Tamil Nadu - Introduction @ whatisindia.com

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Saturday, April 14, 2007


 

Tamil Nadu


 

Quick Information

State Area (Sq. Km.)

130,058

State Capital

Chennai

Major Language(s)

Tamil

Number of Districts

30

Population

62,405,679

Males

31,400,909

Females

31,004,770

Growth Rate 1991-2001

11.19 %

Density

479.83

Urban Population

43.86 %

Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 Males)

987

Literacy Rate

73.45 %

Males

82.33 %

Females

64.55 %

Legislature

Legislative Assembly

Judicature

High Court, Chennai

Governor

Sri Surjit Singh Barnala

Address

Raj Bhawan Chennai-600022

Office No.

91-44-25670099

Residence No.

03592 - 22351313

Fax

+91-44-22350570

email

 E-mail : governor@tn.nic.in

Chief Minister

Dr. Kalaignar M Karunanidhi

Address

 ----

Office No.

044 - 25672345

Residence No.

 -----

Fax

044 - 25671441

email

cmcell@tn.gov.in
Chief Secretary Shri L.K.Tripathy

Address

Chennai-600009.

Office No.

044 - 25671555

Residence No.

 044 - 24794585

Fax

044 - 25672304, 25677128, 25670949

email

 homesec@tn.gov.in

  

  

General Information

Location

Located in South India, Tamil Nadu is bounded north by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, east by the Bay of Bengal, south by the Indian Ocean and west by Kerala.

Geography

The landmass of the state can be divided into two natural divisions: the eastern coastal plain and the hilly region along the north and the west.  Along the whole length of the western part, at a distance from the sea varying from 80 to 160 km runs the range of the Western Ghats, a steep and rugged mass averaging 1220 metres above the sea level and rising to 2440 metres at the highest at the highest point.  The Palghat Gap about 25 km in width is the only marked break in the great mountain wall.  To the south of this gap, the range is known as Anamalai (Elephant Hills).  On the east are the Palani Hills on which is situated the famous hill station Kodaikanal.  The slopes of the Western Ghats are covered with heavy evergreen forests.  The Nilgiris and the Anamalai are the hill groups with the maximum height.  In the famous Ootacamund area of the Nilgiris District, is the highest peak Doddabetta, 2640 metres above the sea level.  The rivers of the state flow eastward from the Western Ghats and are entirely rain-fed.  The perennial rivers are: Palar, Cheyyar, Ponnaiyar, Kaveri, Meyar, Bhavani, Amaravati, Vaigai, Chittar and Tamaraparani.  The non-parennial rivers are the Vellar, Noyal, Surili, Gundar, Vaipar, Valparai and Varshali.  The 760-km long Kaveri is the great river of the state.

History

The history of Tamil Nadu goes back to the age of the Sangams when a great civilization flourished reaching new heights in the fields of art, literature of occultism.  During the medieval ages, it proudly preserved the heritage of the nation unperturbed by the ravages of the Muslim inroads in Northern India.  The first trading establishment made by the British in the Madras State was at Peddapali (now Nizampatnam) in 1611 and then at Masulipatnam.  In 1639, the English were permitted to make a settlement at the place, which is now Madras and Fort St. George was founded.  By 1801, the whole of the territory from the Northern Circars of Cape Comorin (with the exception of certain French and Danish settlements) had been brought under British rule.

Under the provisions of the States Reorganization Act, 1956, the Malabar district (excluding the islands of Laccadive and Minicoy) and the Kasaragod taluk of South Kanara district were transferred to the new State of Kerala; the South Kanara district (excluding Kasaragod taluk and the Amindivi Islands) and the Kollegal taluk of the Coimbatore district were transferred to the new State of Mysore; and the Laccadive, Amindivi and Minicoy Islands were constituted as a separate Union Territory.  Four taluks of the Thiruvananthapuram district and the Shencottah taluk of Quilon district were transferred from Travancore-Cochin in the new Madras State.  On April 1, 1960, an area of 1,049 sq km (405 sq miles) from Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh was transferred to Madras in exchange for 845 sq km (326 sq miles) from the Chingleput and Salem districts.  In January 1969, the State was renamed Tamil Nadu.

Reference:
Manorama Year Book 2007

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