Inscriptions From the Tamil Country
Inscriptions at Tiruvallam
42 - On a boulder near Tiruvallam & No. 43 - Bilvanathesvara
44 to 47 Bilvanathesvara shrine
48 to 51 west, north, south wall of the shrine
52 to 54 wall shrine, & maha mandapa & nakulesvara shrine
55 to 57 Bilvanathesvara shrine, south wall of the maha mandapa
58 to 60 verandah round the Bilvan, maha mandapa, north of the tank
60 to 63 north wall of the maha mandapa & west wall of the
which I visited in 1889-90, is a village on the western bank of the
tributary of the Palaru. Of
the subjoined inscriptions, the first (No. 42) is found on a boulder
in the bed of the Niva river, and the remainder at the Siva temple
of Bilvanathesvara. Two
of the inscriptions (Nos. 42 and 43) belong to the reign of the
Ganga-Pallava king Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman.
His vassal was the Bana king Vikramaditya I.
(No. 43), whose queen Kundavvai
was the daughter of the Western Ganga king Prithivipati I. (Nos. 47
and 48). An unnamed
Bana king is mentioned in one of the two inscriptions of
Vijaya-Nandivikramavaran (No. 42) and in two other inscriptions
(Nos. 44 and 45), the first of which is dated in the Saka year
810. The remaining inscriptions belong to the reigns of the Chola
kings Rajaraja I. (Nos.
49 to 52), Rajendra-Chola I. (Nos. 53 and 54), Rajendra (No. 55),
Rajamahendra (No. 56), A[dhi]rajendra (No. 57), Kulottunga-Chola I.
(Nos. 58 and 59), Kulottunga-Chola III. (Nos. 60 to 62),
Vijaya-Gandagopala (No. 63), and Vira-Champa.
Vira-Chola, the son of Kulottunga I., is incidentally referred to in
No. 59. several Western
Ganga chiefs are mentioned as vassals of Chola kings, viz.,
Samkaradeva, the son of Tiruvaiyan, in an inscription of Rajaraja I.
(No. 51) ; his son Somanatha is one of Rajendra-Chola I. (No. 53) ;
Nilaganga in one of Kulottunga I. (No. 59) ; and
Amarabharana-Siyaganga in one of Kulottunga III. (No. 62).
One of these chiefs, Samkaradeva, seems to have been
connected with the Vaidumba family (No. 53), a member of which was a
vassal of Rajaraja I. (No. 52).
Three of the latest inscriptions (Nos. 60, 61 and 63) furnish
the names of three chiefs of the Sengeni family.
(Nos. 46, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58 to 60) appears to have been the capital
of the Bana dynasty, as one of its names was Vanapuram (Nos. 42, 51,
53), and as it belonged to the district of Perumbanappadi, i.e.,
‘the great Bana country.’ A hamlet in its neighbourhood was
Another survivial from the time of the Banas is the name of
the village of Banavaram near the Sholinghur Railway Station.
In some of the inscriptions Tiruvallam bears the name Tikkali-Vallam
(Nos. 43to 45, 47 to 49, 54 and 61).
It belonged to the province of Jayankonda-Chola-mandalam
(Nos. 53 to 56, 58 and 59) and the district of Paduvur-kottam
(Nos.43, 44, 49, 51 to 54) or, as
it is once called, Tyagabharana-valanadu (Nos. 55).
According to the earlier inscriptions it was situated in the
subdivision Miyaru-nadu (Nos. 43 to 45, 49 and 54)
or Miyarainadu (No. 52), and according to
others in Karaivali,
a subdivision of Perumbanappadi
(Nos. 53, 55, 56, 58 and 59).
Other subdivisions of Paduvur-kottam were Karainadu (Nos. 44
and 50), Pangala-nadu,
Mel-Adaiyarunadu and Karaivali-Andi-nadu.
inscriptions call the Bilvanathesvara temple ‘the god of Tikkali
(Nos. 45 to 47), Tiruttikkali (Nos. 44, 48 to 51), Tirutikkali (Nos.
51 and 52) or Tiruvallam
(Nos. 53 to 57, 60 to 62).’ Once it is designated ‘the dancing
god’ (No. 50) and once ‘the southern temple’ (No. 46), perhaps
to distinguish it from ‘the temple with the tower in the north,’
which is mentioned in No. 42, but has now ceased to exist.
It contained shrines of Kalyanasundara and Karumanikka, and
of their goddesses (No. 57).
only two inscriptions at Tiruvalam which were engraved before the
time of Rajaraja I. are the rock inscription (No. 42) and an
inscription on a stone which is built into the floor of the temple
(No. 46), while the remaining pre-Chola ones (Nos. 43, 44,
45, 47 and 48) are copies, made when the central shrine and the mandapa
were pulled down and rebuilt.
The rebuilding of the temple must have taken place before the 7th
year of the reign of Rajaraja I.
For, in that year the temple was visited by Gandaraditya, the
son of Madhurantaka, who “caused one thousand jars of water to be
poured over the god” (No. 49).
This statement suggests that he performed the ceremony of Kumbhabhisheka,
which has to be gone through when a temple is consecrated or
re-consecrated. In the same year of Rajaraja I. an image of the goddess was
set up by a Brahmana (No. 50).
Before the 4th year of Rajendra-Chola I. an
officer of his built the shrine of Rajarajesvara (No. 54), which is
now called Nakulesvara. Two
other inscriptions (Nos. 51 and 53) refer to the temple of
Tiruvaiya-Isvara, which had been built by a Western Ganga chief on
the south of the Bilvanathesvara temple, but which cannot be traced