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Sunday, February 25, 2007


South Indian Inscriptions


Part - II

Miscellaneous Inscriptions From the Tamil Country

VII.- Inscriptions of Vikrama Chola

No. 79 Inscriptions of Tirumalavadi

No. 80 Inscriptions in the Arulala-Perumal temple at Conjeeveram

The following is a list of the inscriptions of Vikrama-Chola, the son and successor of Kulottunga I., which have been copied so far.

I. Tamil inscriptions opening with the words poomaalai midainthu.

  1. 4th year : Tanjore, above, Vol. II. No. 68.

  2. 4th year : Manimangalam, No. 33 above.

  3. 4th year : Tiruvidaimarudur, No. 138 of 1895.[1]

  4. 5th year : Tiruvengadu, No. 121 of 1896.[2]

  5. 5th year : Tiruvarur, No. 164 of 1894.[3]

  6. 7th year : Tiruvidaimarudur, No. 139 of 1895.

  7. 8th year : Tiruvotttur, No. 88 of 1900.

  8. 11th year : Alangudi, No. 165 of 1894.

  9. 15th year : Tirumalavadi, No. 79 below.

II. Tamil inscriptions opening with the words poomaadhu punara.

  1. 5th year : Tiruvidaimarudur, No. 130 of 1895.

  2. 6th year : Madurantakam, No. 128 of 1896.

  3. 6th year : Achcharapakkam, No. 257 of 1901.

  4. 7th year : Tiruvottur, No. 87 of 1900.

  5. 7th year : Achcharapakkam, No. 258 of 1901.

  6. 9th year : Conjeeveram, No. 80 below.

  7. 9th year : Pallavaram, No. 314 of 1901.

  8. Date lost : Pallavaram, No. 324 of 1901.

  9. [9]th year : Madurantakam, No. 263 of 1901.

  10. 14th year : Pallavaram, No. 318 of 1901.

  11. 15th year : Uttaramallur, No. 68 of 1898.

  12. [1]xth year : Tillasthanam, No. 30 of 1895.

III. A Tamil inscription without introduction.

11th year : Koviladi, No. 276 of 1901.[4]

IV. Two Telugu inscriptions

  1. Saka-Samvat 1049 : Chebrolu.[5]

  2. Saka-Samvat 1054 : Nidubrolu.[6]

V.  A Sanskrit inscription at Sevilimedu : 16th year.

The Chellur plates of Kulottunga-Choda II.[7] and the Pithapuram inscription of Mallapadeva[8] stae that Vikrama-Choda was the son and successor of the Eastern Chalukya king Kulottunga-Cholda I. or Rajendra-Choda (II).  The Pithapuram inscription adds that he bore the surname Tyagasamudra, that he went to govern the Choda country, and that after his departure the country of Vengi became devoid of a ruler.  On the strength of these statements I have identified Vikrama-Choda with the hero fo the Vikkirama-Solan-Ula,  in which his surname Tyagasamudra occurs, and with the Chola king Parakesarivarman, alias Vikrama-Choladeva, whose inscriptions inform us that he originally resided in the Vengai country and that he left it to ascend the Chola throne.  The newly discovered Teki plates show that Vikrama-Choda was not, as was hitherto believed,[9] the eldest son of Kulottunga I., but a younger brother of Vira-Choda, the third son of Kulottunga I.[10]  As the two copper-plate grants which mention Madurantaka[11] do not contain the name of Vikrama-Choda, it remains doubtful whether his mother was Madurantaki or another of the queens of Kulottunga I.[12]  and, if the former should be the case, whether he came next to Vira-Choda in seniority or was another of the four younger sons of Madhurantaki.[13]

The Tamil inscriptions of Vikrama-Chola state that he left the North for the South and was crowned as Chola king.[14]  Professor Kielhorn’s calculations of the dates of his inscriptions in the Tamil and Telugu countries show that his coronation took place on (Approximately) the 29th June A.D. 1118.[15]  Guided by his Tamil inscriptions, we can distinguish three periods in the career of Vikrama-Chola.  The first of these was his expedition into the Kalinga country, which is mentioned in the first place in his Tamil inscriptions.  On this occasion he defeated the Telinga or Telunga Bhima of Kulam,[16] who was apparently one of the Nayakas of Ellore.[17]  The Kalinga war is also referred to in the inscriptions beginning with poomaadhu punara[18] and in the Vikkirama-Solan-Ula. An unpublished poem in honour of Kulottunga II., states that Akalankan (i.e., Vikrama-Chola), the son of Sungandavirtton[19] (i.e., Kulottunga I.), “accepted (from the author) the great poem (parani) about Kalinga.”  This is a distinct reference to the historical poem Kalingattu-Parani, which describes the conquest of Kalinga by Kulottunga I.  As Vikrama-Choda’s inscriptions place the Kalinga war not only before his coronation in A.D. 1118, but before his stay in Vengi, it must have taken place before the end of the reign of his father Kulottunga I.[20] and is perhaps identical with that expedition into Kalinga, which is ascribed to Kulottunga I. himself in his inscriptions and in the Kalingattu-Parani.  This expedition seems to have taken place before the 26th year of the reign of Kulottunga I., i.e., A.D. 1095-96.[21]

The second period in Vikrama-Chola’s career is marked in his inscriptions by the statement that hestayed for some time in the Vengai-mandalam and conquered the Northern region.  The Pithapuram inscription of Mallapadeva alludes to the same event in stating that he ruled over Vengi before he went to govern the Choda country.  Dr. Fleet has already concluded from this that he must have held the office of viceroy of vengi in succession of his brother Vira-Choda.[22] On the strength of the new materials which are now available, it may be added that the period of his viceroyalty probably extended to the date of his coronation in A.D. 1118, and that it cannot have commenced before A.D. 1092-93, the latest known date of his elder brother Vira-Choda.[23] The statement of the Pithapuram inscription of Mallapadeva that, after the departure of Vikrama-Choda to the Chola country the country of Vengi became devoid of a ruler suggests that his absence resulted in political troubles.  The Pithapuram inscription of Prithvisvara reports that Kulottunga I. bestowed the Vengi sixteen-thousand on “his adopted son” Choda of Velanandu.[24] An inscription of this chief at Draksharama shows that in A.D. 1120-21 he was a vassal of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI.[25] Who took advantage of Vikrama-Chola’s absence in the Chola country as co-regent of his father and of the subsequent death of Kulottunga I. for conquering the Vengi to Choda of Velanandu, but that the latter became a dependent of Vikramaditya VI. Who took advantage of Vikrama-Chola’s absence in the Chola country as co-regent of his father and of the Vikramaditya VI. At Draksharama range from A.D. 1120-21[26] to 1123-24.[27]  Shortly after, Vikrama-Chola must have re-conquered his northern dominions.  For, two inscriptions of his reign at Chebrolu and Nidubrolu are dated in A.D. 1127 and 1135.[28]

The third important point in Vikrama-Chola’s life is the date of his coronation as Chola king or, apparently, as co-regent of his father Kulottunga I., which according to Professor Kielhorn took place on (Approximately) the 29th June A.D. 1118.[29]  In the Pithapuram inscription of Mallapadeva this event is referred to by the statement that “he went to protect the Choda-mandala.”[30]  The Tanjore inscription of his 4th year uses in this connection a passage which is taken over from the inscriptions of Kulottunga I.[31]  Other inscriptions say that he went from the Northern to the Southern region, adopted the crest of the tiger, and put on the hereditary crown.[32]  In the introductory remarks to the inscriptions of Kulottunga I. I stated that his reign must have ended about A.D. 1119.  Hence he appears to have died shortly after the date of Vikrama-Chola’s coronation.

The Chellur plates of Kulottunga II. assign only 15 years to the reign of Vikrama-Chola.[33] But an inscription at Sevilimedu belongs to his 16th year,[34] and one of the 17th year at Nidubrolu, as calculated by Professor Kielhorn, is dated on the 18th April A.D. 1135.[35]  The Chellur plates of Vikrama-Chola’s successor Kulottunga-Choda II. are dated at an equinox in Saka-Samvat 1056, which would prima facie correspond to A.D. 1133 or 1134 ; but Professor Kielhorn has shown that Saka-Samvat 1056 is an error of the composer of the inscription for Saka-Samvat 1065, and that the date corresponds to the 24th March A.D. 1143.[36]

Parakesarivarman, alias Vikrama-Choladeva, had the surname Tyagasamudra, ‘the ocean of liberality,’ which occurs in the Pithapuram inscription of Mallapadeva[37] and in the Vikkirama-Solan-Ula.[38]  The Sevilimedu inscription of the 16th April A.D. 1134[39] contains the synonymous surname Tyagavarakara and another viz. Akalanka, ‘the spotless one.’[40] The latter is employed for Vikrama-Chola in the Kulottunga-Solan-Ula.[41]  As Mr. Venkayya informs me, it also occurs twice in the Kalingattu-Parani (ix. Verses 7 and 16), where it is doubtful whether Kulottunga I. or Vikrama-Chola is meant by it.  In a Telugu inscription at Chebrolu, Vikrama-Chola assumes the same birudas which had been borne by his father.[42]  He also inherited from the latter the title Tribhuvanachakravartin,[43] whch is prefixed to his name in all his Telugu and Tamil inscriptions, with theexception of an inscription of the 5th year (No. 130 of 1895), where he is called Udaiyar, and of two inscriptions of the 7th and 14th years (Nos. 258 and 318 of 1901), where he is styled Chakravartin.

Of the inscriptions opening with poomadhu punara those of the 5th to 9th years[44] mention as Vikrama-Chola’s queen Mukkokkilanadigal, and those of the 9th to 15th years[45] Tribhuvanamulududaiyal.  Hence Mukkokkilanadigal must have died in the course of the 9th year, i.e., A.D. 1126-27.  The inscriptions beginning with poomaalai midainthu corroborate this fact.  For, those of the 4th to 8th years[46] mention as his chief queen Mukkokkilanadi and as his favourite[47] Tyagapataka, surnamed Tribhuvanamulududaiyal, and five of them (Nos. 3 – 7) state besides that Mukkokkilanadigal shared his throne.  In those of the 11th and 15th years[48] she is not named any more, but Tyagapataka, surnamed Tribhuvanamulududaiyal, is mentioned in the first place, next to her Dharanimulududaiyal, and at the end Tribhuvanamulududaiyal (i.e., Tyagapataka) is stated to have shared his throne.  This shows that she succeeded the defunct Mukkokkilanadigal as chief queen, while for herself a fresh substitute was appointed in Dharanimulududaiyal.

[1]  Ep. Ind. Vol.  IV. P. 263, No. 21, and Vol. VII. P. 3.

[2]  Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 263, No. 22, and Vol. VII. P. 3.

[3]  Above, Vol. II. p. 309 ; Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 73, No. 10, and Vol. VII. P. 3 f.

[4]  Ep. Ind. Vol. VII. P. 4, No. 58.

[5]  Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. P. 223 ff. and p. 280, No. 42.

[6]  Ibid. p. 281, No. 43, and Vol. VII. P. 5.

[7]  Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. P. 55.

[8]  Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 241.

[9]  Above, Vol. I. p. 32, Vol. III. p. 131, and Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. P. 282 f.

[10]  Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. P. 335.

[11]  Above, Vol. I. No. 39, verse 12, and Ep. Ind. Vol. V. No. 10, verse 11.

[12]  See p. 177 above, and Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. P. 344, verse 11.

[13]  Above, Vol. I. No. 39, verse 13, and Ep. Ind. Vol. V. No. 10, verse 12.

[14]  Above, Vol. II. p. 308, and below, No. 79, II. 9 – 12.

[15]  Ep. Ind. Vol. VII. P. 5.

[16]  Above, Vol. II. p. 311 ; Vol. III. No. 33, 1. 5, and No. 79, 1. 8.

[17]  See above, Vol. II. p. 308.

[18]  No. 80 below, I. 1.

[19]  On this surname see p. 131 above.

[20]  See p. 131 above..

[21]  See p. 130 above, and Ind. Ant. Vol. XIX. P. 338.

[22]  Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. P. 282.

[23]  See Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. P. 335.

[24]  Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 50.

[25] Ibid. p. 37 f.

[26]  Nos. 345 and 393 of 1893.

[27]  No. 359 of 1893.

[28]  See above, p. 179, notes 2 and 3.

[29]  See above, p. 179, note 14.

[30]  Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. No. 33, verse 24.

[31]  See above, Vol. II. p. 308 and note 4.

[32]  Below, No. 79, II. 9 – 12.

[33]  Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. P. 55.

[34]  See above, p. 179 and note 4.

[35]  See above, p. 179, note 3.

[36]  Ep. Ind. Vol. VII. P. 9 f.

[37]  Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. No. 33, verse 24.

[38]  Above, Vol. II. p. 309 and note 1 ; and Vol. III. p. 180, note 4.

[39]  See above, p. 179, note 4.

[40]  Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. P. 229, verse 1.

[41]  See page 180 above.

[42]  Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. Pp. 224 and 227.

[43]  See p. 131 above.

[44]  Nos. 1 – 8 of clause II. on p. 178 f. above.

[45]  Nos. 9 – 12 on p. 179 above.

[46] Nos. 1 – 7 of clause I. on p. 178 above.

[47]  Compare above, Vol. II. p. 309.

[48]  Nos. 8 and 9 of clause I. on p. 178 above.

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