Rural broadcasting is critical
for dairy development. District radio stations and low power
TV centres can play a significant role in encouraging proper dairying
practices, write Dr
B P MAHESH CHANDRA GURU
What is India News Service
contribution of agriculture in the country’s GDP accounts for about
25% of which the share of the livestock sector is about 65%.
This indicates the significant role of dairying in the
socio-economic progress of the country.
Karnataka has always remained in the forefront of all
agricultural development initiatives in the country and development is
no exception. Dairy
development in Karnataka has a long and cherished history.
It stands 6th in milk production in the country.
It occupies the third position in milk production
under the cooperative sector in the country.
The role of communication is as important in the process of dairy
development as it is in the process of national development.
Thus, communication is a major development resource.
The present study evaluates the media intervention for dairy
development at the grassroots level in Karnataka State.
development support communication facilities have been expanded over the
years in Karnataka and elsewhere.
There are certain limitations and drawbacks on the part of various
communication media especially at the grassroots level from the point of
view of dairy development. Although
media intervention for dairy development is important, attempts to
develop suitable media intervention strategies and packages and to
evaluate the role of media in dairy development have been inadequate.
The crucial importance of media intervention for dairy progress
cannot be ignored.
Dairy development is indeed a very important sector of farm
development in India.
(1975), Ranganathan and Jayashankar (1976), Reddy and Singh (1977),
Narasimha Murthy (1981), Nataraj and Chhene Gowda (1985), Singh (1989),
Patel (1993), Dubey (1997), Raul Tiwary et.al (1999), Goswamy et.al.
(2000), Rezvanfar (2001) and others have assessed the role of various
media from the point of view of farm development in general and dairy
development in particular.
Few researchers in Karnataka have also assessed the role of couple of communications media in the process of dairy development. They include: Ranganathan and Jayashankar, 1976; Singh, 1989; Benki, 1990; Hema et.al. 1992; and others. The major deficiency observed in their investigations was the lack of emphasis on media intervention for dairy development with special reference to Karnataka State. Grassroots level dairy development support communication scenario of Karnataka State is less understood due to lack of comprehensive communication investigation pertaining to dairy development in particular. A synthesis of the available literature also suggests that the dairy development communication scenario suffers from a series of limitations.
Significance Of The Study
Media exposure among farmers, acquisition of information, utility of
information, and participation of farmers in diary development are the concerns of this study. The study is likely to answer
several questions in the area of media intervention for diary development.
Few researchers have assessed the role of communication media
(traditional, modern and interpersonal) in the context of agriculture
development, sericulture development, horticulture development, rural
development and the like.
of the Problem
Media intervention for dairy development was considered in the study
because: (a) Communication occupies an enviable status in the process of
dairy development, (b) Dairying is a management intensive enterprise
compared to many others, (c) Dairy farmers in recent years are evincing
keen interests in expanding dairy enterprise because of recent
technological developments and remunerative returns from the enterprise,
(d) Karnataka’s pioneering efforts in expanding dairy sector with the
assistance from international and national agencies has motivated
considerable number of dairy farmers to take up dairying in urban and
rural areas, (e) Other states in the country are following the attempts
made by Karnataka to expand dairy enterprise, (f) Dairy enterprise is
playing a significant role in generating gainful employment opportunities
and boosting the economy of the state; and (g) A constant and consistent
research on the role of media in dairy development is imperative. The media intervention packages with reference to the development
are not adequately evaluated by our researchers. The major deficiency
observed in their works is lack of emphasis on media intervention for
integrated diary development. Hence,
this subject is chosen for study.
Of The Study
diary development being thrust area the research proposes to:
Study the socio-economic status of diary farmers.
Assess the dissemination of diary development programmes by media.
Analyze the diffusion of dairy management practices by media.
Evaluate the role of media in development; and
Suggest appropriate media intervention strategies and packages for
dairy development in particular.
in view the limitations of a researcher and the time frame available for a
doctoral research programme, two districts Kolar (developed area) and
Chamarajanagar (under-developed area) were selected for the study.
Chikkaballapur block in Kolar district and Gundlupet block in
Chamarajanagar district were selected as the locale of the study. In each
block five villages were selected for the purpose of primary data
collection. The criterion for the selection of the villages was based on
the status of development. In
terms of economic development, Kolar district is considered a developed
district and Chamarajanagar an under-developed district with
respect to economic development in general and dairy development in
particular. A total of
300 respondents from 10 villages of the two districts were selected for
the purpose of primary data collection. The distribution and selection of
the respondents was at random. However, families who practiced dairy
farming were considered for the study.
In all 150 respondents from each block were selected randomly among
the dairy farming families for primary data collection.
In the present investigation, Ex-post-facto research design was
used. This design was
considered as appropriate because the phenomenon had already occurred.
The design is also appropriate, as the variables considered for the
study have had their effect in the field.
Collection and Analysis
research design conceived was exploratory type coming under Ex-post-facto
research. In the first stage
of analysis, independent variables like gender, age, educational level,
livestock holding, caste, income source and annual income were tabulated
against the responses provided by the respondents to the questions asked
in the interview schedule. In
the second stage of analysis, Chi-square test was applied to find the
significance of difference between the independent and dependent
variables. The study being descriptive in nature, no parametric
statistical tests were involved to draw inferences based on the sample
results. The interpretation
of the Chi-square test justify the assumption of independence which was
primarily carried out at the 0.05 percent level of significance.
findings of the study are classified under three different heads, namely
a. dissemination of dairy
development programme by media, b. diffusion
of dairy management practices
by media and c. role of media in dairy development.
Dissemination Of Dairy Development Programme By Media
B. Diffusion Of Dairy Management Practices By Media
C. Role of Media in Dairy Development
The implications of the findings of the study with reference to Central, State, Local-Self Governments, Non-Government Organizations, Media Organizations and Research Institutions in specific terms are given below.
A. Implications for Government of India
The Government Of India may consider constituting a National Dairy
Development Board consisting of experts, activists and beneficiaries to
monitor dairy development scenario at various levels.
This board may also consider the need for planning media
intervention packages and programmes at national, regional and grassroots
level as effective instrument of dairy development.
The Government of India may also consider expanding media units
namely, Prasar Bharati Corporation, Directorate of Field Publicity,
Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity and Song and Drama
Division at the district level so that these media units can make apparent
contribution for grassroots level farm development including dairy
Implications for Karnataka State Government
The Government of Karnataka may also consider formulating state level agricultural policy which would boost farm sector including dairying. A state level dairy development board may also be constituted with a view to facilitate comprehensive dairy development. The Directorate of Information does not have block level network, plans and programmes. The Government of Karnataka may establish a block level information network and provide decentralized information services for farm development including dairying.
for Jilla Panchayat Samithi, Taluk Panchayat Samithi and Gram Panchayat
The Jilla Panchayat Samithi can consider dairy development as a priority- based activity and pool communication resources for rural development, agricultural development, dairy development and so on. Special media campaigns and publications are required to boost dairy development at the district level. Similar exercises are required at block and community levels. Grassroots level workshops, publicity campaigns and participatory communication exercises are required to boost dairy development.
Implications for Non-Government Organizations.
The Non-Government Organizations namely, Peasant Organizations, Worker’s Unions, Youth Clubs, Women’s Association, Welfare Associations and so on have neglected dairy development. These organizations may join the local-self government organizations, development departments, banks, co-operatives, media institutions and other welfare organizations and strengthen their efforts toward persuading the people to take active part in dairy developmental activities. These organizations may increase the budgetary allocations for dairy development support communication activities at the grassroots level and organize group discussions, exhibitions, demonstrations, film shows, special lectures and other participatory communication exercises.
Implications for Media Organizations.
The regional and local newspapers and magazines have to accord pride of place for development journalism in general and farm journalism in particular. Special pages, supplementaries, columns, write-ups etc., are required on various aspects of dairy development since it would alleviate rural poverty and generate gainful employment opportunities in the present times. Critical appraisal of various development activities including dairying is a must to open the eyes of policy makers, administrators, activists and beneficiaries. These newspapers and magazines have to provide proper feed back to the policy makers on the shortcomings of dairy development projects.
The electronic media namely radio and television have to develop sufficient rural bias. Rural broadcasting is a critical factor in the process of development. There may be district level radio stations and low power television centers since rural development assumed new significance. The existing software has to be replaced with rurally relevant, timely and need-based software. Adequate programmes on various aspects of farm development including dairying are required in good number.
New Communication Technologies.
We are living in the age of ‘Information-explosion’. Satellite communication, telecommunication and computer communication can be utilized for the purpose of dairy development on a priority basis.
Multi-media campaigns should be envisaged as a holistic approach to communication support to integrated rural development. Multi-media campaigns are launched in selected districts on the advice of the National Level Media Coordination Committee. These multi-media campaigns have not been extended to Karnataka State. A mixture of printed literature, audio-visual channels, new communication technologies, demonstrations, exhibitions, group discussions, special lectures, field publicity and advertising campaigns constitute multi-media package. Multi-media campaigns are required to boost dairy development in Karnataka State.
The importance of dairy development forming the core of agriculture
development strategies is increasingly recognized.
Development communication is the premise of progress in our modern
society. Dairy development
demands planned, deliberate, systematic and sustainable media intervention
strategies and packages. A
concern regarding how to plan dairy development support communication for
the diverse and locally relevant groups leads logically to alternative
media intervention strategies for dairy development.
We need a communication strategy which should be considered as a
sub-system of overall dairy development system.
Optimum use of all communication channels in proper combinations
can certainly bring about comprehensive dairy development in rural areas. The future agenda for dairy development support communication
at the grassroots level must deal with media selection, media
coordination, media integration, participatory communication, scientific
evaluation and other related aspects.
The government organizations, NGOs, media organizations and
agricultural universities have to work in close collaboration toward
designing result-oriented dairy development communication system and
operations in the rural areas of Karnataka State and Indian Republic.
Dr Mahesh Chandra Guru is Professor & Chairman, Department of Communication and Journalism, University of Mysore. E. Narayanappa is Associate Professor, Department of Dairy Extension, Dairy Science College, UAS, Bangalore.