South
Indian Inscriptions, Volume 2

Tamil
Inscriptions
part
 i
INSCRIPTIONS
OF THE TANJAVUR TEMPLE
INSCRIPTIONS
ON THE WALLS OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE
No.
4
On
the South Wall second tier

The preserved part of
this inscription comprises eight sections of nine lines each. The end of each
line of the third section, the commencement of each line of the fourth section,
and the whole of any other section, which may have intervened between the third
and fourth, are covered by flight of steps, which was constructed at a period
subsequent to that, during which the inscription had been incised.
The inscription
specifies the revenue in paddy and the revenue in gold and in money (kasu),
which a number of villages had to pay to the stonetemple, called
Rajarajesvara, which Rajarajadeva had caused to be built at Tanjavur.[1]
The villages were situated both in the
Chola country and in other countries and had been assigned to the temple by Rajarajadeva
until the 29^{th} year of his reign. The extent of the land, which the
king had given to the temple in each of the villages, is recorded in great
detail, by a land measure, the name of which is not stated, land by fractions
of it. The paddy due to the temple and to be measured by âthe marakkal[2]
called (after) Adavallanâ i.e., by a corn measure which was preserved at the
shrine of the god Adavallan;[3]
and this marakkal was âequal to a rajakesari.â This term was evidently derived
from Rajakesari, the surname of the reigning king Rajaraja and of other Chola kings,[4]
and must be taken as the real name of the royal standard measure,[5]
a copy of which was preserved at the temple. The only case, in which the
revenue had to be paid in gold, occurs in paragraph 13. No instance of payment
in money (kasu) occurs in the preserved part of the inscription.
Translation
1. Hail!
Prosperity!
There was engraved on stone, as orally settled, the revenue (kanikkadan) in
paddy, â which has to be measured by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan,
which is equal to a rajakesari â and the gold and the money (kasu), which have
to be paid from the land paying taxes; and (there was also engraved on stone)
the land free from taxes, including the villagesite (urnattam), the sacred temples
(srikoyil), the ponds (kulam), the channels (vaykkal) passing through (the
villages), the Paraichcheri,[6]
the Kammanaseri[7] and
the burningground (sudukadu) â in the villages, which the lord
SriRajarajadeva and given in the Chola country (Soramandalam) and in other
countries as divine gifts (devadana) for the expenses (nibandha)[8]
required by the supreme lord (paramasvamin) of the sacred stonetemple
(tirukkarrali),
(called) SriRajarajesvara â which the lord SriRajarajadeva had caused to be
built (at) Tanjavur, â until the twentyninth year (of the reign) of
KoRajakesarivarman, alias SriRajarajadeva, who, â while (his) heart rejoiced,
that, like the goddess of fortune, the goddess of the great earth had become
his wife, â in his life of growing strength, during which, having been pleased
to cut the vessel (in) the hall (at) Kandalur, he conquered by his army, which
was victorious in great battles, Vengainadu, Gangapadi, Tadigaipadi,
Nulambapadi, Kudamalainadu, Kollam, Kalingam, Iramandalam, (which was the
country) of the Singalas who possessed rough strength, the seven and a half lakshas
of Irattapadi, and twelve thousand ancient islands of the sea â deprived the
Seriyas of their splendor, while (he) was resplendent (to such a degree) that (he)
was worthy to be worshipped everywhere: 
2. (The village of)
Palaiyur in Inganadu, (a subdivision) of Tenkaduvay,[9]
alias Arumoridevavalanadu, (contains), according to measurement, one hundred
and thirtyfour (measures of) land and eight twentieths; 1/320 of[10]
three quarters, three twentieths, one fortieth, one hundredandsixtieth and
one threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of[11]
four twentieths, â including the Jaina temple (palli) and (the land) enjoyed by
the community of Jaina teachers (ganimurruttu). There have to be deducted nine
(measures of) land free from taxes, one eightieth, one hundredandsixtieth and
one threehundredandtwentieth; and 1/320 of one half, â consisting of the
villagesite, the ponds the Kammanaseri, and Paraichcheri, the burningground,
and the channels which pass through the land of this village. (Three remain)
one hundred and twentyfive (measures of) land paying taxes, seven twentieths,
one fortieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of eight twentieths,
one fortieth, one hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; and
(1/320)^{2} of four twentieths.[12]
The revenue paid as tax is twelve thousand five hundred and thirty kalam,[13]
two tuni (one) kuruni and one nari of paddy, which was to be measured by the marakkal
called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari.
3. (The village of)
Arappar in the same nadu (contains), according to measurement, one hundred and
eleven (measures of) land, six twentieths, one fortieth and one
hundredandsixtieth;; 1/320 of three quarters and one eighth; and (1/320)^{2}
of one half and two twentieths, â including the nayvalam,[14]
(the land) enjoyed by the physician (maruttuvapperu)[15]
and the Jaina temple. There have to be deducted three (measures of) land free
from taxes, one half, four twentieths, one eightieth and one
hundredandsixtieth, â (consisting of) the village site, the ponds, the sacred
temple,[16]
the temple of Aiyan,[17]
the temple of Pidari,[18]
the ponds in paddyfields (karani), and the site of the Paraichcheri. (There
remain) one hundred and seven (measures of) land paying taxes, one half, two
twentieths and one eightieth; 1/320 of three quarters and one eighth; and
(1/320)^{2} of one half and two twentieths. The revenue paid as tax is
ten thousand seven hundred and fortyfive kalam, two tuni, (one) padakku and
three nari of paddy, which has to be measured by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan,
which is equal to a rajakesari.
4. (The village of)
Kirandevankudi in the same nadu (contains) [forty]two [measures of land],
three quarters, four twentieths, one eightieth and one threehundredandtwentieth;
1/320 of one half, three twentieths, three eightieths and one
hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2} of eight twentieths. [There have
to be deducted] two (measures of) land free from taxes, one twentieth, one
fortieth, one hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320
of four twentieths and one threehundredandtwentieth; [and (1/320)^{2}
of one half and two twentieths], (consisting of) the villagesite, . . . . . .
. the sacred temple and (its) flowergarden (nandavanam), and the ponds. (There
remain) forty (measures of ) land [paying taxes], three quarters, two
twentieths, one fortieth and one hundredandsixtieth; 1/320 of nine twentieths
and three eightieths; and (1/320)^{2} of three quarters and one
twentieth. [The revenue] paid as tax is four thousand and seventy kalam, five kuruni
and five nari of paddy, which has to be measured by the marakkal called (after)
[Adava] â Ilan . . . . . . . .
5. (The village of)
Nagank . . . . . . in the same nadu (contains) [twentytwo measures of land,
one half,] two twentieths, three eightieths and one hundredandsixtieth; 1/320
of two twentieths, one fortieth and one hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2}
of eight twentieths. [There have to be deducted] three quarters (of a measure)
of land free from taxes, one twentieth, one hundredandsixtieth [and one
threehundredtwentieth; and 1/320 of two twentieths and one fortieth], â
consisting of the villagesite (urirukkai), the ponds, [the temple of] Aiyan,
. . . . . . the channels which pass through the land of this village, and the
burningground. (There remain) twentyone (measures of) land [paying taxes],
three quarters, one twentieth, lone fortieth, one hundredandsixtieth and one
threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of one hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2}
of eight twentieths. [The revenue] paid as tax is two thousand one hundred and
eightythree kalam, five kuruni and four nari of paddy, which has to be
measured by the marakkal called (after) [Adaval]lan, . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . .
There have to be deducted five (measures of) land free from taxes; 1/320 of one
half, three twentieths and three eightieths; and (1/320)^{2} of three
quarters and one twentieth, â (consisting of) . . . . . . the Paraichcheri, the
ponds and the watercourses (odai). (There remain) one hundred and fifteen
(measures of) land paying taxes, one quarter, one hundredandsixtieth and one
threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of one half, three twentieths and one
threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of one half and two
twentieths. The revenue paid as tax is eleven thousand five hundred and
twentysix kalam (one) kuruni and seven nari of paddy, . . . . . . . which is
equal to a rajakesari.
7. (The village of)
Tannirkkunram, alias Rajarajanallur, in the same nadu (contains), according to
measurement, thirtysix (measures of) land, lone half, lone twentieth, one
hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of three
quarters, one twentieth and one eightieth; and (1/320)^{2} of three
quarters and one twentieth. There have to be deducted two (measures of) land
free from taxes, seven twentieths, one hundredandsixtieth and one
threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of three quarters, one twentieth, one
fortieth and one threehundredand twentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of one
half and two twentieths, â consisting of the villagesite, the ponds, the
sacred temples, the burningground, the Paraichcheri, . . . . . . . . . and the
channels which pass through the land of this village to other villages. (There
remain) thirtyfour (measures of) land, three twentieths, three eightieths, one
hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of three
quarters, four twentieths, one fortieth, one hundredandsixtieth and one
threehundredandtwentieth; [and (1/320)^{2} of four twentieths. The
revenue paid as tax is] three thousand three hundred and seventyeight kalam,
(one) padakku and four nari of paddy, which has to be measured by the marakkal called
(after) Adavallan, which is equal to a [ra]jakesari.
8. (The village of)
Uchchipadi in the same nadu (contains) according to measurement, fiftyseven
(measures of) land, one half, one twentieth, three eightieths, one
hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; and 1/320 of one
half, four twentieths and three eightieths. There have to be deducted one
(measure of) land free from taxes, three quarters, three twentieths, three
eightieths, one hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320
of two twentieths, one fortieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; and
(1/320)^{2} of one half and two twentieths, â [consisting of] the
villagesite, the ponds, the sacred temples, the Irachcheri,[19]
. . . . . . . . (There remain) fiftyfive (measures of) land paying taxes, one
half and three twentieths; 1/320 of one half, two twentieths and one
hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2} of eight twentieths. The revenue
paid as tax is . . . . . . . . [hundred] and twentysix kalam, (one) tuni and
four nari [of paddy, which has to be measured] by the marakkal called (after)
Adavallan, which is equal to a Rajakesari.
9. (The Village of)
KirVadugakkudi in the same nadu (contains), according to measurement,
twentyseven (measures of) land, one half, one twentieth, one fortieth and one
hundredandsixtieth; 1/320 of four twentieths, one hundredandsixtieth and
one threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of four twentieths. There
have to be deducted [one measure of land free from taxes, two twentieths,] one
hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of three
twentieths, one eightieth and one hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2}
of eight twentieths, â [consisting of] the villagesite, the ponds, the sacred
temple, the burningground, the Irachcheri, the Kammanaseri the Paraichcheri, the
Vannarachcheri,[20] the
ponds and wells of the Paraiyas (paraikkulakkuri),[21]
. . . . . . . . (There remain) twentysix (measures of) land paying taxes, nine
twentieths, one eightieth, one hundredand sixtieth and one
threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of three eightieths; and (1/320)^{2}
of three quarters and one twentieth. The revenue paid as tax is two thousand
six hundred and . . . . . . . of paddy, which has to be measured by the marakkal
called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari.
10. (The village of) Kanjara[na]gar[22]
in . . . . . . . (contains), according to measurement, six (measures of) land,
three quarters, two twentieths, three eightieths, one hundredandsixtieth and
one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of three quarters, one twentieth and
three eightieths; and (1/320)^{2} of three quarters and one twentieth. There
have to be deducted one twentieth (of a measure) of land free from taxes, three
eightieths, one hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320
of six twentieths, one eightieth and one hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2}
of eight twentieths, â consisting of the ponds of this village. (There remain)
six (measures of) land paying taxes, three quarters and one twentieth; 1/320 of
one half, one eightieth [and one hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2}
of eight twentieths]. The revenue [paid as tax] is six hundred and seventyfour
kalam, two tuni (one) kuruni and four nari of paddy, which has to be measured
by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a Rajakesari.

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11. The land, which is a
divine gift, in (the village of) Usikkannangudi in the same nadu (contains), according
to measurement, five (measures of) land, lone half, two twentieths, one fortieth
and one hundredandsixtieth; 1/320 of three quarters, three eightieths, one
hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2}
of four twentieths. There have to be deducted three twentieths (of a measure)
of land free from taxes, one fortieth and one hundredandsixtieth; 1/320 of
three quarters, three twentieths and three eightieths; and (1/320)^{2}
of three quarters and one twentieth, â consisting of the villagesite, the ponds,
the burningground, and the causeway (kulai) on the bank of the Pandavay (river).[23]
(There remain) five (measures of) land paying taxes, eight twentieths, thee
eightieths, one hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320
of three quarters, two twentieths and one hundredâandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2}
of eight twentieths. The revenue paid as tax is five hundred and eighteen kalam,
two tuni and two nari of paddy, which has to be measured by the marakkal called
(after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari.
12. (The village of)
Vadaviraiyaupallam in Aravalakkurram, (a subdivision) of the same nadu, (contains),
according to measurement, twentyfour (measures of) land, one quarter and one
hundredandsixtieth; 1/320 of nine twentieths, one eightieth and one
hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2} of eight twentieths. There have
to be deducted six twentieths (of a measure) of land free from taxes, one
eightieth and one hundredandsixtieth; 1/320 of six twentieths, one eightieth
and one hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2} of eight twentieths, â
consisting of the villagesite, the ponds of this village, the burningground, and
the channels which pass through the land of this village and supply water to
other villages. (There remain) twentythree (measures of) land, three quarters,
three twentieths and three eightieths; and 1/320 of three twentieths. The
revenue paid as tax is two thousand three hundred and ninetythree kalam, two tuni
(one kuruni and five nari of paddy, which has to be measured by the marakkal called
(after) Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari.
13.
Tiruttengur, a town
(nagara) in the same nadu, (contains), according to measurement, thirtyfour (measures
of) land, one quarter, three eightieths and one threehundredandtwentieth;
1/320 of three quarters, one twentieth, three eightieths and one
threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of two twentieths. There
have to be deducted four (measures of) land free from taxes, one half, three
eightieths and one hundredandsixtieth; 1/320 of three quarters, one fortieth,
one hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2}
of four twentieths, â consisting of the villagesite, the ponds of this
village, the ponds in the fields (pulam), the Tindachcheri,[24]
the Paraichcheri and the burningground. (There remain) twentynine (measures
of) land, one half, four twentieths, three eightieths, one hundredandsixtieth
and one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of one twentieth and one
threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of three quarters and
three twentieths. The gold paid as tax is two hundred and ninetyseven karanju,
four manjadi, three tenths[25]
and three fortieths.[26]
14. (The village of)
Arakkankudi in Tirunaraiyurnadu, (a subdivision) of Vadakaduvay,[27]
alias Kshatriyasikhamanivalanadu, (contains), according to measurement, seven
(measures of) land, six twentieths, one eightieth and one hundredandsixtieth;
1/320 of one eightieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; (1/320)^{2}
of eight twentieths and three eightieths; and (1/320)^{3} of three quarters
and one twentieth. There have to be deducted eight twentieths (of a measure) of
land free from taxes and one eightieth; and 1/320 of nine twentieths, â
consisting of the villagesite and the ponds of this village. (There remain)
six (measures of) land, three quarters, three twentieths and one
threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of one half, one twentieth, one eightieth
and one theehundredandtwentieth; (1/320)^{2} of eight twentieths and
three eightieths; and (1/320)^{3} of three quarters and one twentieth. The
revenue paid as tax is six hundred and fiftysix kalam seven kuruni and three nari
of paddy, which has to be measured by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan,
which is equal to a rajakesari.
15. (The village of)
Pidaraseri in the same nadu (contains), according to measurement, five
(measures of) land, lone half, two twentieths, three eightieths and one
threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of one half and one
threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of one half and two
twentieths. There have to be deducted four twentieths (of a measure) of land
free from taxes, one eightieth, one hundredandsixtieth and one
threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of one twentieth, one eightieth and one
hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2} of eight twentieths, â consisting
of the villagesite and the ponds of this village. (There remain) five (measures
of) land, eight twentieths, one eightieth and one hundredandsixtieth; 1/320
of eight twentieths, one fortieth, one hundredandsixtieth and one
threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of four twentieths. The
revenue paid as tax is five hundred and thirtyfive kalam, two tuni (one) padakku
and four nari of paddy, which has to be measured by the marakkal called (after)
Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari.
16. (The village of)
Manarkalappalli, the divine gifts to Tirppan Mahadevar, the divine gifts to
Tiruvadigal,[28] and
(the village of) Penpalli, which adjoins this village (of Manarkalappalli), in
Velanadu, (a subdivision) of the samd nadu, contain, according to measurement,
fiftyone (measures of) land, three quarters, one twentieth, one eightieth and
one threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of three quarters, three twentieths, one
fortieth and one hundredandsixtieth; and (1/320)^{2} of one half. There
have to be deducted one (measure of) land free from taxes, three quarters, two
twentieths, one eightieth and one threehundredand twentieth; 1/320 of one
half, two twentieths and one eightieth; and (1/320)^{2} of three
quarters and one twentieth, â consisting of the villagesites, the ponds, the
temple of Pidari, land the highroad (peruvari). (There remain) fortynine (measures
of) land, three quarters and four twentieths; 1/320 of six twentieths, one
eightieth and one threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of one
half and four twentieths. The revenue paid as tax is . . . . . [thousand] nine
hundred and eighteen kalam, two kuruni and one nari [of paddy], which has to be
measured by the marakkal called (after) Adavallan, which is equal to a
rajakesari.

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17. (The village of)
Nerkuppai, in which a pallichchandam[29]
is established (?) in Tiraimurnadu, (a subdivision) of Uyyakkondarvalanadu,
which is situated between the Arisil[30]
and Kaviri (rivers), (contains), [according to measurement], thirtynine (measures
of) land, three eightieths, one hundredandsixtieth and one
threehundredandtwentieth; 1/320 of one half, one hundredandsixtieth and
one threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of four twentieths. There
have to be deducted one (measure of) land free from taxes, one half, three
twentieths, one fortieth and one hundredand sixtieth; 1/320 of one half, one
half, one twentieth, [one hundredandsixtieth] and one
threehundredandtwentieth; and (1/320)^{2} of four twentieths, â
consisting of the villagesite, the ponds, the burningground, and the rivers
and channels which pass through [the land of this village] and supply water to
the eastern country. (There remain) thirtyseven (measures of) land, seven
twentieths and one eightieth; and 1/320 of three quarters and four twentieths. The
revenue paid as tax is three thousand seven hundred and twentytwo kalam and
five nari of paddy, which has to be measured by the marakkal called (after)
Adavallan, which is equal to a rajakesari.
18. (The village of)
Maruttuvakkudi in Innambarnadu, (a subdivision) of
VadakaraiRajaendrasimhaValanadu,[31]
(contains), according to measurement, [thirty] (measures of) land, one half,
four twentieths, three eightieths and one hundredandsixtieth; and 1/320 of
one half and three twentieths. There have to be deducted three quarters (of a measure)
of land free from taxes, two twentieths and one hundredandsixtieth; and 1/320
of one twentieth, one fortieth and one threehundredandtwentieth, consisting
of the villagesite, the sacred temples and (their) sacred courts (tirumurram)
and sacred flower gardens, the Paraichcheri and the burningground. (There
remain) twentynine (measures of) land, three quarters, two twentieths and
three eightieths; and 1/320 of one half, [one] twentieth, oneeightieth, one
hundredandsixtieth and one threehundredandtwentieth. The revenue paid as
tax is two thousand nine hundred and sixtyseven kalam, two tuni (one) padakku and
two nari of paddy, which has to be measured by he marakkal called (after)
Advallan, which is equal to a rajakesari.
The whole operation is as follows:


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