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Thursday, November 08, 2007


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India is believed to have 1652 mother tongues. There are thirty-three languages that are each spoken by at least 100,000 people. The officially recognized languages are 22. The 8th Schedule was added to the Constitution to indicate all regional languages statutorily recognized. The Schedule originally contained 15 languages as follows: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, and Sindhi. By the 71st Amendment to the Constitution, Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added to the list in 1992. In 2003, four more languages, were added: Bodo, Maithili, Dogri and Santhali.


There are 28 States in India, with a wide range of languages, cultures and heritage. Several political organizations have developed in regional lines and framework. The political parties with a nation-wide political support base are Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, and the Communist Party of India.

The prominent regional parties are DMK, AIADMK, PMK, MDMK, Telegu Desam Party, Telengana Rashtra Samiti, Samajwadi Party, Bahujan Samaj Party, Samata Party, Asom Gana Parishad, Akali Dal (B) and BJI, All India Forward Bloc, All India Muslim League, All Parties Hill Leaders' Conference, Asom Gana Parishad, Jammu and Kashmir National Conference, Kerala Congress, Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party, Manipur Peoples' Party, Mizo National Front, Muslim League, Peasants and Workers Party of India, Revolutionary Socialist Party, Shiromani Akali Dal, Tamil Manila Congress, Janata Dal and Rashtriya Janata Dal.



Three books that constitute an instructive guide to governance in the United Kingdom. (Politicians & Lies, Frontline, A.G. NOORANI, Nov 08, 2007)

Reacting sharply to Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M Karunanidhi's remark that he condoled the death of LTTE leader S P Tamilselvan in his capacity as a Tamil, AIADMK Supremo Jayalalitha on Tuesday said she too had Tamil spirit and that . . . . (Tamil Blood Runs In My Veins: Jaya , Deccan Herald, Correspondent or Reporter, Nov 07, 2007)

The excitement surrounding the ongoing CBI inquiry ntothe death of Rizwanur Rahman has diverted attention from certain very obvious aspects of the episode. (Left Off The Constitution, Telegraph, RUDRANGSHU MUKHERJEE, Nov 07, 2007)

Recentily, President Pervez Musharraf expressed his resolve to extend greater support to youth affairs. (Reorienting Youth Policies, Dawn, Editorial, Dawn, Nov 03, 2007)

While the number of students abroad applying for the Russian courses is on the rise, Russian toys are facing extinction (Chinese Barbie In Russia, Pioneer, Dmitry Kosyrev, Oct 31, 2007)

Some political scientists consider violence to be the ‘original sin’ of politics. Political leadership ritualises death as sacrifice — for a cause and higher purpose. (The Original Sin Of Politics, Dawn, Editorial, Dawn, Oct 30, 2007)

Do you think that, over the last 10-15 years, coalition politics has been the antidote to the poison of separatism? (‘In The Tulsidas Ramayan, Sita Is Not Ram’S Wife But His Sister. Only In The Valmiki Ramayan Is She His Wife’, Indian Express, Editorial, Indian Express, Oct 29, 2007)

Give me the liberty to know, to utter and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties.” (Mirroring A Democracy, Hindu, Correspondent or Reporter, Oct 29, 2007)

The debate on the EU Reform Treaty in Parliament is expected to be very stormy. But the agonising debate on Europe will not end until Britain is able to shed the historical baggage that fuels so much of the Euro-scepticism in the country. (Britain At Sixes And Sevens Over Eu Treaty, Hindu, Hasan Suroor, Oct 27, 2007)

The season of film festivals is upon us once again. (Special, Statesman, A N Sudarsan Rao , Oct 27, 2007)

Several newspapers have portrayed a hopeful picture of Pakistan, now that Benazir Bhutto is back in the country. (Pakistan’S Big B, Indian Express, A N Sudarsan Rao , Oct 26, 2007)

The need to protect law-abiding people, especially senior citizens, women and children, from street bullies is as important as the fight against terrorism. (Policing Issues, Frontline, R.K. Raghavan, Oct 25, 2007)

Benazir Bhutto knows how to press the right buttons when speaking to Western audiences through the mass media. (Pakistan And Its Prisoners Of Destiny, Hindu, Ramesh Thakur, Oct 24, 2007)

THE revolutionary nationalist phase of the freedom struggle, of which Bhagat Singh was an iconic figure, was a brief, powerful and violent episode in a movement otherwise considered to be peaceful. (Bhagat Singh, Frontline, Correspondent or Reporter, Oct 24, 2007)

AS the undeclared one-and-a-half-year-old war in the east and the north rages on, Sri Lanka is faced with a paradoxical situation. By all accounts, the Mahinda Rajapaksa government has cornered the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam . . . . (Denial As Strategy, Frontline, B. MURALIDHAR REDDY, Oct 24, 2007)

We need a Hindi version of Citizen Kane. The time is right for it. (Hindi Print Media, Hindu, Correspondent or Reporter, Oct 23, 2007)

The Bharatiya Janata Party has crossed the limits of civilised discourse. No one denies that Dr Manmohan Singh’s position as a titular Prime Minister has now declined to that of a weakling in the wake of a virtual capitulation to the Left on the . . . . (Edits, Statesman, Editorial, Statesman, Oct 23, 2007)

In a rare double act, the cricketer-turned-politician, Imran Khan, and his ex-wife, Jemima, on Sunday used the pages of a British newspaper to launch an unprecedented attack on the former Pakistan Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, three . . . . . (Imran, Jemima Attack Benazir, Hindu, Hasan Suroor, Oct 22, 2007)

Two interesting things have happened in the aftermath of last week’s developments on the Indo-US nuclear deal. It is not surprising that the principal players have maintained a studied silence. (The Nuclear Fundamentalists, Hindustan Times, Correspondent or Reporter, Oct 22, 2007)

It is said, not without a sting, that there are no permanent friends or enemies in politics, implying that politicians switch loyalties at the drop of a hat for personal gain. (Enemies, Not Forever , Deccan Herald, P SRINIVASAN, Oct 19, 2007)


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