The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Volume - III

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal

Melpadi

Karuvur

Manimangalam

Tiruvallam

Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I

Gandaraditya

Parantaka II

Uttama-Chola

Parthivendravarman

Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar

Tiruchchengodu

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

V.- Inscriptions at Tiruvallam

No. 44 to 47 Bilvanathesvara shrine

No. 42 - On a boulder near Tiruvallam & No. 43 - Bilvanathesvara temple

No. 48 to 51 west, north, south wall of the shrine

No. 52 to 54 wall shrine, & maha mandapa & nakulesvara shrine

No. 55 to 57 Bilvanathesvara shrine, south wall of the maha mandapa

No. 58 to 60 verandah round the Bilvan, maha mandapa, north of the tank

No. 61 to 63 north wall of the maha mandapa & west wall of the kitchen

No. 44.- On the north wall of the Mahamandapa in the Bilvanathesvara temple

As stated in the introductory remarks to No. 43, the subjoined inscription was copied from an earlier stone inscription when the mandapa of the temple was pulled down and re-erected.  It is dated in the Saka year 810 (in words, 1. 4 f.) and in the time of a Bana chief who is not mentioned by name, but only by his title Mahavalivanaraja (1. 3 f.).

The inscription records that a Brahmana of Ettukkur near Kavirippakkam (II. 10 to 12) paid 25 kalanju of gold to the villagers of Vannipedu (!!. 5 and 19), who, in return, pledged themselves to supply oil to a lamp in the temple.  Kavirippakkam is the modern Kaveripakkam,[1] and Vannipedu is the modern Vannivedu,[2] about a mile south of Walajapet.  At the time of the inscription Vannipedu belonged to Karai-nadu, a subdivision of the district of Paduvur-kottam (1. 5).  Karai-nadu owes its name to Karai,[3] a village on the north of Ranipet.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! (During the reign) of) Mahavalivanaraja, - [born from the family of Mahabali], who had been made door-keeper by the lord of gods and demons, Paramesvara (Siva), who is worshipped in all the three worlds, - in the Saka year eight hundred and ten, - we, the assembly of Vannipedu, alias Ranavikrama-chaturvedimangalam, in Karai-nadu, (a subdivision) of Paduvur-kottam, received twenty-five kalanju  of gold, weighed by the balance (used in the case) of charitable edicts,[4] from Madhava-Kramavittan of Ettukkur, a hamlet on the north-east of Kavirippakkam, alias A[va]ninarayana-chaturvedimangalam, in the same kottam in order to supply (one) ulakku (and one) alakku of oil per day for burning one sacred perpetual lamp, as long as the moon and the sun exist, before (the god) Tiruttikkali-Perumanadigal of Tikkali-Vallam in Miyaru-nadu, (a subdivision) of the same kottam.

(L. 13.) We, the assembly, shall have to continue this charity without fail, so as to burn (the lamp) as long as the moon and the sun exist.

(L. 15.) If (they) fail in this charity, all the Mahesvaras shall be liable to pay into court[5] a fine[6] of five kalanju of gold per day.

(L. 17.) Though paying this fine, we, the assembly of Vannipedu, alias Ranavikrama-chaturvedimangalam, shall have to continue this sacred perpetual lamp without fail.

(L. 20.) Those who obstruct this (charity), shall incur (all) the sins committed between the Ganga and Kumari.[7]

(L. 22.) This (charity is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.

No. 45.- On the south wall of the Bilvanathesvara shrine

Like the preceding inscription, this one is dated in the time of some Mahavalivanaraya.  As the alphabet looks decidedly more modern than that of Nos. 42 and 46 and resembles that of Nos. 47 and 48, it must be assumed that like the two last-mentioned inscriptions, this one is a copy, which was prepared when the central shrine was pulled down and rebuilt.

The inscription records that an inhabitant of Ponpadukuttam near Kachchippedu, i.e., Kanchipuram,[8] purchased some land from the inhabitants of Tiruvallam.  The produce of the land had to be used for providing offerings and for feeding a lamp in the temple.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! While the glorious Mahavalivanaraya,- born from the family of Mahabali, who had been made door-keeper by the lord of gods and demons, Paramesvara (Siva), who is worshipped in all the three worlds, - was ruling the earth, we, the assembly of Tikkali-Vallam in Miyaru-nadu, received from Soliyavaraiyan, alias Manabharanan, of Ponpadukuttam, a tax-paying village (near) Kachchippedu, twenty kalanju of gold, in order to supply without fail, as long as the moon and the sun exist, two nali of pounded rice and (one) alakku of fresh ghee for fixed daily offerings which he had granted to (the god) Tikkali-Perumanadigal, and twenty kalanju of gold in order to supply (one) ulakku (and one) alakku of oil per day for burning a perpetual lamp before the same god.  Having received altogether forty kalanju of gold, we, the assembly, shall have to continue the offerings and the perpetual lamp as long as the moon and the sun exist.

(L. 3.) Those who say that this charity is not (existing), shall incur (all) sins committed between the Ganga and Kumari.  This charity (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.  The feet of those who protect this charity (shall be) on my head.

(L. 4.) We, the assembly, gave 500 kuli of land (called) Vagaikkundil and 800 kuli (called) Puravadukollai in the environs[9] of the village, which (he) had granted, free of taxes, for (supplying) these daily offerings and for (maintaining) the perpetual lamp.

(L. 5.) We, the assembly, gave 2 nilam[10]  and 400 kuli of land (called) Ku[ra]ngadi which (he) had granted for the worshipping Siva-Brahmana.

No. 46.- On a stone built into the floor of the Bilvanathesvara temple

The alphabet of this inscription is Tamil and Grantha of an archaic type and resembles that of the rock inscription No. 42.  It records a gift of gold for maintaining a lamp by the queen of Vanavidyadhara-Vanaraya.  As will be shown below (p. 99), this king may be identified with Vikramaditya I., the sixth of the Bana chiefs whose names are given in the Udayendiram plates.[11]  Nos. 47 and 48, which record grants by a queen of the same king, as well as Nos. 43 and 44, are copies of lost originals[12] and hence exhibit comparatively modern characters.  The archaic alphabet of the subjoined inscription and the fact that it is engraved on a single stone, which does not form part of the temple itself, prove that it is an original record of the time of Vanavidyadhara.  Evidently it owes its preservation to the accident that, when the central shrine and the mandapa were rebuilt, the stone, which bears it, was utilized for the new pavement of the temple. 

No. 47.- On the west wall of the Bilvanthesvara shrine

This inscription and No. 48 are written continuously, the first few words of No. 48 occupying the end of line 4 of No. 47.  At the beginning of

No. 47 it is stated that both inscriptions are copies of earlier stone inscriptions, and that these copies were made when the central shrine of the temple was pulled down.  This the reason why the alphabets of Nos. 47 and 48 are more developed than that of No. 46, though No. 46 records a grant by a queen of the same king as Nos. 47 and 48.  In No. 47 she bears the title Vanamahadevi, i.e., ‘the great queen of the Bana (king).’  As the queen mentioned in No. 46, she is stated to have been the consort of the Bana king Vanavidyadhara.  She was the daughter of Pratipati-Araiyar, the son of Sivamaharaja-Perumanadigal, who had the surnames Srinatha and Kokuni.[13]  This word is a variant or a corruption of Konguni, the title of the Western Ganga kings,[14] and the name Pratipati is a corruption or, more probably, a misreading of the copyist for Prithvipati.  Hence I would identify Pratipati, the son of Sivamaharaja, with the Western Ganga king Prithivipati I., who was the son of Sivamara[15] and the contemporary of the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha I.[16] and of the Ganga-Pallava king Vijaya-Nripatungavikramavarman.[17] The name of the residence of Sivamaharaja was Kunilapura according to No. 47, and Nipunilapura according to No. 48.  Both forms of the word are clearly misreadings of the engraver for Kuvalalapura, the modern Kolar, which was the traditional capital of the Ganga family.[18]

The Udayendiram plates of Vikramaditya II. mention a Bana chief named Banavidyadhara.  This person must be distinct from the Vanavidyadhara of the subjoined inscription, because he stood two generations before Vikramaditya I., the contemporary of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman[19] and consequently of Amonghavarsha I.,[20] while Vanavidyadhara was the son-in-law in Prithivipati I., another contemporary of Amonghavarsha I. An inscription of Gulganpode opens with a Sanskrit verse which attributes to the Bana king Vikramaditya-Jayameru the surname of Banavidyadhara.[21]  Dr. Fleet[22] proposes to identify this Vikramaditya with the Vikramaditya I. of the Udayendiram plates and with the Vanavidyadhara of the subjoined inscription.  This identification would suit the fact that Vanavidyadhara’s queen was the daughter of Prithivipati I.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! (the following is) a copy of a stone inscription which existed before the sacred vimana (i.e., the central shrine) had been pulled down.

Vanamahadevi,- the daughter of Pratipati-Araiyar, the son of Ko[ng]u[n]I, the righteous Maharaja, the supreme lord of Kunilapura,[23] alias Srinatha, the glorious Sivamaharaja-Perumanadigal, (and) the great queen of Vanavidyadha[ra]raya, alias Vanaraya, born from the family of Mahabali, who had been made door-keeper by the lord of gods and demons, Paramesvara (Siva), who is worshipped in all the three worlds, - gave to the demons, Paramesvara (Siva), who is worshipped in all the three worlds, - gave to the members of the assembly of this Tikkali-Vallam twenty kalanju of pure gold for (maintaining) one perpetual lamp before (the god) Tikkali-Perumanadigal.

(L. 3.) (As) interest on this gold, we, the assembly, shall have to supply (one) uri of ghee per day for one lamp.  This ghee we shall have to supply without fail as long as the moon and the sun exist.  If (we) fail (to do so), we agree that all the Mahesvaras (among us) shall pay as fine five kalanju of gold per day.  Though fined thus, we, the assembly, shall (continue) to supply the ghee without fail.  Those of us, who say that this is not (so), shall incur (all) the sins committed between the Ganga and Kumari.

(L. 4.) “This charity (is placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.  The feet of those who protect this charity, (shall be) on my head.”


[1]  No. 91 on the Madras Survey Map of the Walajapet taluka of the North Arcot district.

[2]  No. 68 on the same map.

[3]  No. 21 on the same map.

[4] See page 30 above.

[5]  Compare above, No. 7, text line 5.

[6]  On the verb manru, ‘to pay a fine,’ see above, p. 51, note 4.

[7]  See above, p. 3 and note 8.

[8]  See above, Vol. I. pp. 113, 141 and 143.

[9]  On manjikkam see above, p. 30 and note 4.

[10]  Nilam is used for veli ; compare above, Vol. II. p. 259.

[11]  Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 75.

[12]  See the introductory remarks to Nos. 43 and 47.

[13]  In No. 48, text line 2, this word appears as Gogunidha[r]ma, evidently a misreading of the copyist for Kongunivarman.

[14]  See Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 164, note 3.

[15]  This name is perhaps a corruption of Sivamaraja, the Tamil form of Sivamaharaja.

[16]  Above, Vol. II. p. 380 f.

[17]  Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 182.

[18]  See page 90 above.

[19]   See page 90 above.

[20]  See page 92 above.

[21]  Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 39, No. 11.

[22]  I am again quoting from a manuscript which he has kindly sent to me ; see above, p. 92, note 8.

[23]  This is a mistake of the copyist for Kuvalalapura ; see p. 99 above.

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