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Sunday, February 25, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Part - III

Miscellaneous Inscriptions From the Tamil Country

XI.- Inscriptions of Parakesarivarman Parantaka I


No. 95 to 97 Abhiramesvara shrine, Chandra sekhara temple, cave at tirumalai

No. 98 to 100 Ujjivanathasvamin, Kharapurisvara, Madhuvanesvara temples

No. 101 to 105 Melaikkoyil, Madhuvanesvara, Adhipurisvara temples

No. 106 to 108 Narasingapperumal, Sivayoganathasvamin temples

No. 109 to 110 Lakshminarayana-Perumal, Madhuvanesvara temples

No. 95.—  ON THE SOUTH WALL OF THE MANDAPA IN FRONT OF THE ABHIRAMESVARA SHRINE AT TIRUVAMATTUR.

This inscription is dated in the 3rd year of Parakesarivarman and registers a gift of gold by a certain Gandaraitta Pallavaraiyan to the temple at Tiruvamattur, which was a devadana in Mivali-Vavalur-nadu, a subdivision of Aruvanadu Gandaraditta Pallavaraiyan was evidently an officer of Gandaraditya who is known from copper-plate records to have been the second son of king Parantaka I.  Parakesarivarman of this record may have, therefore, to be identified with Parantaka I.

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 3rd year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, Parabumigan Mallan alias Gandaraditta Pallavaraiayn, the chief of Karpundinadu in Mutta-nadu deposited ten gold (pon) (coins) for burning as long as the moon and the sun (endure) one perpetual lamp which (he) had placed in (the temple of) the lord of Tiruvamattur (which was) a devadana in Mivali-Vavalur-nadu (a subdivision) of Aruva-nadu.  The (members of the) assembly, the villagers (ur) and the temple servants (devarkanmi) shall protect this gold paid (by the donor).  (The assembly of) all Mahesvaras shall protect (this charity).

No. 96. – ON THE SOUTH WALL OF THE MANDAPA IN FRONT OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE CHANDRASEKHARA TEMPLE AT TIRUCHCHENDRUAI.[1]

In this inscription which is dated in the 3rd year of Paakesarivarman, we have a reference to the construction of the Siva temple at Tiruchchendurai which was a brahmadeya suburb of Isanamagala, by Pudi Adichchapidariyar (Adityapidari).  This lady is here distinctly called the daughter of Tennavan Ilangovelar (another name of MaravanPudiyar)[2] and the queen of Arikulakesariyar, the son of Sola-Perumanadigal (i.e., Parantaka I.).  Consequently, Parakesarivarman to whose reign the record belongs is Parantaka I.  It may be noted that the 60 kalanju of gold granted by Pudi Adichchapidari for sacred offerings to the god, was weighed by a stone called after Vedelvidugu which was the surname of the Pallava king Tellarrerinda Nandippottaraiyar.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 3rd year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, Pudi Adichchapidariyar, daughter of Tennavan Ilangovelar (and) queen of Arikulakesariyar (who was) the son of Sola-Perumanadigal (i.e., Parantaka I.), gave, in this year, sixty kalanju of (pure gold called) tulaippon[3]  (weighed) by the (standard) stone Vedelvidugu,[4] as capital (from which) sacred offerings at the holy shrine (sennadai) (have to be provided) to the lord of the stone temple constructed by her at Tiruchchendurai, (a hamlet) of Isanamangala which was a brahmadeya.

(L. 7.) And we, (the members of) the assembly (parudai) of Isanamangala, having received this sixty kalanju  of gold, we (the members of) the assembly agreed to measure out as long as the moon and the sun (endure), sixty kalam of paddy per year (measured) by the sulakkal, viz., thirty kalam at the end of Karttigai  and thirty kalam in the harvest (pisanam) at the end of Panguni – in all sixty kalam of paddy – as interest of this gold (calculated) at (the rate of) (one) tuni and (one) padukku of paddy on (one) kalanju for (each) pu (crop).

(L. 12.) One kuruni of old rice pounded ten or eight times shall be (used each day) for (providing) sacred offerings at the dawn (nal) and in the mid-day (uchcham).  (The assembly of) all Mahesvaras shall protect this (charity).

No. 97. – ON A ROCK TO THE LEFT OF THE PAINTED CAVE AT TIRUMALAI NEAR POLUR.[5]

This inscription records that in the 4th year of Parakesarivarman, two residents of Kaduttalai in the country called Irumadichcholar Kannadaga (Karnataka), gave four kalanju of gold for feeding a devotee in the Jain temple on the  hill at Vaigavur in Pangala-nadu which was a subdivision of Palakunrakottam.  The name Irumadichcholar Kannadaga indicates that the country in which Vaigavur was situated, was so called after Irumadichchola who is perhaps to be identified with parakesarivarman in whose reign the record is dated.  Irumadichchola means ‘the twice (powerful) Chola’.  Parakesarivarman Parantaka I.  was actually the second powerful king in the Vijayalaya line.

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 4th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, we the two following persons (viz.) Eran Puttugan, a temple servant (devakanmi) of the village of Kaduttalai in Irumadichcholar – Kannadaga (country) and Madurantaka Karambular alias Somanayagan Sandaiyan Ayiravan of Kaduttalai, provided to give food regularly[6] to one devotee (adigal) in the Jaina temple (palli) on the sacred hill (tirumalai) at Vaigavur (a village) in Pangala-nadu (which was a district) of Palakunra-kottam.  We deposited for this (purpose) four kalanju of gold to last as long as the moon and the sun endure, so that, with the interest accruing (from this gold), the managers of this palli  shall themselves feed (thedevotee).


[1]  No. 316 of 1903.

[2]  Madras Epigraphical Report  for 1908, page 88, paragraph 90.

[3] Tulaippon or tulainiraippon, sometimes also preceded by the name of the stone on which it was tested or by which it was weighed, was apparently a term for pure gold.  This is explained by the passage suttu vetti sudukku thanthu kasattri kaisellvadu kazhasirpertha thulaipon uraiyum thulaiyum vazhuvathathu . . . . . . . nagarakallal . . . . . . pon, i.e., the gold thulaipon which was heated, cut, melted (?), cooled after melting and made current, cut off from the kalanju, which was neither wanting in fineness nor in tulai (impression ?) and which was tested or weighed by the city stone.”  It occurs in a record of Rajaraja I.  (No. 218 of 1911).  It was evidently a practice to allow the currency of gold in any transaction only after putting it to test by special officers appointed for the purpose.  It may therefore be presumed that tulaippon  represented gold that had passed through this test.  It is not unlikely also that an impression was always left on such gold as a hall-mark.

[4]  The correct form of this word is Videlvidugu which is the surname of Tellarrerinda Nandippottaraiyar.

[5]  No. 66 of 1907.

[6]  In South-Indian Inscriptions  (e.g., Vol. III, Part II, p.146) this word is translated as ‘daily.’  It is doubtful if nisadam, which also sometimes occurs as nisadi, is to be taken as a Tamil corruption of the Sanskrit niyata or if it is only another form of nichcham  (skt.  nitya).

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