The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Text of the Inscriptions

Part I    -Sanskrit Inscription

Part II  -Tamil & Grantha Ins.

Part III -Notes & Fragments

Part IV  -Addenda

Other Inscriptions

Tamil Inscriptions

Misc. Ins. from Tamil Country

Chola Inscriptions

Kannada Inscriptions

Telugu Ins. from Andhra Pradesh

Pallava Inscriptions

Pandya Inscriptions

Ins. of Vijayanagara Dynasty

Ins. during 1903-1904

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

PART-II

TAMIL AND GRANTHA INSCRIPTIONS

VI. -INSCRIPTION OF THE KAILASANATHA TEMPLE AT KANCHIPURAM

NO.82. ON A PILLAR IN THE MANDAPA IN FRONT OF THE RAJASIMHAVARMESVARA SHRINE

The following inscription is dated in the fifteenth year of Madirai-kondaKo-Para-Kesarivarman.  The same names are borne by the Chola king Parantaka I., alais Viranarayana, in a copper-plate grant published by Mr.Foulkes. As Madirai seems to stand for Madurai (Madura), the capital of the Pandyas,-Madirai-konda, “who took Madura,” might also beconsidered as the Tamil equivalent of Madhurantaka, “the destroyer of Madura.” This was the name of a grandson of Parantaka I. according to the large Leyden grant[1].  Another Madhurantaka, who was the son of Rajaraja, issued the Sanskrit portion of the Leyden grant after his father’s death.  He is probably identical with Rajendra-Chola-deva, who, according to Nos.67 and 68, conquered the Madura-mandalam.  The three kings just mentioned are Nos. 3,9 and 11 of the subjoined table, which I insert for ready reference.  It contains the pedigree of the Cholas according to the large Leyden grant.  The first three kings of the table are also named in Mr.Foulkes’ above-mentioned grant.  On inscriptions of the two last kings and on other conquests of theirs, see the introductions of Nos.40 and 67, above.

TABLE:- Clicke here to...Vijayalaya of the Suryavamsa

On Rajendra-deva, the probable successor of (11) Rajendra-Chola, see the remarks on No 127, below.  In the introduction of No.67, I might have added the Miraj grant of the Western Chalukya King Jayasimha III. calls (Rajendra-) Chola Pancha-Dramiladhipati (read thus instead of yain Chamdramiladhipati[2]), “the lord of the five Dravida (nations).[3]” The village, which was the object of the Miraj grant, belonged to “the Edadore (read thus instead of Paddore) Two-thousand.” Accordingly, the country of Edatore in Maisur must have been in the possession of Jayasimha III. in Saka 946 (expired).  The Same  country in Edatore (Idaiturai-nadu) occupied the first place in the list of the conquests of the conquests of Rajendra-Chola-deva.

The subjoined inscription records that a certain Chandaparakrama-vira gave to the god of “the holy stone-temple” (i.e.,the RaRajasimhavarmesvara Temple) at Kanchipuedu (i.e.,Kanchipuram) 270 sheep, from the milk of which three lamps had tobe supplied with ghee.  A certain Chandaparakrama-manradi, who seems to be distinct from the donor, pledged himself, that he and his descendants would supply the ghee daily or otherwise incur certain fixed fines.

It is worthy of note, that in this very archaic inscription the pulli or the dot above consonants, which corresponds to the Nagari virama, occurs five times. It is represented by a short vertical stroke.  The same sign is found in the Tamil portion of the Kuram plates of the Pallava king Paramesvaravarman I.(No.151, below.)

TRANSLATION

Hail! Prosperity! In the fifteenth year of (the reign of) Madirai-konda Ko-Para-kesarivarman, (the following) written agreement (was made) with Maadeva of the large holy stone-temple at Kachchippedu by me, Chandaparakrama-manradi, Chandaparakrama-vira gave two hundred and seventy undying and unending[4] big sheep to the god of the holy stone-temple, (in order to keep) three nanda lamps (burning) as long as the moon and the sun exist.  From (the milk of) these sheep,--myself, my sons and my further descendants shall take three urakkus of ghee daily and shall, for ever, pour them out into the hands of those, who are in charge of the (measure) which is equal to four urakkus.[5] If I do not pour them out, I shall be liable to a fine of four and a quarter (urakkas) daily in court.  Although I am fined thus, I shall pour out this ghee without resistance.  If I resist, I solemnly agree to pay one manjadi[6] of gold daily to the king who is then ruling. . . . . . This meritorious gift [shall last as long as] the moon and the sun.

NO.83. ON A PILLAR IN THE MANDAPA IN FRONT OF THE RAJASIMHAVARMESVARA SHRINE

Like the inscription No.82, this one is dated in the fifteenth year of Madirai-konda Ko-Parakesarivarman, and records the gift of 180 sheep from the same Chandapara-krama-vira to “the holy stone-temple”.  A certain Kalakopa-vira-manradi pledged himself to supply two lamps with ghee made from the milk of these sheep.

A graphical peculiarity of this archaic inscription has to be noted.  In two cases the sign of d in na and ra is not, as in modern Tamil, attached to the bottom of the letter, but is added after it and turned upwards.

TRANSLATION

Hail! Prosperity! In the fifteenth year of  Madirai-konda Ko-Parakesarivarman, I, Kalakopa-vira-manradi . . . . . . .Chandapakrama-vira gave one hundred and eighty undying and unending big sheep to he god of the holy stone-temple, in order to keep two nanda lamps burning, as long as the moon and the sun exist. From (the milk of) these sheep,-myself, my sons and my further descendants shall take one uri[7] of ghee daily and shall, for ever, pour them out into the hands of those, who are in charge of the narigai (measure) within (the temple), with a nari (measure) which is equal to four urakkus. If I do not pour them out, I shall beliable to a fine of one eigth pon daily in court.  Although I vira-manradi solemnly agree, that I and mydescendants shall pay one kurri[8] of gold daily to the king who is then ruling . . . . .

NO.84. ON THE FLOOR OF THE MAHAMANDAPA OF THE RAJASIMHAVARMESVARA SHRINE

This inscription is dated in the 3rd year of Ko-Rajakesarivarman. By it, the villages of Menalur pledged themselves, to furnish oil for a lamp from the interest of a sum of money, which they had received from the temple-treasury.  The inscription mentions Kanchipuram. Tirukkaralippuram, “the town of the holy stone-temple,” which occurs in lines 1 f., is evidently derived from Tirukkarrali, one of the names of the Rajasimhavarmesvara Temple, and is probably a synonym of  Kanchipuram.  The town belonged to Kaliyur-kottam, a district, which is also mentioned in Nos.85, 147 and 148.

TRANSLATION

In the 3rd year of Ko-Rajakesarivarman, we, the villagers of Menalur, (a quarter) of Tirukkarralippuram in Ogara-nadu(?), (a division) of Kaliyur-kottam, (made the following) written agreement.  We have received from Adidasa Chandesvara[9] (in) the holy stone-temple at Kanchipuram eighteen karanjus, three manjadis and one kunri[10] of gold. From the interest of these eighteen karanjus, three manjadis and one kunri of gold, we shall pour out daily, as long as the moon and the sun exist, (for) one nanda lamp, one urakku of oil with an urakku (measure), which is equal to a quarter (according to the standard) of the authorities in the village.  As the villages . . . .told (me), I, Alappadi, the head-man of this village, wrote (this document). This is my signature.

NO.85. ON THE BASE OF THE MANDAPA IN FRONT OF THE RAJASIMHAVARMESVARA SHRINE

The middle part of this inscription is covered by the wall of themodern mahamandapa, which has been erected between the Rajasimhavarmesvara Shrine and that mandapa, on the base of which the inscription is engraved.  It is dated in the fourth year of Ko-Parakesarivarman and records, that the villagers of Kalladuppur pledged themselves, to furnish a fixed yearly supply of paddy from the interest of a sum of money, which they had received from the shrine of Adidasa Chandesvara at Tiruvottur.

TRANSLATION

Hail! Prosperity! In the fourth year of Ko-Parakesarivarman, we, the assembly (sabha) of Kalladuppur in Virappedu-nadu.[11] (a division) of Kaliyur-kottam, (made the following) written agreement.  We have received from the hands of Adidasa Chandesvara (at) Tiruvottur in Tanakuru (?), (a division) of Kachchippedu, we have received twenty karanjus weight of gold.  For these twenty karanjus of gold, from (the month of) Tai of this year forward, . . . . . we, the assembly of Kalladuppur, shall measure and give paddy into the hands of the Siva (i.e.,Saiva) Brahmanas . . . . . (From) the interst of these twenty karanjus of gold, we, . . . the great people, who constitute the village-assembly of our village, shall measure and give every year ninety kadis[12] of paddy, without breaking our promise (even) partially.


[1] Dr.Burgess’ Archaological Survey of Southern India, Vol.IV, pp.204 ff. Madhurantaka, and not Mathurantaka, is thereading in lines 48, 62 and 87 of the original, an impression of which I owe to Dr.Burgess.

[2] This correction was suggested by my assistant V.Venkayaa,M.A.

[3] The “five Dravidas,” as opposed to the “five Gaudas” are the chief tribes or languages on the south of the Vindhya :- Dravida proper (Tamil), Andhra (Telugu), Karnata(kanarese), Maharashtra and Gurjara;

[4] This seems to mean, that the sheep, if dead, had to be replaced by fresh ones.

[5] According to the Tamil dictionaries, 1 nari or padi consists 4 urakkus.

[6] 1 manjadi weighs 4 grains

[7] 1 uri is equal to ½ padi or nari

[8] 1 kurri weighs about 2 grains

[9] On Adidasa Chandesvara see page 92, note 6. According to the Tamil Periya-puranam, Siva made the pious Vicharasaraman the chief of his devotees, and bestowed on him the title Chandesvara.  This legend perhaps explains the designation Adidasa, “the first devotee.”

[10] 1 karanju contains 20 manjadis, 1 manjadi contains 2 kunris, and 1 kunri is equal about 2 grains.

[11] Virappedu is probably meant for Vira-pedu, “the town of Vira,” or “the town of heroes.” Compare the names Vangipp[u]ram in No.72, Tirukkarralippuram in No.84, and Tiruvirapuram in No.146, where “Param” stands for “Puram”, “a town”.

[12] The same measure is mentioned in line 4 of the fragment No.146.

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