Punjab - Introduction @ whatisindia.com

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Saturday, April 14, 2007


 

Punjab


 

Quick Information

State Area (Sq. Km.)

50,362

State Capital

Chandigarh

Major Language(s)

Punjabi

Number of Districts

20

Population

24,289,296

Males

12,963,362

Females

11,325,934

Growth Rate 1991-2001

19.76 %

Density

482

Urban Population

33.95 %

Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 Males)

874

Literacy Rate

69.95 %

Males

75.63 %

Females

63.55 %

Legislature

Legislative Assembly

Judicature

High Court, Chandigarh

Governor

General (Retd.) S.F. Rodrigues, PVSM, VSM

Address

Raj Bhawan, Chandigarh

Office No.

0172 - 2740740

Residence No.

0172 - 2740740, 2740608

Fax

0172 - 2741058

email

                =

Chief Minister

Sardar Prakash Singh Badal

Address

45, Sector 2, Chandigarh

Office No.

0172 - 2740325, 2740769

Residence No.

0172 - 2741322, 2741758, 2740737, 0175 - 2219827

Fax

0172 - 2741821

email

 --------
Chief Secretary Sri K.R.  Lakhanpal, IAS/ PB : 72

Address

1/7-A

Office No.

(0172) - 2740156, 2740860,

Residence No.

(0172) - 2792761

Fax

                   =

email

                   =

  

  

General Information

Location

Punjab is bounded by Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Rajasthan and Haryana in the south, Himachal Pradesh in the east and Pakistan in the west.

History

The Vedic civilization got its birth and the great Vedas were composed on the banks of its five rivers.  Punjab is the cradle of the Indus Valley Civilization, more than 4000 years old. Archaeological excavations, throughout the state, have revealed evidences of the magnificent cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, that lived and died along the banks of the mighty Indus and its tributaries. The Mahabharata, which narrates life between the 7th and 5th century BC, contains rich descriptions of the land and people of Punjab at that time. It is believed that parts of the Ramayana too, were written around the Shri Ram Tirath Ashram, near Amritsar; and it was in these forests that Lav and Kush grew up.

Other great historical discoveries have been unearthed at Ropar, Kiratpur, Dholbaha, Rohira and Ghuram. These relics throw light on the culture and changing architectural styles of Punjab, since the Harappan age. At Sanghol, in Fatehgarh Sahib district near Ludhiana, sites associated with great Mauryan Dynasty, have yielded remarkable relics that record the presence of Buddhism in the region.

Punjab is the sword-arm of India. During the medieval ages, it decided the fate of various ruling dynasties of the country. After the downfall of the Mughals and the Marathas, Ranjit Singh established in Punjab a strong state based on patriotism and secularism. The English captured Punjab in 1848.  It was constituted as an autonomous province of India in 1937.  

On attainment of Independence, the province was partitioned between India and Pakistan into East Punjab and West Punjab respectively, under the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the boundaries being determined under the Radcliffe Award. The name of East Punjab was changed to Punjab under the Constitution of India. On November 1, 1956 the erstwhile States of Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) were integrated with Punjab to form the State of Punjab. On November 1, 1966, under the Punjab Reorganization Act, 1966, the State was reconstituted as a Punjabi-speaking State comprising the districts of Gurdaspur (excluding Dalhousie), Amristar, Kapurthala, Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Bathinda, Patiala and Ludhiana, parts of Sangrur, Hoshiarpur and Ambala districts, and parts of Kharar tehsil. The remaining area comprising an area of 46,620 sq km (18,000 sq miles) and an estimated (1967) population of 8.5 million was shared between the new States of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. The existing capital of Chandigarh was made the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana.

References:

Manorama Year Book 2007

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