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Sunday, February 25, 2007


South Indian Inscriptions


VI.- Inscriptions of Kulottunga-Chola I

No. 75 to 76 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Jambukesvara temple

No. 64 to 65 Inscriptions at Tiruvorriyur & Tiruvalangadu

No. 66 to 68 Inscriptions at Kolar, Somangalam & Conjeeveram

No. 69 to 70 Inscriptions at Tirukkalukkunram & Srirangam

No. 71 to 72 Inscriptions at Kilappaluvur & Tiruvidaimarudur

No. 73 to 74 Inscriptions at Cholapuram & Conjeeveram

No. 77 to 78 Inscriptions at Kavantandalam & Perumber

No. 75.- Inscription at Tirukkalukkunram

This inscription (No. 179 of 1894) is engraved on the south wall of the second prakara of the Vedagirisvara temple at Tirukkalukkunram.[1]  It has been published before in a tentative manner by Mr. V. Kanakasabhai Pillai in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXI. P. 281 ff.[2]  The date is the 42nd year of the reign of Kulottunga I. (1. 11).

The inscription records that an inhabitant of Rajarajapuram (1. 17) made over 10 kasu (1. 14) to the temple authorities, who purchased for this sum from the villagers of Vanavanmahadevi-chaturvedimangalam (1. 11) some land for maintaining the Matha of Naminandi-Adigal at Tirukkalukkunram (1. 14).  As stated by Mr. Kanakasabhai,[3] the person after whom this Matha was named is one of the sixty-three devotees of Siva, whose lives are described in the Periyapuranam.

Vanavanmahadevi-chaturvedimangalam belonged to Kumili-nadu, a subdivision of the district of Amur-kottam (1. 11).  The land purchased was situated in Kiraippakkam, a hamlet in the west of that village (1. 12), and was bounded in the east by Urodagam, in the south by Talaivedu, in the west by Uragambakkam, and in the north by Tandurai (1. 13).  Kiraippakkam is the modern Kirappakkam[4] in the Chingleput taluka.  East of it the map shows Oragadam (No. 228), south of it Talambedu (No. 266), and north of it Tandarai (No. 233).  The nadu  to which these villages belonged is named after Kumili[5] in the same taluka.  The district of Amur-kottam owes its name to the village of Amur[6] near Mamallapuram,[7] which belonged to the subdivision Amur-nadu.[8]  From the Kondyata grant of Venkata II.[9] it appears that there was another district which also bore the name of Amur-kottam, but which was named after the town of Amur or Ambur in the Velur taluka of the North Arcot district.[10]

(Line 11.) In the forty-second year (of the reign) of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the emperor Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, who etc.[11] – we, the great assembly of vanavanmahadevi-chaturvedimangalam in Kumili-nadu, (a subdivision) of Amur-kottam, (a district) of Jayangonda-Sola-mandalam, (drew up) a written deed of sale of land.  We sold the following land, for maintaining[12] a Matha, to Adidasa [Chandesvara]deva[13] in the temple of Tirukkalukkunram-udaiya-Mahadevar, the lord of Ulagalanda-Solapuram, alias  Sembiyan-Tirukkalukkunram,[14] in [Kalattur]-nadu, (a subdivision) of Kalattur-[kottam].

(L. 12.) The land sold (at) [Ki]raippakkam, a western hamlet of our village, has to be reclaimed by cutting down . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . the jungle and removing the stumps.

(L. 13.) The eastern boundary of (this land) adjoins the boundary of Urodagam ; the southern boundary adjoins the boundary of Talaivedu ; the western boundary adjoins the boundary of U[ra]gamb[akka]m ; and the northern boundary adjoins the boundary of [Ta]ndurai.

(L. 14.) Having freed from taxes the wet land and the dry land, the trees above and the wells below, [enclosed within these four boundaries], and sold (it) for maintaining the Matha of Naminandi-Adigal, which is situated in the Madaivilagam[15] of this village, we received as price ten good kasu current at the time.[16]

(L. 15.) Having sold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and having received the money in full, we, the great assembly, made and gave a deed of sale.  Having agreed that we alone should be bound to pay the small taxes, the big taxes,[17] and any other (tax) due on this land, we sold (it) free from taxes.  By order of [Kara]mbichchettu[18] [Sarv]adittan, who belonged (?) to the sabha, we . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  .. Bhattan, Ma[la]ppiran Kumarasami-Kramavittan, Arulala-Bhattan[19] of Urupputtur,[20] Sriranganatha-Bhattan of Pasumburam, samkaranarayana-Bhattan of Urupputtur, Tillaikkutta-Kramavittan[21] of Kura[va]s[e]ri, and Donasura-Kramavittan[22] of Kiranji,[23] - all these members of the great assembly made and gave (this) writing [on stone, to last as long as] the moon and the sun.

(L. 17.) This is the writing of Vanavanmahadevi-Udaiyan Selvan Kulainan.  This charity was made by me, Devandainadan Arullalan, alias Kulottunga-Sola-Mapodiyarayan,[24]

No. 76.- Inscription in the Jambukesvara Temple

This inscription (No. 31 of 1891) is engraved on the east wall of the second prakara  of the Jambukesvara temple[25] on the island of Srirangam near Trichinopoly.  As stated in Vol. II. p. 253, the ancient name of the locality is Tiruvanaikka, i.e., ‘the sacred elephant-grove,’ and the name of the temple is derived from ‘the sacred white jambu tree (tiru-ven-naval in Tamil).  At the time of the inscription, Tiruvanaikka belonged to Migolai, a subdivision of the district of Pandikulasani-valanadu.[26]

The date is the 47th year of the reign of Kulottunga I.  A certain Villavarayan had set up in the temple images of Rishabhavahana, i.e., Siva riding on the bull, and of Parvati.  To provide for the requirements of these two images, he purchased from the temples authorities some land, whose crop of paddy had to be made over to the temple.

(Line 11.) In the 47th year (of the reign) of king rajakesarivarman, alias  the emperor of the three worlds, Sri-Kulottunga-Soladeva, who etc.[27] – (at) the order of Chandesvara,[28] who is the chief servant of the lord of the three worlds who is pleased to reside under the sacred white jambu tree (tiru-ven-naval) at Tiruvanaikka, a devadana (and) brahmadeya in Migolai, (a subdivision) of Pandikulasani-valanadu, we sold the following land to Munaiyan Arumolidevan, alias Villavarayan, the son of Arayan of Valambagudi in Misengili-nadu, (a subdivision) of Jayasimha-kulakalavalanadu.[29]

(L. 13.) The eastern boundary agreed on the land which (we) sold to him at Aligudi in Migolai, (a subdivision) of Pandikulasani-valanadu, (one) among the villages on the southern bank (of the Kaveri) (and) a devandana of the lord Emberuman of Tiruvanaikka, (is) to the west of the Pillaigolli channel ; the southern boundary (is) to the north of the Agai channel on the north of the thrashing-floor ; the western boundary (is) to the east of the boundary of Pudukkudi, a hamlet on the south of Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam ;[30] (and) the northern boundary (is) to the south of the high road on the southern bank of the river.  Altogether, 4 ¾  (veli) of land, enclosed within these four great boundaries agreed on.

(L. 16.) As these four and three quarters (veli) of land had been lying full of holes and sand as uncultivated dry land until the forty-seventh year (of the reign) of this king, we agreed to sell that land to Munaiyan Arumolidevan, alias Villavarayan, for a purchase-money of 4, 1/20, 1/80 good  kasu current at the time.

(L. 17.) Having received these four, one twentieth and one eightieth kasu and having deposited (them) in the treasury of the temple of  Emberuman of Tiruvanaikka, (we) sold (the land) to Munaiyan Arumolidevan, alias Villavarayan.

(L. 18.) Having dug and reclaimed these 4 ¾ (veli) of land, (he) has to supply for these four and three quarter (veli) of land to the temple treasury 23 kalam, 2 tuni and 1 kuruni of paddy by the marakkal (called after) Rajakesarin,[31] (viz.) five kalam for each veli at the rate for dry land, for the expenses required by the god Rishabhavahana – whom he had set up under the name Idangainayagar[32]  in the temple of the lord Emberuman of Tiruvanaikka – and by (his) consort, (viz.,) for bathing the idols, for oblations, for carrying them about on two days at (each of) the two festivals, & c.

(L. 19.) If these twenty-three kalam, two tuni and one kuruni of paddy are supplied half has to be supplied in kar (and) half in pasanam.[33]

(L. 20.) Having received This in full, we made provision for the expenses required by the god Rishabhavahana whom he had set up under the name Idangainayanagar, and by (his) consort (viz.,)  for bathing the idols, for oblations, for carrying them about on two days at (each of) the two festivals, & c.

(L. 21.) (This is an agreement made by) us, the Pujaris, including Chandesvara, who is the chief servant of Emberuman of Tiruvanaikka, with Munaiyan Arumolidevan  alias Villavarayan.  This (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.

[1]  See page 143 above.

[2]  Of the numerous misreadings in the transcript I need only note four, because they are connected with proper names.  In line 35 of Mr. Kanakasabhai’s text, the original does not read vilina, but vilunda ; on 1 42, not konku, but Ganga ; and in 1. 43, not Sinkalam, but Singanam.  The passage from Vikkilan (1. 28) to venkalirum (1. 31) is taken from the Kilappaluvur and Tiruvidaimarudur inscriptions (Nos. 71 and 72 above), which read however Vikkalan instead of Vikkilan.

[3]  Ind. Ant.  Vol. XXI. P. 284.

[4]  No. 264 on the Madras Survey Map  of the Chingleput taluka.

[5]  No. 19 on the same.  Compare Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 149.

[6]  No. 133 on the same map.

[7]  No. 162 on the same map.

[8]  Above, Vol. I. p. 68.

[9]  Ind. Ant.  Vol. XIII. P. 132, plate iv. B, line 1, and Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 271, note 5.

[10]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. IV. P. 180.  The statement that Amur-nadu and the kottam to which it belonged were named after the town of Ambur (above, Vol. I. p. 126, note 2, and Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 149) is due to an error.

[11]  The historical introduction of this inscription is the same as in No. 73.  But it agrees with No. 72 in inserting a short passage after the words “in order that the enemies might be scattered.”  This passage runs here : “(He) was pleased to seized the garland of that region, and the Ganga-mandalam.”

[12]  On puram see above, p. 6, note 9.

[13]   See above, Vol. I. p. 92 and note 6, and Vol. II. p. 134.

[14]  I.e., ‘Tirukkalukkunram (belonging to) the Chola king.

[15]  I.e.,  the environs of the temple ; see above, p. 24 and note 3.

[16]  See above, p. 134 and note 5.

[17]  The two terms sil-vari and peru-vari occur also in Vol. I. p. 87, text line.

[18]  Compare above, p. 73 and note 7.

[19]  See above, p. 143, note 1.

[20]  The same village is mentioned on page 4 above.

[21]  See above, Vol. II. p. 253, and p. 258, note 6.

[22]  Dona is a Prakrit form of Drona.  Compare Donasarman, Donaya, Doniya, etc. in Ep. Ind. Vol.  VI. P. 230.

[23]  The same village is mentioned in an inscription at Sevilimedu near Conjeeveram ; Ep. Ind.  Vol. VI. P. 230.

[24]  The last member of this title target="_self" means ‘the great king of the Podiyam (mountain).’ On Podiyam see above, Vol. II. p. 236, note 1.

[25]  For a few other inscriptions in the same temple see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI. P. 121, and Ep. Ind. Vol. III.  pp. 9, 10 and 72.

[26]  The city of tanjavur belonged to Tanjavur-kurram, a subdivision of the district of Pandyakulasani valanadu ; above, Vol. II. No. 1, paragraph 2.

[27]  The historical introduction of this inscription is the same as in No. 73.

[28]  See above, p. 167, note 9.

[29]  According to Vol. II. No. 66, paragraphs 469 and 474, Misengili-nadu was a subdivision of the district of Pandyakulasani-valanadu.

[30]  A village of the same name is mentioned in Vol. II. No. 57, paragraph 7.

[31]  On this measured see above, Vol. II. p. 42.

[32]  I.e., ‘the lord on the left hand (of Parvati).’

[33]  Kar and pasanam are two different kinds of paddy.

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