89 to 92 Ghritasthanesvara temple & Jnanaparamesvara temple
93 to 94 natural cave at Vedal & Silaiyamman, Airavatesvara
89.— ON THE SOUTH
WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE GHRITASTHANESVARA TEMPLE AT
inscription registers a gift of 100 sheep for a lamp by
Kadambamadevi, the wife of the chief Vikki-Annan, who was the
recipient of several royal honours and of the hereditary title
Sembiyan Tamilavel from the Chola king Rajakesarivarman who
‘overran Tondai-nadu’ and was the conqueror of ‘kings that
possessed many elephants (pal-yanai-kokkandan)
and from the Chera king Sthanu Ravi.
Tiruvalangadu plates state that the Chola king Aditya I. defeated
the Pallava Aparajita and captured Tondai-mandalam from him.
We also know that Aditya’s son, Parantaka I., was called
Parakesarivarman and there is not therefore much doubt that the
Rajakesarivarman referred to in this inscription is Aditya I.
The fact that he and the Chera king Sthanu Ravi conferred
honours on Vikki-Annan suggests that these Chera and the Chola kings
might have been contemporaries.
Prosperity ! One hundred sheep were given for a perpetual lamp to
the Mahadeva (i.e., Siva) of Tiruneyttanam by Kadambamadevi,
the wife of Vikki – Annan who had received a (feudatory)
throne (tavisu ?) fly-whisk, palanquin, drum (timilai),
mansion, ponagam (sumptuary allowance), bugle, an army
of male elephants and the hereditary title of Sembiyan-Tamilavel
from Rajakesarivarman, the Chola (king) who overran Tondai-nadu and from the
Kokkandan of (i.e., the conqueror of kings that possessed)
many elephants, the Chera king (Seraman) Sthanu Ravi.
(The assembly of) all Mahesvaras shall protect
90.— ON THE NORTH
WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE JNANAPARAMESVARA TEMPLE AT
inscription is dated in the 2nd year of Rajakesarivarman
and records that the assembly of Nalur, a brahmadeya of
Serrur-kurram, sold for 25 kasu, the angadikkuli,
i.e., the market fees of the bazaar street, to the temple
palaeographical grounds we may attribute the record to the time of
Rajakesarivarman Aditya I.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 2nd year of (the reign
of) king Rajakesarivarman, we, the great men of the big assembly
which included the great bhattas of Nalur, a brahmadeya
of Serrur-kurram , sold the market-fees (angadikkuli)
of the bazaar-street in our village to the Mahadeva (i.e.,
Siva) of the glorious Mulasthana at our village of Tirumayanam,
thus : -
4.) From those who bring from outside villages and sell such
articles as paddy, rice, etc., (which are sold) by measuring,
shall be received (one) nali for each kasu (realized)
and for other articles placed on the ground and sold, (one) nali
shall be received on each heap (kuval).
(For) articles (sold) by weight, one palam
shall be received on each weighment (nirai).
From each basket of betel leaves, shall be received one parru
; and two areca-nuts from each basket (of them).
On each vatti of . . . . . . . . . . . . . shall be
9.) In this manner was this (market) fee (kuli) sold
over to, and 25 kasu received from, this god.
For this 25 kasu (given), the temple shall
receive (the market-fee defined above) till the moon and the
10.) We, the great men of the big assembly including the great bhattas,
sold and executed the sale-deed (vibai-sravanai) (stipulating
that), if either the assembly or any single individual (of
the assembly) obstruct this (i.e., the collection), all Mahsvaras
(assembled) shall themselves levy (a fine of) gold as
they choose, and even after collecting (it), shall retain
possession of this fee as long as the moon and the sun (last).
(The assembly of) all Mahesvaras shall protect this (charity).
91.— ON A PILLAR
LYING IN THE MANDAPA IN A STREET AT TIRUNAGESVARAM
is a record, in archaic characters, of Rajakesarivarman (perhaps
Aditya I.) dated in his 2nd year.
It registers gifts made by the merchants (nagarattar)
of Kumaramaratandapuram to meet the cost of repairs of the enclosure
(called) Maunakumaramartandan and the gopura of
No.199 of the Madras Epigraphical collection for 1907 it appears
that Kumaramartandan was a surname of the Pallava king
Nandipporaiyar. In the
word Miladudaiyarpalli we may have a possible reference to the Saiva
saint Meypporunayanar also called Miladudaiyar. As the usual imprecation
does not occur at the end of the inscription, it is much more
probable that Miladudaiyarpalli was a Jaina temple than a Saiva
shrine called after Miladudaiyar.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 2nd year of (the reign
of) king Rajakesarivarman, we, the great merchants (nagarattom)
of Kumaramartandapuram in Tiraimur-nadu on the southern bank (of
the Kaveri river), assigned and gave, with the consent of the
guild, the income of every alternate year from the collection (varavaigal)
which we, the merchants, are receiving on account of the flower
gardens on the eastern and western sides of this palli (temple),
for the benefit of the repairs (pudukkuppuram) to thesacred
enclosure called Maunakumaramartandan and the gopura of ours
(i.e., built by us) in (the temple) Miladudaiyarpalli in this
22) Should we, as a guild or a single individual (of the guild),
propose to appropriate these collections (presented to the temple),
the person among us who is (then) in charge of this palli
(temple) might levy any (fine of) gold himself and
realize (it) from him openly at any place he likes ; besides,
(the culprit) shall incur the sin of one who kills one
thousand tawny cows on the banks of the Ganga.
We, the great merchants of Kumaramartandapuram, have thus
assigned and given (the above-mentioned gift) to last as long
as the moon and the sun (endure).
92.— ON A BOULDER IN
FRONT OF A NATURAL CAVE AT VEDAL
inscription is dated in the 14th year of Rajakesarivarman
and provides for feeding the female Jain ascetic
Kanakavirakurattiyar, who was a disciple of Gunakirtti-Bhatara, and
her pupils. Veda,
called Vidal [alias] Madevi-Arandimangalam in the
inscription, is said to have been situated to the east
of Singapura-nadu. The
archaic characters in which the record is written would indicate
that Rajakesarivarman must be identical with Aditya I.
construction of the two sentences in the inscription is somewhat
vague. The words “kollathamayil” in line 5 and
“Madeviaaranthimangalamudaiya kanagavirakthiyar” in line 12 f.
have been evidently misplaced.
For a proper and connected understanding of the sentences the
first has to come after “pillaigallainootruvarkkum” in the same
line and the second at the beginning of line 11.
1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 14th year of (the reign
of) king Rajakesarivarman, we, the lay disciples (of this school),
have undertaken to protect and feed Kanakavirakurattiyar, a female
disciple and follower of Gunakirti-Bhatara, of Vidal [alias]
Madevi-Arandimangalam on the eastern side (kilvali) of
Singapuranadu and the lady pupils of her following, since there has
been a disagreement between the five hundred pupils (pillai)
of the koyil (monastery
?) and the four hundred female ascetics.
(This charity remains under) our own protection.
The sandals of those who maintain this (shall rest) on
7.) As Kanakavirakurattiyar of Madevi-Arandimangalam is the daughter
of . . . . . . . . . the
chief men of . . . . . . . . shall protect this.
(This shall be under ) their own protection.
The sandals of those who protect this shall be on our heads.
As Kanakavirakurattiyar of Madevi-Arandimangalam is the
daughter of you, viz., Kalan . . . . . . . and others, all
this shall be (under) your watch.
Those who think of injuring this (charity), shall
incur the sin committed (by the people living) in the 700 kadam
between Ganga (the Ganges) and Kumari (Cape Comorin)
and shall (also) be traitors to the king.