the 47th year at the Jambukesvara temple, Srirangam.
Others resemble the so-called smaller Leyden grant.
king, to whose reign these inscriptions belong, is identical with the
hero of the kalingattu-Parani, a historical poem in Tamil,
extracts from which were published by Mr. Kanakasabhai.
This identity may be safely concluded from the mention of the following
particulars both in the inscriptions and in the poem : — 1. The
conquest of Chakrakotta by Kulottunga, while he was still a Yuvaraja.
2. The battle at Manalur
on the Tungabhadra.
3. The defeat of the five Pandyas.
4. The conquest of Kottaru.
5. The conquest of Kalinga.
6. The name of one of Kulottunga’s queens, Tyagavalli.
7. His surname Jayadhara.
to the Kalingattu-Parani, Kulottunga’s father belonged to the
lunar race, and his mother was the daughter of Rajaraja or
Gangaikonda-Chola of the solar race.
As pointed out by Mr.
Kanakasabhai and Dr. Fleet, it follows from these
statements, that the hero of the poem is identical with the Eastern
Chalukya king Kulottunga-Chodadeva I., who reigned from A.D. 1063 to
1112 ; that his unnamed father and mother were the Eastern Chalukya king
and Ammangadevi ; and that his maternal grandfather, — though
inaccurately called Rajaraja in the text of the poem, — was the Chola
king Rajendra-Choladeva or Gangaikonda-Chola. A few important details
regarding the reign of Kulottunga I are recorded in the Chellur grant of
He was originally called Rajendra-Choda, — evidently after his
maternal grandfather, the Chola king Rajendra-Chola, — and ruled over
the country of Vengi. Having conquered Kerala, Pandya and Kuntala (the
country of the Western Chalukyas), he ascended the throne of the Chola
kingdom under the name Kulottungadeva. By his queen Madhurantaki, the
daughter of the Chola king Rajendradeva, he had seven sons. His original
dominion, the country of Vengi, he governed through viceroys, viz.,
1. his paternal uncle Vijayaditya VII. (A.D. 1063 to 1077) ; 2. his son
Rajaraja II. (A.D. 1077 to 1078) ; and 3. his son Vira-Choda (A.D. 1078
to at least 1100). Some of these statements of the Chellur grant are
confirmed by the Kalingattu-Parani and by the inscriptions of
Kulottunga. His original name Rajendra-Choladeva occurs in two
inscriptions o the 2nd year of his reign at Kolar and at
Tiruvorriyur near Madras, while all later inscriptions call him
Kulottunga-Choladeva. His early war with the king of Kuntala is referred
to in the subjoined inscription (1. 3), and his subsequent accession to
the throne of the Chola kingdom, which had fallen into a state of
anarchy, is recorded by the same inscription (II. 4 to 9) and by the
poem (x. 26 to 32). Victories over the Pandyas are also narrated in the
inscription (II. 18 ff. and 39 f f.) The conquest of the Keralas is
alluded to by the mention of the Western region ( I. 32), of the Western
hill-country ( I. 54) and of the Sahya mountain (I. 52). A short
Sanskrit inscription at Chidambaram
must be attributed to the same Kulottunga-Chola as the subjoined
inscription, because it refers to the conquest of the five Pandyas, of
(i.e., Kottaru), of the Keralas, and of the Sahya mountain.
is yet another source for the history of Kulottunga’s reign, —
Bilhana’s Vikramankadevacharita. In this poem he is called
the lord of Vengi,” and his accession to the Chola throne is placed
immediately before the defeat of the Western Chalukya king Somesvara II
and the coronation of the lattr’s younger brother Vikramaditya VI. In
A.D. 1076. According to the Vikramankacharita, Rajiga was the
ally of Somesvara II. And was put to flight by Vikramaditya VI while
Somesvara II was taken prisoner.
Those who know the habits of Indian court-poets, will not be surprised
to find, that the inscriptions of Kulottunga differ from the Vikramankacharita
by claiming the victory for the Cholas. In the subjoined inscription
(II. 23 ff.) Vikkalan, i.e., Vikramaditya VI., is said to have
fled before Kulottunga from Nangili (in Maisur) to the Tungabhadra
river, which appears to have then formed the southern limit of the
Western Chalukya dominions. The smaller Leyden grant and a few similar
inscriptions of Kulottunga couple the name of Vikkalan with that of
Singanan, i.e., Jayasimha IV. Whom his elder brother Vikramaditya
VI. Appointed viceroy of Banavase.
As the Vikramankacharita places Rajiga’s usurpation of the
Chola throne shortly before A.D. 1076, it follows that the reign of 49
years from A.D. 1063 to 1112, which he was only heir-apparent of the
Chola kingdom. The name of his predecessor on the Chola throne is not
mentioned in the two chronicles. The Vikramankacharita relates
that, before Rajiga usurped the Chola throne, Vikramaditya VI married
the daughter of the then Chola king, and that after the latter’s death
he secured the throne to his wife’s brother, who shortly after lost
(x. 26) calls Kulottunga’s predecessor “the king of kings” (mannar
mannavan). The eight canto of the same poem contains a short summary
of the history of the Cholas. The last verse (3) of this poetical
history probably refers to the reign of Kulottunga, and the preceding
verse (29), which speaks of a king who defeated the Kuntalas (i.e.,
the Western Chalukyas) at Kudal-Samgama, to Kulottunga’s predecessor
on the throne. The battle at Kudal-samgama, i.e., at the junction
of the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers,
is referred to in unpublished inscriptions of the Chola king
Ko-Rajakesarivarman, alias Vira-Rajendradeva, who claims to have
defeated Ahavamalla (II) and his two sons Vikkalan and Singanan at
Punal-kudal-samgama. An inscription of the 5th year of the
reign of this king at Manimangalam in the Chingleput district proves
that he was still reigning after A.D. 1063, the year of the accession of
Vijayaditya VII. off Vengi,
whom he alleges to have re-established in his dominions.
This Vira-Rajendradeva appears to be “the king of kings” who
preceded Kulottunga, and the father-in-law of Vikramaditya VI. The verse
of the Kalingattu-Parani which mentions the battle at
Kudal-samgama, is preceded by another verse (27), which speaks of a king
who won the battle at Koppai. This statement must refer to the Chola
king Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias Rajendradeva, whose inscriptions
record that he defeated Ahavamalla (II.) “at Koppam on the bank of the
big river,” i.e., at Koppa on
the Tunga river in the Kadur district of the Maisur state. This
Rajendradeva is perhaps identical with that Rajendradeva of the solar
race, whose daughter Madhurantaki was married to Kulottunga according to
the Chellur grant. The subjoined table shows the somewhat complicated
relations between Kulottunga and his Chola predecessors : -
last lines of the subjoined inscription contain the name of
Arumori-Nangai, the queen of Vira-Rajaendradeva, who, as previously
stated, appears to have been the predecessor of Kulottunga. There are no
traces of letters after the word deviyar in line 64, though there
would have been sufficient room for further lines on the same panel. It
appears, therefore, that the inscription was left unfinished by the
engraver, perhaps because political or private reasons prevented
Arumori-Nangai from executing the donation, which she intended to make
to the temple.
1) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the wheel of his (authority) rolled
as far as the golden circle (i.e., Mount Meru) on the earth,
which was surrounded by the moat of the sea, that was (again)
surrounded by (his) fame, — Ko-Rajakesarivarman, alias
the emperor (chakravartin) Sri-Kulottunga-Choladeva,
wedded first in the time (when he was still) heir apparent (ilango),
the brilliant goddess of victory at Sakkarakottam (Chakrakotta)
by deeds of valour.
2) (He) seized a herd of mountains of rut (i.e., rutting
elephants) at Vayiragaram (Vajrakara).
3). (He) unsheathed (his) sword, showed the strength of (his)
arm, and spurred (his) war-steed, so that the army of the
spear-throwing king of Kondala (Kuntala) retreated.
4) Having established (his) fame, and having put on the garland
of (the victory over) the Northern region, (he) put on by right (of
inheritance) the pure royal crown
of jewels, in order to stop
the prostitution of the goddess with the sweet and excellent
lotus-flower (i.e., Lakshmi) of the Southern region, and the
loneliness of the goddess of the good country whose garment is the Ponni
9.) The kings of the old earth placed (on their heads) his two
feet as a large crown.
11.) The river (of the rules) of the ancient king Manu swelled, (and)
the river (of the sins) of the Kali (age) dried up.
12.) (His) scepter swayed over every region ; the sacred shadow
of (his) white parasol shone (as) the white moon
everywhere on the circle of the great earth ; (and his) tiger (banner)
fluttered on the matchless Meru (mountain).
16.) (Before him) stood many rows of elephants, unloaded from
ships and presented as tribute by the kings of remote islands whose
girdle was the sea.
18.) The big head of the brilliant king of the South (i.e., the
Pandya) lay outside his golden town, being pecked by kites.
20.) Not only did the speech (of Vikkalan) : — “After this
day a permanent blemish (will attach to Kulottunga), as to
the crescent (which is the origin) of (his) family,”
– turn out wrong, but the bow (in) the hand of Vikkalan was not
(even) bent against (the enemy).
23.) While (Vikkalan) lost his pride, and while the dead (bodies of
his) furious elephants (covered) the whole (tract)
from Nangili of rocky roads to the
Tungabhadra, which adorned the country (nadu) of Manalur, — (his)
boasted valour abated ; the mountains which (he) ascended, bent
their backs ; the rivers into which (he) descended, eddied and
breached (their banks) in their course ; (and) the seas
into which (he) plunged, became troubled and agitated.
32.) Being desirous of the rule over the Western region, (he)
seized simultaneously the two countries (pani)
called Gangamandalam and Singanam,
troops of furious elephants which had been irretrievably abandoned (by
the enemy), crowds of women (the angles of) whose beautiful
eyes were as pointed as daggers, the goddess of fame, and the great
goddess of victory, who changed to the opposite (side) out of
fear, because (Vikkalan) himself and (his) father had turned
their backs again and again on many days.
39.) Being pleased (to resolve) in (his) royal mind to
conquer with great fame the Pandimandalam (i.e., the Pandya
country), (he) dispatched his great army, — which possessed
excellent horses (resembling) the waves of the sea, war-elephants
(likewise resembling) waves, and troops (resembling)
water, — as though the Northern ocean was about to overflow the
43.) (He) destroyed the jungle which the five Panchavas (i.e.,
Pandyas) had entered as refuge, when they became much afraid on a
battle-field where (he) fought (with them), turned their
backs and fled.
46.) (He) subdued (their) country, made them catch hot
fever (in) hills where woodmen roamed about, and planted pillars
of victory in every direction.
50) (He) as pleased to seize the pearl fisheries, the Podiyil (mountain)
where the three kinds of Tamil (flourished),
the (very) center of the (mountain) Sayyam (Sahya, i.e.,
the Western Ghats) where furious rutting elephants were captured, and
53.) After (he) had fixed the boundaries of the Southern (i.e.,
Pandya) country, every living being
in the Western hill-country (Kudamalainadu)
ascended to the great heaven.
55.) (He) was pleased to bestow on the chiefs of the agricultural
tracts of his (country) settlements on the roads, including (that
which passed) Kottaru,
in order that (his) power might rise (and) the enemies
might be scattered.
57.) In the fifteenth year (of the reign) of (this king),
who was pleased to sit (on his throne), while (his) valour and
liberality shone like (his) pearl-necklace of great splendour,
and like the flower-garland on (his) royal shoulders, —
Arumori-Nangaiyar, alias...........[simha]n-mahadeviyar, who was
the consort of the lord Sri-Vira-Rajendradeva,..............