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Sunday, February 25, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Part - III

Miscellaneous Inscriptions From the Tamil Country

XIII.- Inscriptions of Rajakesarivarman Sundara-Chola Parantaka II


No. 119 to 122 Sivayoganathasavamin, Vedapurisvara temples

No. 119.—  ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE SIVAYOGANATHASVAMIN TEMPLE AT TIRUVISALUR[1]

This inscription is dated in the 2nd year of Rajakesarivarman and registers a gift of land to the temple at Tiruvisalur by Pirantakan Irungolan alias Siriyavelar of Kodumbalur.  This chief has been identified by Mr. K.V. Subrahmanya Aiyar  with Pirantakan Siriyavelar alias Tirukkarrali-Pichchan mentioned in a Tirukkalittattai inscription.[2]  The name Siriyavelar occurs again in a much mutilated Tirukkalittattai inscription of the reign of Sundara-Chola alias Ponmaligaittunjinadevar (i.e., the lord who died in the golden palace) who ‘drove the Pandya into the forest[3].’  The king who died in the golden palace was Sundara-Chola Parantaka II., the father of Rajaraja I[4].   This Sundara-Chola Parantaka II., is called a Rajakesarivarman in No. 302 of 1908 quoted above which also refers to Ilam; but the passage is much mutilated.  The officer Siriyavelar is stated in a record of the time of Rajaraja I.[5] to have died on the battlefield in Ceylon in the 9th year of Ponmaligaittunjinadeva (i.e., Sundara-Chola Parantaka II.)[6].  Evidently Sundara-Chola Parantaka II.  and his General were engaged in a battle with the Ceylon king who must as usual have helped with his forces the Pandya king, the natural enemy of the Cholas.

Applying the correction of 23 years in the Singhalese Chronology worked out by Professor Hultzsch (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1913, pp. 517-531) we gather that Mahinda IV. Must have been the sovereign of Ceylon who was contemporaneous with Sundara-Chola Parantaka II.  In his time, according to the Mahavamsa, Chapter LIV, there was a fight with Vallabha (i.e., the Chola king) in which it is stated that Mahinda’s General ‘destroyed him (the Chola) utterly.

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 2nd year of (the reign of) king Rajakesarivarman, Pirantakan Irungolan alias Siriyavelar of Kodumbalur purchased and give the following land for feeding at noon with one sumptuous meal[7] one Brahmana (versed) in the Vedas, in the sacred temple (srikoyil) of the god (perumandigal) of Tiruvisalur in Avaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam, a devadana and a brahmadeya on the northern bank (of the Kaveri), as long as the moon and the sun (endure).  He (also) paid fifty kalanju of gold to the great men (perumakkal) of Tevangudi as iraikaval[8] for the one-eighth sey (of land) purchased from Tayanarayana Bhatta-Somayajiyar of Tolur, on the northern bank of the (channel called) Paramesvaravaykkal, (forming) the first padagam of the sadukkam  of Narayananar . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Tirunarayanachcheri got it exempted from the payment of taxes and gave over (this) one-eighth sey  (of land).  This (charity is placed) under the protection of the great men of the great assembly.

No. 120.—  IN THE SAME PLACE[9]

This is again a record of Rajakesarivarman dated in the 4th year and must be attributed to Parantaka II, since it mentions the General Pirantakan Irungolar alias Siriyavelar.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 4th year of (the reign of) king Rajakesarivarman, Pirantakan Irungolar alias Siriyavelar, paid 130 ilakkasu to the great men of the big assembly and gave, freed from payment (of taxes) (adeyam[10]) the following land for the sacred midday offerings to (the temple of) the god (perumanadigal) at Tiruvisalur in amaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam, a devadana and a brahmadeya on the northern bank (of the Kaveri), (to last) as long as the moon and the sun.

(L. 4.) (One) quarter (veli of land) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kandam on the western side of the sacred shrine (sriykoyil), (forming) the second padagam of the sadukkam of Bhavanandi-Chaturvedibhatta-Somayajiyar of Kunjapevil (living) in (the quarter) Tirunilakandachcheri and (one) kani (of land) in the village-site (ur-irukkai) of Tiruvisalur, (forming) the nattam portion of the attakam of Nandisvara Bhatta (living) in Srimadhavaracheri, —  in all this quarter (veli) and (one) kani (of land) were given (by him) (to last) as long as the moon and the sun.  (The assembly of) all Mahesvaras  shall protect (this charity).

No. 121.—  IN THE SAME PLACE[11]

This Sanskrit inscription supplies some additional information about [Pirantakan] Irungolar alias Sririyavelar mentioned in the two previous records.  He is here called Siruvela the foremost member in the family of the daughter of king Pirantaka and the light of the Irungola race.  The first of the attributes is interesting and has perhaps to be understood with reference to the marriage of a member of the Kodumbalur family named Samarabhirama to the Chola princess Anupama[12] mentioned in an inscription from Muvarkoyil.  If this is so, it follows that Anupama was a daughter of king Parantaka I.  It is also known that prince Arikulakesari, son of Parantaka I., married Pudi Aditta-Pidari, daughter of Tennavan Ilangovelar, another member of the same family which was called Irukkuvel, Ilangovel or Irungola.

In the 5th year of king Sundara-Chola this chief Siruvela (i.e., Siriyavelar) is stated to have given to the god at Srivisalura (i.e., Tiruvisalur) some mashakas of gold for rice offering and the gatanakas (gadyanakas) which accrued to the king as revenue from the village Nimba or Nimbagrahara for repairs, and a lamp.  Nimba or Nimbagrahara on the norlther bank of the Kaveri is apparently the modern Veppattur called Amaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam in Tamil inscriptions.

(Verse 1.) The light of his race, the fortunate one . . . . . . . .. . . . . .  (gave) . . . . . . . . . .. . . .mashakas  increased by five for offering in perpetuity cooked rice in midday to the god dwelling in the temple . . . . . . . . . . . named Srivisalura.  (He) also (gave) for whitewash (i.e.,repairs) the gantanakas  (gadyanakas ?) of the village Nimba, which were payable of the king.

(V. 2.) The king named Siruvela who was the light of the Irunkola race and the foremost (member) in the family of the daughter of (king) Pirantaka gave with delight a lamp to Hara (Siva) whose abode was at Srivisalura.

(V. 3.) May the Mahesvaras protect the lamp presented with delight in the prosperous fifth year of (the reign of) the best of kings, the illustrious Sundara-Chola, by him who bore the name Siruvela, to Isa (Siva) who was pleased (to dwell) in the abode (temple) of Srivisalura (situated) in the virtuous village named Nimbagrahara on the northern bank of the (river) Kaveri.

No. 122.—  ON THE SOUTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE VEDAPURISVARA TEMPLE AT TIRUKKALITTATTAI[13]

This incomplete record, dated in the 14th year of Rajakesarivarman, registers gifts of money in ilakkasu  made by Rajadichchi and Kunjiramalli, the wife and daughter respectively of Siriyavelan, for burning lamps in the temple at Tirukkudittittai which was included in Amaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam.  Siriyavelan is identical with Pirantakan Siriyavelar, the General of the Chola king Sundara-Chola Parantaka II.[14]  The king Rajakesarivarman could not be identified.  It is not impossible, however, that he is identical with Sundara-Chola Parantaka II.

Hail! Prosperity ! In the 14th year of (the reign of) king Rajakesarivarman, Rajadichchi, the wife of Siriyavelan, deposited (25) twenty-five ilakkasu for burning as long as the moon and the sun (endure), one perpetual lamp, in (the temple of) the god (perumal) of Tirukkudittittai in Amaninara-chaturvedimangalam which was a devadana and a brahmadeya on the northern bank (of the Kaveri).  (Also) Kunjiramalli, the daughter of  Siriyavelan, deposited 25 ilakkasu, for burning, as long as the moon and the sun (endure), one perpetual lamp (in the same temple).  For the total of 50 kasu (thus) paid, was purchased the land (situated) on the western side of the village of Amangudi ; and under the direction of Alikkonrai Sirdharakramavittar[15]


[1]  No.317 of 1907.

[2]  Epigraphia Indica,  Volume XII, pp. 121 ff.

[3]  No. 302 of the Madras Epigraphical collection for 1908.

[4]  South-Indian Inscriptions, Volume II, page 68, and Introduction, page 1, note 3.

[5]  No. 116 of the Madras Epigraphical collection for 1896.

[6]  Epigraphia Indica, volume XII, page 124.

[7]  The words ekagram and uttamagram must be taken as synonymous in the sense ‘sumptuous’.  The word agrasala is used in Malabar for the cooking place in temples.

[8]  I.e., security for exemption from the payment of taxes.

[9]  No. 320 of 1907.

[10]  The meaning of the phrase is not quite clear.  It may be that the land was made tax free and the phrase corresponds to the Tamil

[11]  No. 40 of 1907.

[12]  See Madras Epigraphical Report  for 1908, page 87.

[13]  No. 299 of 1908.

[14]  See Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XII, pp. 121 ff.

[15]  Evidently this person was the manager of the temple.

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