The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Table of Contents

Text of the Inscriptions 

Part - I

Part - II

Part - III

Part - IV

Part - V

Other Inscription 

Chola Inscription

Telugu Inscriptions from Andra Pradesh

Pallava Inscriptions

Pandya Inscriptions

Telugu Inscriptions of the Vijayanagara Dynasty

Inscriptions Collected During 1903-1904

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

South Indian Inscriptions, Volume 2

Tamil Inscriptions

part - i

INSCRIPTIONS  OF THE TANJAVUR TEMPLE

INSCRIPTIONS ON THE WALLS OF THE CENTRAL  SHRINE

No.9 On the south Wall, first tier

The following eleven inscriptions (Nos. 9 to 19) are engraved continuously in two large sections, the first of which consists of seven, and the second of ten lines.No. 9 is dated in the 6th year of the reign of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias Rajendra-Choladeva, the fixes the interest to be paid to the temple by certain villagers for a sum of money, which had been contributed by several donors and by the temple treasury. The interest was to be used for the chief idol of the temple (paragraph 2) and for the images of Kratarju[ni]yadevar[1] and of Pichchadevar[2] (paragraphs 3 and 4). The first of the two latter had been set up by a minister, who is also mentioned in the large Leyden grant, and the second by Lokamahadevi, a queen of Rajarajadeva.

Translation

1. Hail! Prosperity! In the sixth year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajaendra-Choladeva, who, — in (his) life of high prosperity,[3] (during which he) rejoiced that, while Fortune, having become constant, was increasing, the goddess of the great earth, the goddess of victory in battle, and the matchless goddess of fame had become his great queens,-[4] conquered with (his) great and warlike army Idaiturai-nadu; Vanavasi, whose warriors (were protected by) walls of continuous forests; Kollippakkai, whose walls were surrounded by sulli (trees); Mannaikkadagam[5] of unapproachable strength; the crown of the king of Iram, who came to close quarters in fighting; [6] the exceedingly beautiful crown of the queen of the king of that (country); the crown of Sundara and the pearl-necklace of Indra, which the king of the South (i.e., the Pandya) had previously given up to that (king of Iram); the whole Ira-mandalam on the transparent sea; the crown praised by many and the garland of the sun, family-treasures, which the arrow-shooting[7] (king of) Kerala rightfully wore; and many ancient islands, whose old and great guard was the sea, which resounds with conches; — there was engraved on stone the money (kasu), which the guru Isanasiva-pandita had deposited until the sixth year (of the king’s reign), to be put out to interest; the money, which the minister (adhikarin) Udayadivakaran Tillaiyaliyar, alias Rajaraja-Muvenda-Velar, a native of Kanchi-vayil,[8] Valangai-parambadaigalilar[9] had deposited until the sixth year, to be put out to interest; the money, which had been given out of the (temple) treasury until the sixth year, to be put out to interest; and the village, which had received this money on interest.

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2. The guru Isanasiva-pandita deposited one hundred and eighty kasu, (to be put out) at an interest of one eighth kasu per year for each kasu, so as to realize twenty-two and a half kasu for (purchasing), — at the rate of two karanju and a half of camphor (karpura) for each kasu, — fifty-six karanju and [a quarter] of camphor, viz., (1) (one) manjadi of camphor for feeding the god, when he takes his food (amudu), at each of the three times (or the day), altogether three manjadi of camphor per day, or fifty-four karanju of camphor per year, and (2) a quarter (karanju) of camphor in excess (erram) of the daily rate (padi) on each of the nine sacred days of the great sacred festival (utsava) altogether two karanju and a quarter of camphor.

3. The minister Udayadivakaran Tillaiyaliyar, alias Rajaraja-Muvenda-Velar, a native of Kanchivayil, deposited thirteen kasu for the sacred food and other requirements (of the image) of Kratarju[ni]yadevar, which he had set up himself.

4. (Adding to these amounts[10]) eight hundred and five kasu out of the sacred treasury (sri-bhandara) of the lord, and two hundred and fifty-two kasu out of the money, which the Valangai-parambadaigalilar, — who had been attached by order of the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva to (the image of) Pichchadevar, which had been set up by Lokamahadevi, the consort of our lord Sri-Rajarajadeva, — had deposited for the sacred food and other requirements of this (image), — the total is one thousand two hundred and fifty kasu.

5. Out of this money, the members of the assembly of Nedumanal, alias Madanamanjari-chaturvedimangalam, in Nenmali-nadu (a subdivision) of Arumorideva-valanadu, have received after (the harvest of) the pasan in the sixth year (of the king’s reign) from Chandesvaradeva, — who is the first servant of the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri-Rajarajesvara, — one thousand and seventy kasu. For (these) they have to measure every year, as long as the moon and the sun endure, two hundred and sixty-seven kalam, (one) tuni and (one) padakku of paddy into the large treasury of the lord (at) Tanjavur with the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari, — the rate of interest being three kuruni of paddy per year for each kasu.

6. The same (villagers) have to pay every year, as long as the moon and the sun endure, into the treasury of the lord (at) Tanjavur twenty-two and

a half kasu for (the remaining) one hundred and eighty kasu, which they have received after (the harvest of) the pasan in the sixth year (of the king’s reign), — the rate of interest being one eighth kasu per year for each kasu.

No. 10. On the south wall, first tier

This inscription is dated in the 10th year of the reign of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias Rajendra-Choladeva, and fixes the interest, which the inhabitants of a certain village had to pay for the benefit of the image of Kratarjunadevar and of the images of Maha-Meru-Vitankar and his consort. The first of these three images had been set up by the minister, who is mentioned in the preceding inscription, and the second by king
Rajarajadeva.

Translation

1. Hail! Prosperity! In the tenth year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias Sri-Rajendra-Choladeva, who, — in (his) life of high prosperity, (during which he) rejoiced that, while Fortune, having become constant, was increasing, the goddess of the great earth, the goddess of victory in battle, and the matchless goddess of fame had become his great queens, — conquered with (his) great and warlike army Idaiturai-nadu;[11] Vanavasi, whose warriors (were protected by) walls of continuous forests; Kollippakkai, whose walls were surrounded by sulli (trees); Mannaikkadakkam of unapproachable strength;[12] the crown of the king of Iram, who came to close quarters in fighting; the exceedingly beautiful crown of the queen of the king of that (country); the crown of Sundara and the pearl-necklace of Indra, which the king of the South had previously given up to that (king of Iram); the whole Ira-mandalam on the transparent sea; the crown praised by many and the garland of the sun, family-treasures, which the arrow-shooting (king of) Kerala rightfully wore; many ancient islands, whose old and great guard was the sea, which resounds with conches; the crown of pure gold, worthy of Lakshmi, which Parasurama, having considered the fortifications of Sandimattivu[13] impregnable, had deposited (there), when, raging with anger, (he) bound the kings twenty-one times; the seven and a half lakshas of Iratta-padi, (which was) strong by nature, (the conquest of which was accompanied) with immeasurable fame (and which he took from) Jayasimha, who, out of fear (and) full of vengeance, turned his back at Muyangi[14] and hid himself; and the principal great mountains, (which contained) the nine treasures; -[15] there was engraved on stone (the name of) the village, which had received on interest from Chandesvaradeva, — who is the first s ervant of the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri-Rajarajesvara, — (part) of the money, (which had been deposited) until the tenth year (of the reign) of the lord Sri-Rajaendra-Choladeva for the sacred food and other expenses required by (the image of) Kratarjuna-devar, — which had been set up by the minister Udayadivakaran Tillaiyaliyar, alias Rajaraja-Muvenda-Velar, a native of Kanchivayil, — and (of the money), which the Sirudanattu Panimakkal[16] had deposited for the sacred food and other expenses required by (the image of) Maha-Meru-Vitankar, — which had been set up by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva, — and by (the image of) his consort.

2. The members of the assembly of Irumbudal, alias Manukulachulamani-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Avur-kurram, (a subdivision) of Nittavinoda-valanadu, have received after (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the king’s reign) six hundred kasu, viz., (1) ninety-four kasu taken out of the money, which had been deposited for the sacred food and other expenses required by (the image of) Kratarjuna-devar, which had been set up by the Minister Udayadivakaran Tillaiyaliyar, alias Rajaraja-Muvenda-Velar, a native of Kanchivayil, and (2) five hundred and six kasu taken out of the money, which the Sirudanattu Panimakkal had deposited for the sacred food and other expenses required by (the image of) Maha-Meru-Vitankar, — which had been set up by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva, — and by (the image of) his consort. For (these six hundred kasu), they have to measure every year, as long as the moon and the sun endure, one hundred and fifty kalam of paddy into the large treasury of the lord (at) Tanjavur with the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari, — the rate of interest being three kuruni of paddy per year for each kasu.

No. 11. On the south wall, first tier

The date of this inscription is the same as that of No. 10. It records endowments to the two last of the images, which were mentioned in No.10, and to the images of Kalyana-sundarar and his consort, the first of which had been set up by Trailokyamahadevi a queen of Rajarajadeva.

Translation

1. [In the tenth year (of the reign) of] Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Chola[deva], who, etc.,[17] the members of the assembly of Arumorideva-chaturvedimangalam in Purangarambai-nadu, (a subdivision) of Arumorideva-valanadu, (have received) from Chandesvaradeva, — who is the first servant of the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri-Rajarajesvara (at) Tanjavur, — two hundred and ninety-four kasu out of the money, which the Niyayam[18] Sirudanattu Panimakkal, who were attached to (the image of) Maha-Meru-Vitankar, which had been set up by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva, and to (the image of) his consort, — had deposited for the expenses required by these (images). And, out of the money, which the Niyaya[ngali]lar, — who were attached to (the image of) Kalyanasundarar, which had been set up by Trailokyamahadevi, the consort of our lord Sri Rajarajadeva, and to (the image of) his consort, — had deposited for the expenses required by these (images), the Keralantaka-vasal-tirumeykappar[19] (have received) one hundred and eighteen kasu; the Anukka-vasal-Tirumeykappar eight kasu; the Keralantaka-terinda-parivarattar[20] thirty-five kasu; the Singalantaka-terinda-parivarattar one kasu; and the Parivara-mey-kappargal of Tenkarai-nadu three hundred and thirty-nine kasu. Altogether, eight hundred kasu were received after (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the king’s reign).

2. For these eight hundred kasu, (they) have to pay every year from (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the king’s reign), as long as the moon and the sun endure, an interest of one hundred kasu into the treasury of the lord of the Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple), — the rate of interest being one eighth kasu per year for each kasu.

No. 12. On the south wall, first tier

This inscription, which is dated in the same year as No. 10, records endowments to an image, the name of which is lost, but can be supplied with certainty from No.13, and to the image of Chandesvaradeva, which had been set up by a person, that is also mentioned in the large Leyden grant.

Translation

1. After (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivrman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Choladeva, who, etc.,[21] the members of the assembly of Palliyil in Nenmali-nadu, (a subdivision) of Arulmorideva-valanadu, have received from Chandesvaradeva, — who is the first servant of the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri-Rajarajesvara (at) Tanjavur, — one hundred and four kasu, viz., thirty-one kasu out of the money, which the Pandita-Sora-terinda-Villigal,[22] (a subdivision) of the [Niyayam:] e[rundanat]tu[Vala]n[gai-ve]laikkara-padaigal,[23] who were attached to the lord [of the Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple)], had deposited for the expenses required by this (image); thirteen kasu, which the Nittavinoda-terinda-valangai-velaikkarar had deposited for the above (requirements) of this (image); and sixty kasu, which the Niyayam Uttama-Sora-terinda-andalagattalar, — [24] who were attached to (the image of) Chandesvaradeva, which had been set up by Perundanam Irayiravan Pa[llavayan], alias Mummadi-Sora-Posan, alias Uttama-Sora-Pallavaraiyan, — [25] had deposited for the expenses required by this (image).

2. For these one hundred and four kasu, (they) have to pay every year from (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the king’s reign), as long as the moon and the sun endure, an interest of thirteen kasu into the treasury of the lord of the Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple), the rate of interest being one eighth kasu per year for each kasu.

No. 13. On the south wall, first tier

This inscription, which is dated in the same year as No. 10, records endowments to the chief idol of the temple of Rajarajesvara.

Translation

1. After (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Choladeva, who, etc.,[26] the members of the assembly of Perumbalamarudur, a brahmadeya in Purangarambai-nadu, (a subdivision) of Arumorideva-valanadu, have received from Chandesvaradeva, — who is the first servant of the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri-Rajarajesvara (at) Tanjavur, — eight hundred and ten kasu, which the Rajavinoda-terinda-vala[ngai-ve]laikkarar, (a subdivision) of the Niyayam Perundanattu Valangai-velaikkara-padaigal, who were attached to the lord of the Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple), had deposited for the expenses required by this (image); two hundred and twenty-three kasu, which the Chandaparakrama-terinda-valangai-velaikkarar had deposited for the above (requirements) of this (image); and two hundred and sixty— seven kasu, which the Pandita-Sora-terinda – [villigal] had deposited [for the above (requirements)] of this (image).

2. For these eight hundred kasu, (they) have to pay every year from (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the king’s reign), as long as the moon and the sun endure, an interest of one hundred kasu into the treasury of the lord of the Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple), — the rate of interest being one eighth kasu per year for each kasu.

No. 14. On the south wall, first tier

This inscription is dated in the same year as No. 10 and records an endowment to the image of Dakshina-Meru-Vitankar, which had been set up by king Rajarajadeva.

Translation

1. In the tenth year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Choladeva, who, etc.,[27] the members of the assembly of Kalappar, a brahmadeya in Purangarambai-nadu, (a subdivision) of Arumorideva-valanadu, have received from Chandesvaradeva, — who is the first servant of the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri Rajarajesvara (at) Tanjavur – one thousand kasu out of the money, which the Niyayam Sirudanattu Vala[ngai-velaik]kara-padaigalilar, — who had been attached by order of the king to (the image of) Dakshina-Meru-Vitankar, [which had been set up by] the lord Sri-Rajaraja[deva], — had deposited for the requirements of this (image).

2. For these one thousand kasu [(they) have to pay] every year from (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the reign), as long as the moon and the sun endure, an interest of one hundred and twenty-five kasu [into the treasury of] the lord [of the Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple)], — the rate of interest being one eighth kasu per year for each kasu.

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No.15 On the south wall, first tier

Like No. 14, this inscription is dated n the same year as No. 10 and records an endowment to the image of dakshina-Meru-Vitankar.

Translation

1. In the tenth year (of the reign) of Ko-[Parakesarivarman, alias] the lord Sri-Rajendra-Choladeva; who, etc.,[28] the members of the assembly of Vanganagar, a brahmadeya in Purangarambai-nadu, (a subdivision) of Arumorideva-valanadu, [have received from Chandesvaradeva, — who is the first servant of] the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri-Rajarajesvara (at) Tanjavur, — five hundred [kasu] out of the money, which the Niyayam Sirudanattu Valangai-velaikkara-padaigalilar, — who had been attached by order of the king to (the image of) Dakshina-Meru-Vitankar, which had been set up by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva, — had deposited for the requirements of this (image).

2. For these five hundred kaksu, (they) have to pay from (the harvest of) the pasan [in the tenth year (of the king’s reign)] an interest of sixty-two and a half kasu into the treasury of the lord of the Sri-Rajarajaesvara (temple), — the rate of interest being one eighth kasu per year for each kasu.

No. 16. On the south wall, first tier

This inscription is dated in the same year as No. 10 and records an endowment in favor of an image, the name of which is lost, but can be supplied with certainty from Nos. 14 and 15.

Translation

1. In the tenth year (of the reign) of Kok-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Choladeva, who, etc.,[29] the members of the assembly of [K]ori, a brahmadeya in Purangarambai-nadu, (a subdivision) of Arumorideva-valanadu, have received from Chandesvaradeya, — who is the first servant of the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri-Rajarajesvara (at) Tanjavur, — three hundred kasu out of the money, which the Niyayam Sirudanattu Valangai-velaikkara-padaigali[lar], — who had been attached by order [of the king to (the image of) Dakshina-Meru-Vitankar, which had been set up by] the lord Sri-Rajaraja-[deva], — had deposited [for the requirements of this (image)].

2. For these three hundred kasu, (they) have to pay every year from (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the king’s reign) as long as the moon and the sun endure, an interest of thirty-seven and a half kasu into the treasury of the lord of the Sri-Rajarajesvara (temple), — the rate of interest being one eighth kasu per year for each kasu.

No. 17. On the south wall, first tier

This inscription is dated in the same year as No.10 and records an endowment to the same image as Nos. 14 to 16.

Translation

1. In the tenth year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Choladeva, who, etc.,[30] (the following) written agreement (kaiyeruttu) (was entered into) by us, the members of the assembly of Arinjigai-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Idaiyala-nadu, (a subdivision) of Arumorideva-valanadu.

2. (We) have received after (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the king’s reign) from Chandesvaradeva, — who is the first servant of the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri-Rajarajesvara, — eight hundred [kasu] out of the money, which the Niyayam Sirudanattu Valangai-velangai-velaikkara-padaigalilar, — who had been attached by order of the king to (the image of) Dakshina-Meru-Vitankar, which had been set up by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva, — had deposited for the requirements of this (image). For (these eight hundred kasu), (we) have [to pay] every year, as long as [the moon and] the sun endure, and interest of one hundred kasu into the treasury of the lord, — [the rate of] interest [being one eighth kasu] per year for each kasu.

No. 18. On the south wall, first tier

This inscription is dated in the same year as No. 10 and records an endowment to the same image as Nos. 14 to 17.

Translation

1. In the tenth year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Choladeva, who, etc.,[31] (the following) [written agreement (was entered into) by us the members of the assembly of] Kundavai-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Idaiyala-nadu, (a subdivision) of Arumorideva-valanadu.

2. (We) have received after (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the king’s reign) from Chandesvaradeva, — who is the first servant of the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri-Rajarajesvara, — five hundred kasu out of the money, which the Niyayam Sirudanattu Valangai-velaikkara-padaigalilar, — who had been attached by order of the king to (the image of) Dakshina-Meru-Vitankar, which had been set up by the lord-Rajarajadeva, -had deposited for the requirements of this (image). For (these five hundred kasu), [(we) have to pay] every year, as long as the moon and the sun endure, [an interest of sixty] two and a half [kasu into] the treasury of the lord – the rate of interest being one eighth kasu per year for each kasu.

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No. 19. On the south wall, first tier

This inscription is dated in the same year as No. 10 and records an endowment to the same image as Nos.14 to 18.

Translation

1. In the tenth year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soradeva, who etc.,[32] (the following) written agreement (was entered into) by us, the members of the assembly of Panaiyur, a brahmadeya in Purangarambai-nadu, (a subdivision) of Arumorideva-valanadu.

2. (We) have received from Chandesvaradeva, — who is the first servant of the supreme lord, who has been pleased to take up gladly his abode in (the temple called) Sri-Rajarajesvara (at) Tanjavur, — five hundred kasu out of the money, which the Niyayam Sirudanattu Valangai-velaikkara-pa[d]ai[galilar], — who had been attached by order of the king to (the image of) Dakshina-Vitankar, which had been set up by the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva, -had deposited [for the requirements of this (image)]. For (these five hundred kasu), (we) have to pay every year from (the harvest of) the pasan in the tenth year (of the king’s reign), as long as the moon and the sun endure, an interest of sixty-two and a half kasu into the treasury of the lord of the Sri-Rajarajaesvara (temple), — the rate of interest being one eighth kasu per year for each kasu.


[1] This image is called Kratarjunadevar in No. 10. The two names are no doubt corruptions of Kiratarjuna and Kiratarjuniya-deva.

[2] The Sanskrit original of this word may be

[3] Neduthiyal stands perhaps for nedu + uthiyal

[4] The same four goddesses, who are here represented by the poet as the wives of the king, are enumerated in inverse order at the commencement of the inscriptions of Ko-Rajakesarivarman, alias Kulottunga-Choladeva, under the names of Pugar-madu (the goddess of fame), Jaya-madu (the goddess of victory), Nila-magal (the goddess of the earth) and Malar-magal (the goddess with the (lotus) flower, i.e., Lakshmi).

[5] Nos. 10 to 20 read Mannaikkadakkam.

[6] Poruthadar stands for poruthu + adar

[7] The Chera king had the device of a bow (vil) on his banner and was therefore called Villavan, ‘the bearer of the bow.’

[8] The same person is mentioned in lines 96 ff. of the large Leyden grant.

[9] This term, the real application of which is not apparent, means literally ‘those belonging to the old troops of the right hand.’ Similar terms occur in the following inscriptions.

[10] Viz., 180 kasu (paragraph 2) and 13 kasu (paragraph 3).

[11] Nos.17 to 19 read Idaturai-nadu.

[12] Instead of Nannarkarumuran, Nos. 12 to 19 read nannarkarumaran ‘the fortifications of which were unapproachable.’

[13] I.e., the island of Santimat (?)

[14] Instead of muyanki No.17 and two inscriptions at Tirumalai near Polur (Vol. I, pp. 98 and 100) read. As the Dravidians generally pronounce initial u and uv, and as the change of v into m which is frequent in Malayalam (see Dr. Caldwell’s comparative Grammar, 2nd edition, p. 58), occurs in Tamil too (e.g., in maanam for vaanam ‘the sky’), Musangi might be identical with Uchchangi-durga, an ancient hill-fort in the Harpanahalli talluqa of the Bellary district.

[15] Navanethi seems to be a corruption of the Sanskrit nara-nidhi, ‘the nine treasures (of Kuvera).’

[16] The literal meaning of this term would be: ‘the servants of the minor treasure.’

[17] The historical part of this inscription is identical with that of No. 10.

[18] The technical meaning of niyayam (Sanskrit nayaya) is not apparent. Perhaps it stands for niyasam (Sanskrit nyasa), ‘a deposit, pledge, mortgage,’ and has to be translated by ‘dedicated (to the god).’

[19] Literally, ‘the body-guard of the gate of Keralantaka.’

[20] I.e., ‘the chosen retinue of Keralantaka.’

[21] The historical part of this inscription is identical with that of No. 10.

[22] I.e., ‘the chosen archers of Pandita-Chola.’

[23] I.e. ‘the troops of servants of the right hand of the large treasure.’ Velaikaaran seems to be a corruption of velaikaaran.

[24] I.e., ‘the chosen knights of Uttama-Chola.’ Anthalakathalar may be dissolved into anthalakathu the genitive case of anthalagam – which seems to be another form of anthalam ‘a coat of mail,’ – and Aalu ‘to possess.’

[25] The same person is mentioned in lines 132 f., 163 f. and 439 f. of the large Leyden grant.

[26] The historical part of this inscription is identical with that of No. 10.

[27] The historical part of this inscription is identical with that of No. 10.

[28] The historical part of this inscription is identical with that of No. 10.

[29] The historical part of this inscription is identical with that of No. 10.

[30] The historical part of this inscription is identical with that of No. 10.

[31] The historical part of this inscription is identical with that of No.10.

[32] The historical part of this inscription is identical with that of No.10

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