Jharkhand - Introduction @ whatisindia.com


What Is India News Service
Wednesday, August 22, 2007




Quick Information

State Area (Sq. Km.)


State Capital


Major Language(s)


Number of Districts








Growth Rate 1991-2001

23.19 %



Urban Population

22.25 %

Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 Males)


Literacy Rate

54.13 %


67.94 %


39.38 %


Legislative Assembly & Council


High Court, Ranchi


Sri Syed Sibtey Razi


Raj Bhawan, Kanke Road, Ranchi

Office No.

0651 - 2283469, 0651 - 2283466

Residence No.

0651 - 2283465, 0651 - 2283466


0651 - 2201101



Chief Minister

Shri Madhu Koda


Village -Patahatu, P.O. -Maluka Via-Jagannathpur, P.S. Jagannathpur, Dist- West Singhbhum

Office No.

0651-2281500, 2281400

Residence No.

0651 - 2307172


0651 - 2205100


    - - - - - -
Chief Secretary Shri A.K Chugh



Office No.

(0651) – 2403240, 2403250, 943110096

Residence No.

(0651)2283737, 2441698


(0651) - 2403255





General Information

Jharkhand is a state in eastern India.  It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar state on 2000-11-15.  Jharkhand is bordered by the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east.

The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital.  The other major cities, all highly industrialised cities of eastern India, are Jamshedpur, Bokaro, and Dhanbad.

Jharkhand is also popularly known as Vananchal.  The word Vananchal is derived from combination of two Hindi words: Vana meaning "forests", and anchal meaning "area" – thus the word "Vananchal" denotes a land mass covered with forests.

Jharkhand is known for its mineral wealth and forestry products together with excellent human resources.


Jharkhand is bounded by West Bengal in the east, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in the west, Bihar in north and Orissa in south.


The radial centrifugal drainage system of Jharkhand state has number of rivers. Most of these rivers remain relatively dry during summer months (February-May) but exhibit torrential flow during the months of monsoons (June-September). Jharkhand has a vast potential for generating hydel power as is exemplified by the location of the famous Damodar Valley Corporation in the state. 

The main Rivers of Jharkhand are:

  • North Koel river, originating from the plateau of Ranchi, flows towards north and ends in river Sone. flows in the Western portion of Palamau district and falls in the river Sone.  Plamau district is considered rain shadow area and has very few rivers.

  • South Koel river, originating from central part of Chotanagpur and ends in river Shankh.

  • Barakar river originates from North Chotanagpur and passes through Giridih district. Tillaiya dam is built over this. It is the first Dam and hydro - Electric power Station constructed by Damodar Valley Corporation across Barakar river in Hazaribag district.

  • Damodar river originates from Chandwa village of Palamu and is famous for distraction. Once called "sorrow of Jharkhand and Bengal" due to floods devastating vast areas, it has been turned into a blessing after construction of several dams and hydro-electric gerating facilities by the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC).

  • Swarnarekha river also originates from plateau of Chhotanagpur. Gold particles are found in its sand. It flows towards Orissa.

  • There are three main rivers in district Pakur namely Bansloi, Torai & Brahmini. Bansloi & Torai Rivers flow in the middle and Brahmini flows in the southern part of the District pakur.

  • Kanchi river- DASSAM FALLS -About 40 km. away from Ranchi on Tata Road falls a village named Taimara near which flows the Kanchi river.

  • Phalgu river, Sankari, Panchane-origin-North Chhota Nagpur

  • The Sankh river is located near Rajendra village in District Gumla in Bihar.

Palamu district - The general line of drainpipe is from south to north towards the SON, which forms parts of the northern boundary of the districts.  The principals rivers are Koel and its tributaries, the Auranga and the Amanat.  There are also last of smaller streams, most of which are mere mountain torrents which rock–strewn beds.  The Koel Auranga and Amanat are similar in this respect for their upper reaches are characterized by high banks Generally rugged and occasionally precipitous with a rapid stream dashing over boulders and shingle or gliding.  Calmly, except in time of spate, in shadow parts terminated by rocky barriers.  Further north these rivers have deep sandy beds, into which the water sinks out of sight in the hot weather, percolating through the soft sand.  Until some outcrop of rock arrests its course and forces it to the surface.

Other Rivers: Roro, Mayurakshi, Sanjay, Son, More, Karo, Bansloi, Kharkai, Ganga, Gumani, Batane.

Most of the state lies on the Chhota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand.  Much of the state is still covered by forest.  Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Indian elephants.

Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:

  • Red soil, found mostly in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area

  • Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumeritilaiya, Barkagaon, and areas around the Mandar hill.

  • Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad.

  • Black soil, found in Rajmahal area.

  • Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu, and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum

Flora and Fauna

Jharkhand has a rich variety of flora and fauna.  The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety.

Betla National Park (Palamu), 25 km from Daltonganj covers an area of about 250 square kilometres. The national park has a large variety of wild life like tigers, elephants, bisons locally called gaurs, sambhars, hundreds of wild boar and 15 to 20 feet long python, herds of spotted deer (cheetals), rabbits and foxes. The mammalian fauna to be seen at Betla National Park also include langurs, rhesus, blue bull and wild boars.  The lesser mammals are the porcupine, hare, wild cats, honey badgers, jackals, malabar giant squirrel and mangoose wolf, antelope, etc.  In 1974, the park was declared Project Tiger Reserve.

The variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be assessed from the fact that the Project Tiger Reserve of Palamu, is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna, as indicated within brackets: mammal (39), Snakes (8), Lizards (4), Fish (6), Insects (21), Birds (170), seed bearing Plants and Tress (97) , Shrubs and Herbs (46), Climbers, Parasites and semi-Parasites (25), and Grasses and Bamboo (17).

The Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary, with scenic beauties, 135 km from Ranchi, is set in an ecosystem very similar to Betla National Park of Palamu.

One Zoological Garden is also located about 16 km from Ranchi, and a number of mammalian fauna have been collected there for visitors.


Jharkhand has a population of 26.90 million, consisting of 13.86 million males and 13.04 million females. The sex ratio is 941 females to 1000 males. The population consists of 28% tribals, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. There are 274 persons for each square kilometer of land. However, the population density varies considerably from as low as 148 per square kilometer in Gumla district to as high as 1167 per square kilometer in Dhanbad district.

Jharkhand has remained a home to a number of tribal communities since time immemorial. Some of the districts have a predominant tribal population. Jharkhand has 32 primitive tribal groups.These are Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Binjhia, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chick-Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal-Paharia, Munda, Oraon, Parhaiya, Santal, Sauria-Paharia, Savar, Bhumij, Kol and Kanwar.

The geographical area now comprising Jharkhand was earlier part of Bihar. The area has witnessed migration of people from the adjoining areas of Bihar and West Bengal for last several decades. Industrial and mining centres like Jamshedpur, Dhanbad and Ranchi have attracted people from all parts of India.

Hinduism, Islam and Christianity are three major religions of Jharkhand state. However, people of several other religious faiths may be found in the state.


In modern times, the demand for a separate Jharkhand state can be traced to early 1900s, when Jaipal Singh, the Oxford educated Captain of 1928 Olympics and Gold Medal winner put forth an idea for a separate state consisting of southern districts of Bihar.  Over decades, the idea remained alive in some form or the other.  On 2nd August, 2000, the Parliament of India passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill to create the state of Jharkhand, and 18 districts of Bihar were carved out to form Jharkhand state on 15th November, 2000.

The roots to Jharkhand go far beyond the 15th November, 2000, when it was carved out of Bihar as the 28th State of the Union of India.  Status and concept of Jharkhand is over 2 millennia old and some historians have traced a distinct geo-political, cultural position of Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire.  In recent times, according to a legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century.  Thereafter, during the Mughal Empire period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara area.  After year 1765, this area came under the control of British Empire and was known as "Jharkhand" - the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes), denoting, in fact, a geographical land mass interspersed with rolling hillocks covered with evergreen forests and criss-crossed by innumerable springs with natural water, sometimes water mass turning into majestic and enchanting flow of water falls thundering down with a sound more musical than the best musical notes.  Really, Jharkhand located on Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas unfolds before mind's eye a haven where one can savour the elegance of nature to the hilt.

The subjugation and colonization of Jharkhand region by the East India Company resulted into spontaneous resistance from the local people.  About one hundred years before India’s First War of Independence (1857), adivasis of Jharkhand had repeatedly revolted against the British colonial rule.

All above cited uprisings against the British Raj and resistance of 18th and 19th centuries in the Indian state Jharkhand were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region.

In 1914 Tana Bhagat movement started which had the participation of more than 26,000 adivasis, and it got merged with satyagraha and civil disobedience, led by Mahatma Gandhi.

In post-Independence era, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha led by Santhal leader Shibu Soren started a regular agitation which impelled the government to establish the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council in 1995 and finally a full-fledged State on November 15, 2000.




Manorama Year Book - 2007

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