Defense & Security Issues faced by India are multi-pronged.
With terrorism being generated in
and exported from the neighboring countries like Pakistan
& Bangladesh, India has
maintained a proactive position to curb this scourge. Being positioned
in between Afghanistan and
(world's largest manufacturers of opium), drug trafficking and the
related security implications on India's social fabric are quite real.
Additionally, there is the Kashmir issue with Pakistan, which promotes
terrorist activities in the Indian State and other parts of the country.
organizations are also involved in training Maoists of Nepal
and Islamic extremists of Bangladesh. These armed groups enter
India through the porous borders and mingle with the local Naxalites.
The Water and River management
with neighboring Nepal, Pakistan, China and Myanmar, also pose issues of
India also has border disputes with China,
though both the countries have resolved to move ahead in solving the
same. Recently, the admission of Pakistan's top scientist, regarding the
proliferation of nuclear technology, has caused much stirs in New
Delhi's security plans, for the fear that Weapons of Mass Destruction
could easily fall into the hands of terrorists.
continuing presence of terrorist and
fundamentalist forces in its neighborhood has prompted India to
maintain a high level of Defence vigilance and preparedness to face any
challenge to its security. The country faces a series of low intensity
conflicts characterized by tribal, ethnic and left wing movements and
ideologies as also the proxy war conducted by Pakistan
and various radical jehadi outfits through the instrumentality of
terrorism. India is also affected by the trafficking in drugs and
proliferation of small arms and the fact that it is surrounded by two
neighbors with nuclear weapons and missiles and history of past
aggressions and war.
basic responsibility of the Army is to safeguard the territorial
integrity of the nation against external aggression. Due to the
country’s long borders encompassing different geographical and
climatic conditions such as desert terrain on the west, snow-covered
mountains in the north and thick rainfed mountainous jungles in the
east. Demands on the Army have increased manifold due to continuous
deployment of its forces in intense counter insurgency operations in Jammu
& Kashmir and the North East
parts of the country. To achieve these objectives, the Army has to be
constantly modernized, suitably structured, equipped and trained.
Navy embarked upon a programme for indigenous construction of ships and
development of major sub systems, sensors and weapon systems with the
help of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Defence
Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs). The Coast Guard (CG) was set up as an
Armed Force of the Union in 1978 on recommendations of Rustamji
Committee for preservation and protection of our Exclusive Economic Zone
Indian Air Force (IAF) today, having completed more than six decades of
dedicated service to the nation. In addition to the traditional wartime
roles of the IAF of counter air, counter surface, strategic and combat
support operations, the Air Force has provided significant aid to civil
authorities during natural calamities. The Siachen glacier lifeline
continues to be monitored by the Indian Air Force, fully supporting the
Indian Army in fighting on the world’s highest battlefield.
78 km long Siachin glacier is hemmed in between the Saltoro ridge line
to the west and the main Karakoram range to the east. The Saltoro
ridge originates from the Sia Kangri in the Karakoram range and the
altitudes range from 18,000 to 24,000 ft. The major passes on this
ridge are Sia La at 20,000 ft and Bila Fond La at 19,000 ft.
India holds two-thirds of glacier and commands two of the three passes.
Pakistan controls Gyong La pass
that overlooks the Shyok and Nubra river Valley and India's access to
Leh district. Indian imperatives are that if Pakistan is allowed
to control the glacier, it would endanger the security of Ladakh and
also of Jammu & Kashmir.
With Chinese already in control
of Aksai Chin, it is argued that the whole of northern Ladakh would be
imperiled if Pakistan is allowed unfettered movement through Siachen.
long-term perspective, Indian strategists also feel that this Himalayan
watershed can yield it access to resource rich Central Asian republics
through the Afghan panhandle.
and on Pakistan activates Siachen prior to any formal talks with India
and links Siachen to the Kashmir issue. Its purpose being to focus
the 'core' issue of Kashmir. By making key Siachen as a potential
flash point, especially now in a nuclear environment, it seeks third
party intervention in its favor.