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Sunday, February 25, 2007


South Indian Inscriptions


Part - III

Miscellaneous Inscriptions From the Tamil Country

XIV.- Inscriptions of Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola

No. 123 to 125 Madhuvanesvara, Mahalingasvamin, Varaha-Perumal temples

No. 126 to 127 Chandrasekhara & Ghritasthanesvara temples

No. 128 Madras Museum plates of Uttama-Chola

No. 129 to 133 Nagesvarasvamin, Umambesvara, Adimulesvara temples

No. 134 to 137 Virattanesvara, Ujjivanathasvamin, Nagesvarasvamin temples

No. 138 to 141 Mahalingasvamin, Vatatirthanatha, Nedungalanatha temples

No. 142 Manikanthesvara temples at Tirumullaivayil

No. 143 to 147 Adhipurisvara, Apatsahayesvara, Umamahesvara temples

No. 148 to 150 Sivayoganathasvamin, Siddhanathasvamin temples

No. 151 Umamahesvarasvamin temple at Konerirajapuram

No. 151-A  On the east and north walls of the same shrine


This record which is dated in the 16th year of Parakesarivarman, registers a sale of land by the village assembly, for the maintenance of a lamp in the temple of Siva at Tirukkarugavur.  The inscription may be one of king Parakesarivarman uttama-Chola on account of its high regnal year, if not one of Parakesarivarman Parantaka I.

(Line 1.).  Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 3rd year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, (to the god) Mahadeva (Siva) of Tirukkarugavur.[2]

(L. 3.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 16th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, we the great men of the chief assembly (mula-parudai) of this village gave the following land free of taxes till the moon and the sun (endure) to this god Mahadeva (Siva) of Tirukkarugavur.

(L. 7.) Two ma of our land of Sabhaikuttuvan in the northern kandam of the land belonging to the sacred interior and one ma (of land) to the west of the southern kandam,—  in all, three ma of land comprised of two tadi ; and one kani of land (called) Sundaikuli in (the field called) Sabhaikuttuvan which being a mania is cultivated and is yielding crop; —  together, three ma and (one) kani of land including excess and deficiency (in measurement), (we) have sold and received thirty-one kasu of palavavu[3].  Having received these thirty-one kasu we the great men of the chief assembly sold this land (viz.,) three ma and kam[4] to (the god) Mahadeva (Siva) of Tirukkarugavur and exempted it from taxes, it being tax-free already, as long as the moon and the sun (endure).  This (shall be under)the protection of (the assembly of) all Mahesvaras.


This inscription is dated in the 4th year of Parakesarivarman and registers that the assembly of Tiraimur, the merchants of Tiruvidaimarudil (the modern Tiruvidaimarudur), the trustees and other officers of the temple assembled in the theatrical hall of the temple and made up an account of the gifts of gold made for maintaining lamps in that temple.  It is stated that the stones which bore the original inscriptions regardings these gifts were placed in underground cellars and when the temple was renovated, true copies were made of them and that from these copies the documents were re-incised on the stone walls of the renovated temple.  One such gift was that made by Kadupatttigal Nandippottaraiyar for burning a lamp called Kumaramartandan.

The acting of dramas in temples is mentioned in a Tanjore inscription of the time of Rajaraja I.  The present record contains, though incidentally, an earlier reference to dramatic performances by introducing the term nadagasalai in line 1.  The inscription gives us also an idea of how the important documents of a temple were engraved on stones and preserved in underground cellars and how when the temples had to be renovated they were copied over and re-engraved.

Kadupattigal Nandippottaraiyar may possibly be Nandivarman Pallavamalla of the Udayaendiram grant.[6]

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 4th year and [3]25th day of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, there being present in the theatrical hall (nadagasalai) of the god at Tiruvidaimarudil, the assembly of Tiraimur whose business it was to regulate the temple affairs (srikaryam) of this god, the merchants (nagarattar) of Tiruvidaimarudil, the trustees of the sacred temple, the temple-accountant Marudan Piramakutan, and the temple manager (srikaryamarayginra) Pusalankudaiyar, an account was made up of the lamps maintained from the interest (on money)deposited for (the benefit of) the god.

(L. 2.) All the documentary stones of (i.e., relating of) (investments on) interest (by the temple) having been copied over[7] and kept as on the stones which were placed below in the underground cellars, prior to the renovation of this temple (srikoyil) in stone, it was ordered that in the same manner as the transferred copies were made before (from the originals) (they) may now be re-engraved on the stones of the sacred stone temple; and (the following) (copy) was thus engraved on the stone:—  Kadupattigal Nandippottaraiyar gave 60 kalanju[8] of gold for a lamp called Kumaramarttandan.  One lamp (has to be maintained) from (one) uri of ghee to be measured (daily) by the (members of the) assembly of Tiraimur who received this sixty kalanju  of gold.


The record is dated in the 6th year of Parakesarivarman and registers a gift of gold for a lamp to the Manavala-Perumal temple at Tiruvaidavandai situated in Paduvur-nadu, a subdivision of Amur-kottam.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prsperity ! In the 6th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, we the villagers (urom) of Tiruvidavandai in Paduvur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Amur-kottam signed (the following deed) : -

(L. 2.) (Whereas) we have received thirty kalanju of gold from the hands of Nakkan Enadi, the headman of Innambar on the northern bank (of the Kaveri) in the Chola country (So-nadu), (we affirm that) we have received this gold and agree to measure 90 nali of oil (as interest) on this 30 kalanju of gold, at (one) ulakku of oil every day, for (burning) one perpetual lamp in (the temple of) Manavala-Perumal of this village.  We (thus) agreed and received the gold and shall measure for this gold and (quantity of) oil (agreed upon) as long as the moon land the sun (endure).  We the villagers (also) agree that we shall not pay gold and say (that it is for) interest[10].  If we fail (to do) this, we shall submit (to a fine of) four and a quarter kanam for each day (of default), in a court of justice after producing the undigai and pattigai (effects ?)  and we shall also pay as manrupadu (one) manjadi of gold for every day (of default), to the then-reigning king.  And paying this fine and the manrupadu, we the villagers (still) agree to measure out without (further) default to (the persons of) the tiruvunnaligai-variyam this (stipulated quantity of) oil for burning (the lamp).

[1]  No. 35 of 1910.

[2]  This must have been the beginning of a separate inscription which is left unfinished.

[3]  The exact meaning of this word is not clear.

[4]  The extent 3 ma and kani is expressed by numerical symbols.

[5]  No. 199 of 1907.

[6]  See above, Vol. II, pp. 361 ff.  For Kumaramartandan see p. 223 above.

[7]  The word eduttukondu seems to be used here in the sense of ‘having made or taken copies from’.

[8]  The word kalanju is here expressed by the symbol.

[9]  No. 268 of 1910.

[10]  The clause means that in no case would the interest be paid in gold but always in oil.

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