A Council for Social Development and Oxford University Press report found that Indian population control programs are inefficient because they place "overwhelming responsibility" on women. It said that while women faced all the responsibilities, they were "not equipped to make decisions or control their own bodies and sexualities." Over a period of time, the budget allocations for these programs also dwindled such that crucial ministries such as education, agriculture, textiles, tribal affairs, and social justice and empowerment had less than 1% of their total expenditure for women-specific programs. Compared to this spending pattern, the Department of Family welfare spends 30% of its budget on women-related programs such as reproductive and child health. This biological emphasis and lack of overall empowerment of the women, despite increasing literacy levels, is the root cause for this failure.