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The concept of development has acquired significance especially after the World War II. The world’s poorest countries show no signs of catching up with the developed countries, despite the promised benefits of globalization. Progressive redressing of these inequities remains an important challenge in the new millennium. India is prominently a rural society. About 75 per cent of the people reside in the rural areas. The importance of rural development forming the core of national development strategies is being increasingly recognized.
Planning for better development communication both at urban and rural areas has until now been a rather haphazard process. Especially, the rural areas still remain malnourished from development communication point of view. New approaches call for procedures, which systematically identify and select relevant policy instruments, communication resources, media intervention programmes and widely participatory networks in relation to development communication system in Karnataka State in particular. The intervention of the state government in planning and executing meaningful and purposeful development communication programmes assumes new significance in the present times.
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION
The Department of Information and Publicity was started as a microscopic wing of the Karnataka State Government. It has now been renamed as 'Department of Information’. The Department has different branches like press and news, photo and film, exhibition, commercial publicity, song and drama, which are responsible for disseminating development information through publicity, advertisement, propaganda and other tools and techniques.
The Information Department covers the entire State of Karnataka, which has 175 talks, 26,800 villages and 4,37,63,691 population 1991 (census report). The department has been functioning like a bridge between the government and media on the one hand and between the government and people on the other hand.
The specific objectives of the department include:
The department employs various multi - media namely Press Release, Pamphlet, Brochure, Poster, Periodical, Song, Dance, Slide, Film Show, Photo, Exhibition, Seminar, Conference, Public Meeting and so on. The Minister of State heads the Department. There is a Director who supervises all the activities of the department. Joint Directors, Assistant Directors, Deputy Directors, District Information Officers, Assistant Editors, Information Assistants, Staff Photographers, Technicians and many other staff assist him.
SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
There is a need to have multi – media packages and produce low cost media materials for grassroots communication and development. Communication support is crucial for development programmes. In reality, the Department of Information has series of limitations in extending adequate communication support to innumerable development projects of the Government of Karnataka. Prominent among them includes inadequate budgetary allocations, manpower, resources and activities.
Advertisement is an integral part of modern society. There have been revolutionary changes in the advertising scenario in the last few years. Today advertising is used not only to sell the products but also to popularize the beneficial effects of various development projects launched by the government and non- government organizations. Modern advertising includes not only stimulating demand, but more importantly disseminating information, creating awareness, enlisting the active participation of the beneficiaries and activating implementers to ensure the success of the development projects of the government and non – government agencies.
Few researchers in Karnataka State have assessed the role of Information Department in facilitating participatory and balanced development. The major deficiency observed in their works was the lack of emphasis either on the advertising media intervention for integrated development or government advertising management for development programmes. Further, past studies did not indicate the factors contributing to the efficient management of advertising as well as the media or methods of improving the role of advertising in development.
Grassroots level development advertising scenario of Karnataka State is less understood due to the lack of comprehensive and systematic communication investigations. Therefore, the primary tasks of the present study is concerned with understanding the role of Information Department in disseminating advertisements and enlisting the active participation of the people in various development projects of the Government of Karnataka. The study primarily answers to several questions in the area of communication between development projects and beneficiaries. A need was seen to investigate Karnataka State Government advertisements as an integral part of development process and not independent of it. It was felt necessary to actually fit the advertising process into the development context of Karnataka State. Hence, “ An Evaluation of the Impact of Karnataka State Government Advertisements on People” was conducted with a view to scientifically assess the status, drawbacks and opportunities of State Government Advertising as an instrument of development.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The specific objectives of the study include:
The flow of development project support communication that occurs through the advertisements disseminated by the Information Department of Karnataka State especially at the grassroots level was the chief focus of this study. The primary objective of the present study, as has been made clear in the earlier paragraph, requires investigating the socio – economic influence of advertisement on people. The researchers also investigated the forms of advertisement, which link the grassroots to the mainstream of development. Thus, it is a two-way traffic how the people at the grass root level reciprocate from the micro level to the macro level development system.
The survey method was adopted for the study. A questionnaire / interview schedule was administered. It consisted of questions on various aspects of Karnataka State Government advertisements disseminated by Information Department. It was designed to explore the understanding of these respondents have of the advertising system, process and impact. A total of 432 respondents from both urban and rural areas of Hassan, Mysore, Mandya and Chamarajanagar districts were randomly selected for the purpose of the study. However, the sample respondents were selected from the town and villages where the Information Department had conducted advertising campaigns recently.
Besides survey method, non – participant observation, informal
discussion and review of secondary sources of information were also used
as other methods to study the status, drawbacks and opportunities of
Karnataka State Government advertisements.
Using percentage analysis method did the analysis of data.
The usual limitations of the method, namely, time, the researchers
experienced human and resource inadequacies, recollection and
Primary data were gathered from the respondents on vital aspects namely – Media habits, access to government advertising, sources of Government advertising, utility of government advertising, understandability of Government advertising, ideal media mix for government advertising and alternative methods of disseminating government advertising.
TABLE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF STUDY AREAS AND RESPONDENTS
2: PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS
MEDIA HABITS OF RESPONDENTS
TABLE 3: RESPONDENT’S VIEW ABOUT NEWSPAPER READING
The data reveals that a vast majority of the respondents (84.26%) read the Newspaper while a small percentage (15.74) does not read. There are a large number of male respondents who read the Newspaper (78.30%).
However, more number of female respondents (57.35%) does not read them. It is evident from the data that a large number of young and middle aged respondents read the Newspaper
Among the respondents who read the Newspaper, a majority (36.26%) of them belongs to the age group of 18 – 27, followed closely by respondents (31.86%) aged between 28 & 37.
The data also reveal that a majority of the respondents who have studied upto matriculation (46.98%) read Newspapers. They are followed by graduates (18.41%) and pre-university group (13.74%).
Thus, a vast majority of educated sections of respondents read Newspaper. It is evident from the data: a vast majority of educated sections of the respondents (84.26%) read Newspaper. This group mainly includes male respondents, young and middle-aged respondents, matriculation and degree level respondents.
TABLE 4: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT READING VARIOUS NEWSPAPERS
Click here to see Table 4
The data reveals that more number of respondents (39.12%) read Prajavani, a leading Kannada daily in the state. After Prajavani, two popular local dailies in Kannada, Andolona (18.75%) and Mysooru Mithra (18.75%) are widely read. Along similar line comes Kannada Prabha (18.15%) followed by Vijaya Karnataka (16.16%). The least number of respondents reads Samyuktha Karnataka (5.09%). Other newspapers that do not belong to the popular mainstream dailies in Kannada also enjoy sizable readership (20.37%). They include Udayavani, Janavahini, Prajanudi, etc.,
It is true that more number of respondents with higher educational background prefer prominent regional dailies. Most male respondents read Kannada Prabha, Vijaya Karnataka, Mysooru Mithra, Prajavani, and Andolona respectively. More number of female respondents read Andolona, Samyuktha Karnataka, Mysooru Mithra, Prajavani and Vijaya Karnataka. Surprisingly, women respondents read local dailies in good number while male respondents read regional dailies in large number.
It is also true that most of the respondents belonging to younger and middle age groups read the prominent regional and local dailies namely Prajavani, Kannada Prabha, Andolana and Mysoore Mithra. Few respondents read other newspapers.
Respondents with matriculation background read maximum local dailies like Andolana (70.13%) and Mysooru Mithra (67.5%). While the respondents who are graduates, prefer to read regional – dailies like Vijaya Karnataka (31.50%) Prajavani (22.48%) and Kannada Prabha (22%).
More number of respondents reads prominent regional and local dailies. Surprisingly, more number of male respondents and well-educated respondents prefer to read prominent regional dailies. More number of less educated and female respondents prefers to read local dailies.
TABLE 5: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT MAGAZINE READING
The data reveal that more than half of the respondents (54.17%) do not read Magazines, while only less than half of them (45.83%) read magazines.
More number of male respondents (70.51%) read Magazines, when compared to female respondents (24.75%). This is an interesting finding because, women in spite of having apparent leisure, do not seem to consider magazine reading as a worthy activity.
A majority of the young and middle age group of respondents read Magazines. Interestingly, more number of old age groups of respondents have not found reading Magazines a worthy exercise.
As usual, more number of respondents with matriculation and degree level educational background read Magazines. Surprisingly, there are no takers among highly educated respondents in this regard.
A majority of male, young and middle age group and matriculation and degree level respondents read Magazines.
TABLE 6: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT READING VARIOUS MAGAZINES
The data reveal that more number of respondents read popular Kannada magazine ‘Sudha’ (21.99%) followed by another popular magazine ‘Taranga’ (16.43%). Statistically speaking, other magazines namely Hai Bangalore, Lankesh Pathrike etc., enjoy significant readership (25.92%).
This indicates the respondent’s choice of a variety of magazines instead of limiting themselves to popular and mainstream magazines.
The table also shows that a more number of male respondents prefer Taranga (78.87%), where as more number of female respondents prefer Sudha (23.15).
A majority of younger and middle age group of respondents also read other magazines namely, Hai Bangalore, Lankesh Pathrike etc., Taranga and Sudha are the widely read magazines.
More respondents belonging to the Matriculation and Higher educational categories prefer Sudha, Taranga and other magazines.
Thus, a vast majority of the respondents regardless of their age and education prefer prominent Kannada magazines of our times. Surprisingly, prominent English magazines are not read by a considerable number of respondents because of limited local coverage, high cost and other factors.
TABLE 7: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT RADIO LISTENING
The total percentage of those who listen to Radio is 53.70, whereas those who do not are 46.20. There are more number of men who listen to Radio (77.16%) as compared to that of women (22.84%).
There are more number of respondents who listen to Radio belonging to the age group of 18 – 27 with a percentage of 32.76, followed by the age group of 28 – 37 with a percentage of 27.59. The least number of respondents were from the age group of 48 – 57 with a percentage of 8.19. Thus, a majority of young and middle age groups of respondents listen to Radio.
A majority of listeners are those who have studied upto matriculation (46.55%), followed by the graduates (19.83%).
Thus, a majority of men, younger group and matriculation level respondents listen to the Radio programmes.
PROMINENT RADIO CHANNELS
TABLE 8: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT PROMINENT RADIO CHANNELS
The data reveal that more number of respondents listened to AIR Mysore (43.75%), followed by AIR Bangalore (37.26%), Vivid Bharathi (11.34%), AIR Dharwad (8.56%) and BBC (3.93%).
The male respondents preferred the Akashvani Bangalore (81.98%), Akashvani Dharwad (78.38%), Vivid Bharathi (79.60%), Akashvani Mysore (76.92%) and BBC (70.59%). Interestingly, BBC is very popular among women with higher percentage of listening (29.41), followed by AIR Mysore (23.28%), Vivid Bharathi (20.41%), AIR Dharwad (18.92%) and AIR Bangalore (16.15%).
It is clear from the data that Akashvani Mysore programmes are preferred by the age group of 18 – 27 (32.27%) while the age group of 28 – 37 opted for Akashvani Dharwad (35.13%), followed by the age group of 38 – 47, which listened to Vivid Bharathi (32.65%).
There are more number of listeners of AIR Bangalore (56.21), AIR Mysore (52.38%), Vivid Bharathi (37.50%), AIR Dharwad (36.11%) and BBC (23.53%) with matriculation background. Interestingly, graduates prefer to listen to BBC (41.17%), followed by AIR Dharwad (27.02%), Vivid Bharathi (26.53%), AIR Mysore (16.93%) and AIR Bangalore (17.39%).
Thus, a majority of the respondents regardless of their gender, age and education prefer regional programmes. Surprisingly, more number of women and well-educated respondents prefer overseas programmes.
TABLE 9: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT TELEVISION VIEWING
Going over to Television, the total percentage of viewers constitutes 93.75%, while that of non – viewers are only 6.25%.
Once again the male respondents outnumber the female viewers with 73.09%, followed by female respondents (26.91%).
Largest number of viewers is between the age group of 18 – 37 years with 68.40%, followed by other age groups.
More number of viewers are from the Matriculation category (46.42%), followed by the Graduates (16.05%) and PUC group (11.85%). It is also noted that about 7.65% of the illiterates also watch Television.
Thus, Television medium, which has grown over the years as the masses of all media, has attracted large number of respondents including male respondents, educated sections, and young age group of respondents.
TABLE 10: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT VIEWING VARIOUS TELEVISION CHANNELS
Click here to see the Table 10
The data reveal that Udaya channel has the maximum viewers (90.97%), followed by E – TV (59.72%), Chandana (49.30%), DD 1 (47.37%), Ushe (45.37%), Sun TV (31.71%), Kaveri (30.76%), Suprabhatha (22.91%) and BBC (11.57%). The regional Kannada channels have been accessible to a majority of the respondents.
More than 70% of the male respondents have access to Udaya, Chandana, DD 1, and E –TV (Kannada). Kaveri, Ushe, and Suprabhatha channels are catering to the needs of more than 60% of the respondents. In case of female respondents, Suprabhatha, Sun TV, Ushe, Kaveri, DD 1, Chandana and Udaya channels are more accessible.
Sun TV, Ushe, E – TV and Kaveri channels are found more accessible to the younger age group of respondents. The respondents with matriculation background view Suprabhatha, Kaveri, Sun TV, E - TV, Chandana, Udaya and DD 1 Channels in large numbers.
Thus, the Kannada programmes are found to be more accessible Television channels, rather than other channels to majority of respondents irrespective of gender, age and educational categories.
TABLE 11: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT CINEMA VIEWING
As regards watching Cinema, about 83% of the respondents have answered positively, while 17% of them do not watch Films.
The number of male respondents exceeded the females with 72.27% in this regard. However, about 27.78% of the female respondents watch Films.
The maximum number of viewers between the age group of 18 – 37 years (73.61%) watch Films, followed by the age group of 38 – 47 years (14.17%).
The respondents who belong to matriculation category have topped the chart with 49.17%, followed by the graduates with 16.39% and PUC category with 12.22%.
Thus, Films as an audio – visual medium of communication attract large number of respondents (83.33%), regardless of the gender, age and education factors
The data reveal that about 81% of the respondents watch Kannada films, followed by Hindi 36%, Regional films (19.21%) and English (14.81%). The male respondents out number the female respondents with 71.26% of viewer ship. Only about 28.74% of female respondents watch the films. It can also be noted that the age group of 18 – 27 years watch more number of Hindi films (47.43%), followed by English films (44%) and Kannada films (40.22%). The respondents within the age group of 38 – 47 prefer English films (17.20%).
The respondents who belong to matriculation category, prefer Kannada films (54.88%), followed by English (39.06%) and then Hindi (44.20%). However, the graduates prefer English films (28.12%), followed by Hindi (24.36%) and then Kannada (15.80%). Those who have studied upto PUC prefer Hindi (17.30%). While the postgraduates prefer English films (10.93%). The illiterates watch Kannada films (8.33%) mainly.
A great majority of the respondents (80.55%) watch films. The male respondents, young (18 – 37 years) and the matriculation category watch more number of Kannada films.
TABLE 13: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT ACCESS TO ADVERTISEMENTS IN GENERAL
An effort was made by the researchers to find out as to whether the respondents read or watch the advertisements in various media.
A large number of respondents (84.71%) have reported that, they have watched advertisements broadcast over Television. Other media advertisements, which have attracted the attention of the respondents, are Outdoor advertising (67.59%), Cinema (47.69%), Radio (41.20%) and Newspaper & Magazines (30.79%).
Majority of the male respondents have seen the Outdoor advertisements (78.08%), followed by Radio (74.16%), Television (72.40%), Newspaper and Magazines (71.43%) and Cinemas (69.42%). Majority of younger generation (18 – 37 years) also watch advertisements in various media namely, Cinema (83.49%), Newspaper and Magazines (72.77%), Outdoors media (70.18%), and Television (68.06%).
The respondents with matriculation background and above are in touch with the advertisements disseminated by Television and Outdoor media respectively.
Thus, a majority of the respondents have access to advertisements disseminated by Mass media and Outdoor media.
COMMERCIAL AND PUBLIC SERVICE ADVERTISEMENTS
RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT ACCESS TO COMMERCIAL AND PUBLIC SERVICE
TABLE 14: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT ACCESS TO COMMERCIAL AND PUBLIC SERVICE ADVERTISEMENTS
The researchers also made another attempt to find out as to whether the Commercial and Public Service Advertisements were accessible to the respondents or not.
To a question on access to Commercial and Public Service Advertisements, most respondents said that they had access to Commercial Advertisements (76.62%). However, 44% of them have also remained in touch with Public Service Advertisements.
The media exposure of the male respondents is higher than female respondents. They watch more Commercial Advertisements (72.20%) and Public Service Advertisements (58.12%) when compared to female respondents who have access to Public Service Advertisements (44.21%) than Commercial Advertisements (27.79%).
A large number of young generation respondents (18 – 37 years) have access to more Commercial Advertisements (70.68%) and Public Service Advertisements (58.64%) respectively. Similarly, more number of respondents with matriculation background have more access to Commercial Advertisements (55.58%). Others with pre-university and university educational background have more access to Public Service Advertisements (58.88%) than Commercial Advertisements (37.44%).
KARNATAKA STATE GOVERNMENT ADVERTISEMENTS.
The Government of Karnataka has implemented series of development projects with a view to empower people. The Information Department is a nodal agency, which informs, educates and motivates the people in order to facilitate their active participation in the process of development. This department makes use of various mass media and extension media to disseminate the advertisements on various projects launched by the State Government. The researchers tried to find out the various media, which disseminate State Government Advertisements in general and the merits and de-merits of these advertisements in particular.
The respondents were asked to identify the media, which are disseminating the Karnataka state government advertisements to them. Interestingly, the respondents have identified Film Slides (40.97%) and Newspaper and Wall Hangings (35.65%) as more accessible channels of advertisements on various plans and programmes of the Government. They have also identified some other channels of advertisements in this regard. They include Tin plates (34.95%), Radio (28%), Hoardings (27.77%), Billboards (24.53%), Kiosks (20.8%), Railings (18.98%), Banners (18.98), Magazines (16.90%) and other channels (9.72%). Wall writings, Public Announcements etc., come under other channels of advertisements. Thus, the respondents have opined that Karnataka State Government Advertisements are disseminated through variety of media. However, out door advertising media like Film Slides, Wall Hangings, Tin Plates, Hoarding, Billboard, Kiosk, Railings, Banners etc., are found as the more accessible channels of Karnat aka State Government Advertisements. Mass media channels like newspaper, radio and magazines come next only to outdoor advertisements media in this regard.
TABLE 15: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT ACCESS TO DIFFERENT MEDIA OF KARNATAKA STATE GOVERNMENT ADVERTISEMENTS.
Click here and see the table 15
UNDERSTANDING THE GOVERNMENT PROGRAMMES THROUGH ADVERTISEMENTS
TABLE 16: RESPONDENTS
VIEWS ABOUT THE SOURCES OF KARNATAKA STATE GOVERNMENT ADVERTISEMENTS
TABLE 16: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT THE SOURCES OF KARNATAKA STATE GOVERNMENT ADVERTISEMENTS
The respondents were asked to name the sources through which they have come in touch with various development programmes launched by the Government of Karnataka.
The data reveal that more number of respondents have come in touch with the development programmes of the State Government Through Film Slides (43.06%), Newspaper (42.13%), Radio (13.65%), Display Materials (9.72%), and Magazines (5.32%). Thus, Film Slides, Newspapers, Radio, Display Materials and Printed Materials have disseminated Public Service Advertisements to the people in our state. Film slides and Newspapers have proved beyond doubt that they are the dominant media of advertisement.
The outdoor advertisements disseminated by Information Department and other Government agencies too, have not attracted the attention of the respondents on government policies and programmes to a considerable extent. Thus, outdoor advertisements (Display Materials) and printed materials are the major source of Karnataka State Government Advertisements.
TABLE 17: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ABOUT EFFECTIVENESS OF KARNATAKA STATE GOVERNMENT ADVERTISEMENTS
The respondents were asked to make an assessment with respect to the effectiveness of Government advertisements. The data reveal that the respondents have expressed their dissatisfaction over the effectiveness of the Karnataka State Government advertisements. The break up of responses can be understood through the above table. Thus, a sizeable number of respondents have not found them as effective in nature.
UTILITY OF ADVERTISEMENTS
TABLE 18: RESPONDENTS VIEWS ON THE UTILITY OF GOVERNMENT ADVERTISEMENTS
The respondents were asked to make an assessment of the utility of government advertisements. The data reveal that a majority of the respondents have expressed their dissatisfaction over the utility of the Karnataka State Government advertisements. The above table clearly reveals the break-up of responses in this regard. Thus, a majority of the respondents have not found the advertisements as useful.
MODIFYING CONTENTS OF ADVERTISEMENTS
TABLE 19: SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS OF CONTENTS OF ADVERTISEMENTS
The respondents were asked to suggest suitable modifications with respect to the contents of advertisements of government programmes. The break up of responses in this regard include: Use of Simple Language (38.19%), Use of Attractive Pictures (31.94%), Use of Authentic Facts and Figures (33.10%), Use of Local Language / Dialect (35.42%) and Use of Attention Compellers (37.27%).
An “Evaluation of the Impact of Karnataka State Government Advertisements on People” has made the following revelations:
1. A majority of respondents are associated with newspapers (84.26%), magazines (45.83%), radio (53.70%), television (93.75%) and film (83%). In this electronic age, television has emerged as the massest of all mass media. The newspapers have not lost readership base in this new age of information revolution. However, magazines and radio have not been able to retain the readership and listeners base. They are affected by the television boom.
2. A large number of respondents have access to advertisements disseminated by mass media in general. The media advertisements that have attracted the attention of the respondents, include television (84.72%), newspapers and magazines (30.79%), film (47.69%), radio (41.20%) and outdoors advertisements (67.59%). However, advertisements disseminating through films, radio and magazines have not been able to attract the attention of large number of respondents. They are affected by the television, outdoor channels, newspapers and magazines which have emerged as dominant media of information, education and advertisement.
3. Both commercial (76.62%) and public service advertisements (44.21%) are accessible to the respondents. In particular, commercial advertisements reach out to a great majority of respondents.
4. The respondents have identified film slides (40.97%), newspapers (35.65%), wall hangings (35.65%), tin plates (34.95%), radio (28%), hoardings (27.77%), bill board (24.53%), kiosks (20.8%), banners (18.99%), railings (18.98%), magazines (16.90%) and other channels (9.72%) as the source of State Government advertisements. Wall writings, public announcements etc., come under the category of other channels.
5. Prominent sources of government advertisements identify by the respondents are audio-visual, print and outdoor media. The electronic media are not widely accessible to the respondents from the point of view of government advertising.
6. A majority of respondents have rated the advertisements disseminated on various development projects by various media as not effective and useful. The respondent is not happy with the media and methods of advertising with respect to development projects.
7. The respondents have sought modifications of advertising contents, namely use of simple language (38.19%), attractive pictures (31.94%), authentic facts and figures (33.10%) localized language/contents (34.42%) and attention compellers (37.27%).
The vision of twenty-first century may remain empty and the
progress toward that goal tardy if he fail to rejuvenate the information
systems and widen the base of informed, skilled and competent people for
participatory, balanced and sustainable development in Karnataka state.
The future agenda for Information Department must deal with the
process of people’s participation in development in which related
processes such as evolving a suitable state level information policy,
developing decentralised information network, guiding the State
government on information planes and programmes, monitoring the utility
of information and advertising campaigns and guarding public interest
are also addressed.
The general suggestions include:
The specific suggestions are evolved in five fronts namely, advertising policy formulation, advertising media selection, advertising message formulation, advertising evaluation and advertising direction.
ADVERTISING POLICY FORMULATION
It is not fair on the part of government to release
advertisements to all the newspapers, which fail to reach out to the
people in letter and spirit. There
are a good number of fake newspapers which exist on paper only to get
newsprint and advertisement. A
district level-monitoring agency could be established in order to check
the growth of fake newspapers and prevent release of government
this, the newspapers which enjoy the benefits of highest circulation and
credibility should be given opportunity to disseminate government
advertisements. There is no
justification in releasing advertisements to malnourished and fake
newspapers. An advisory committee can also be constituted at the district
level to advise the government in this regard.
Newspapers and television which are accessible to a majority of
people should get government advertisement among mass media. Outdoor media are more effective channels of advertisements
especially in rural areas.
ADVERTISING MEDIA SELECTION
All media of communication cannot do equal justice to their role
in disseminating government advertisements.
Television, newspapers and outdoor advertising media can be the
ideal media mix for disseminating government advertisements.
Other media like film, radio, magazine etc., need not be used as
channels of advertising since they have their own limitations in this
ADVERTISING MESSAGE FORMULATION
The present set of messages does not reflect originality,
creativity and capability. Using simple language, authentic facts, local idioms and
phrases and attention compellers can enhance the quality of advertising
messages. Experts in
message formulation can be consulted to improve the quality of contents
Formal evaluation of advertising campaigns and contents would
felicitate better modifications. The
advertising services can be improved on the basis of authentic data
rather than rough work and guesswork.
An evaluation wing can be created in the Information Department
to improve the delivery system on the basis of systematic evaluation.
A committee of experts can be constituted in order to provide professional direction. Policy makers, academicians and professionals can be involved in this committee with a view to enhance professional excellence and accountability. This kind of direction given by the veterans and experts would make state government advertisements more effective and purposeful.
The policy makers have to accord a place of pride to development
communication which is a neglected sector.
Scientific evaluation and critical appraisal are required to open
the eyes of the policy makers and professionals.
Advertising has emerged over the years as a critical factor in the
process of development. So
long as advert ising management remains divorced from the overall
objectives of integrated development, the goal of empowerment of people
would remain unfulfilled. The
state government, media institutions, academic institutions, research and
development organizations have to work in close collaboration toward
designing an alternative information, publicity, propaganda and
advertising campaigns. The
implications of the findings of the present evaluation are enumerated in
this report with a fond hope that the policy makers would consider
advertising strategy as a sub-system of the overall development system and
ensure optimum and judicious use of media in proper combinations toward
achieving integrated development in Karnataka state.