The Indian Analyst

South Indian Inscriptions



Volume - III




Part - I

Inscription at Ukkal





Part - II

Kulottunga-Chola I

Vikrama Chola

Virarajendra I

Kulottunga-Chola III

Part - III

Aditya I

Parantaka I


Parantaka II



Aditya II Karikala

Part - IV

copper-plate Tirukkalar


Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27





Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India


IV.- Inscriptions at Manimangalam

No. 29 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara

No. 27 to 28 Rajgopala-Perumal temple

No. 30 north wall of the mandapa

No. 31 to 33 south, west wall of the mandapa

No. 34 to 35 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara

No. 36 to 39 south, east wall of the mandapa in the perumal temple

No. 40 to 41 east wall of the Dharmesvara temple

No. 29.- On the outside of the east wall of the inner prakara of the Rajagopala-Perumal temple

Above, Vol. II. p. 303, I noticed two inscriptions of the 4th year of the reign of Parakesarivarman, alias Rajendradeva.  One of these is the subjoined inscription.  It is dated on a week-day (1. 14 f.) which will probably admit of astronomical calculation as soon as a second, similarly dated record of the same reign may be discovered.[1]  The text of the historical introduction has been settled with the help of two other inscriptions, viz.,-

1. Tv. = an inscription of the 4th year in the Bilvanathesvara temple at Tiruvallam in the North Arcot district (No. 190 of 1894).

2. Tm. = an inscription of the 8th year in the vaidyanatha temple  at Tirumalavadi in the Trichninopoly district (No. 84 of 1895).

Like the inscriptions of his predecessor Rajadhiraja (p. 55 f. above) and those of his successor Virarajendra I. (p. 33 above) this inscription of Rajendra opens with a list of relatives on whom the king conferred certain titles (II. 1 to 6).  The recipients of these honours were a paternal uncle of the king, four younger brothers of his, six sons (?)[2]  The fifth of the sons – Mudikonda-Chola with the title Sundara-Chola[3] - is perhaps identical with a prince of the same name and title, who is mentioned in the inscriptions of Rajendra’s successor, Virarajendra I.[4]

Lines 6 to 12 give a detailed account of the battle of Koppam, which is only briefly noticed in the hitherto published inscriptions of Rajendra.[5]  His enemy Ahavamalla (Somesvara I.) is here expressly called Salukki, i.e.,  the Chalukya king (ii. 7, 9 and 10).  The Chola king invaded Ratta-mandalam and was met by Ahavamalla at Koppam.  At first the advantage seems to have been on the side of the Chalukya king.  Rajendra himself and his elephant were wounded by arrows, and the men who had mounted the elephant along with him were killd.  But fresh troops were advanced and truned the fortune of the battle.  Ahavamalla fled, and several of his officers fell.  Among these the inscription mentions a younger brother of the Chalukya king – Jayasimha,[6] Pulikesin,[7] Dasapanman,[8] Asokaiyan, Araiyan, Mottaiyan and Nanni-Nulamban,[9] and among those who took part in the flight, Vanniya-Revan, Tuttan and Kundamayan.  The first of these three chiefs is perhaps identical with the Haihaya Mahamandalesvara Revarasa, who is mentioned as a vassal of Somesvara I. in an inscription of A.D. 1054-55.[10]  Among the spoil of the battle were many elephants, three of which are mentioned by name (1. 11), the banner of the boar, and two queens by name Sattiyavvai and Sangappai (1. 12).

Finally, Rajendra dispatched an army to Ceylon, where the Kalinga king Vira-Salamegan was decapitated and the two sons of the Ceylon king Manabharanan were taken prisoners.  Another Vira-Salamegan, who is stated to have migrated to Ceylon from Kanyakubja, had been killed by Rajendra’s predecessor Rajadhiraja.[11]  The same Chola king had decapitated another Manabharana, who was, however, a Pandya king and not a king of Ceylon.[12]  The Mahavamsa mentions two princes of the name Manabharana, and two others of the name Kittisirimegha.  Manabharana I.[13] and Kittisirimegha I. were nephews and sons-in-law of the Ceylon king Vijayabahu I. (chapter lix. Verses 42 and 44).  His queen Tilokasundari was a princess of Kalinga (ibid. verse 29 f.).[14]  Manabharanan and Vira-Salamegan in the subjoined inscription might correspond to Manabharana and Kittisirimegha in the Mahavamsa, and the reason why Vira-Salamegan is styled a Kalinga king in the inscription might be thefact that his mother-in-law was a Kalinga princess according to the Mahavamsa.  On the other hand king Vijayabahu I. is supposed to have reigned from A.D. 1065 to 1120, and Vikkamabahu I. in whose time Manabharana I. and Kittisirimegha I.  usurped the government of Ceylon, from A.D. 1121 to 1142, while Rajendra and Virarajendra I. have to be accommodated between A.D. 1050 and 1070.[15]  Consequently, Manabharana and Vira-Salamegan in the inscription must be distinct from, and prior to, Manabharana I. and Kittisirimegha I. in the Mahavamsa.  But, as I have previously stated (p. 39 above), the conquest of Ceylon by Rajendra is established by the existence of an inscription of his in that island.

The subjoined inscription records that the villagers received an unspecified sum from Kamakkavvaiyal, the mother of the Senapti Jayankonda-Chola-Brahmadhiraja, and granted in return a piece of land at Amanpakkam – the modern Ammanambakkam – on the south of Manimangalam[16] to the temple.  This land was situated “to the south of the land that has been formerly granted to this god by a stone inscription.”  The reference is to an inscription of Rajakesarivarman (No. 27 above), which registers a grant of land on the south of Manimangalam and east of Amanpakkam.

(He) bestowed high crows, resplendent with large jewels, on Gangaikonda-Solan, who was the younger brother of his father (and who was) powerful in defeating (his enemies), (with the title) ‘Irumadi-Solan of exuberant valour;’ among his royal younger brothers of warlike strength, on the victorious Mummadi-Solan,[17] (with the title) ‘Sola-Pandiyan whose valour conquers (enemies) on the battle-field ;’ on Vira-Solan, the lord of Koli (i.e. Uraiyur),[18] who wore ankle-rings, (with the title) ‘Karikala-Solan[19] (who is) praised on earth ;’ on Madhurantakan,[20] whose strong and broad hand (wielded) the sword in warfare, (with the title) ‘Sola-Gangan ;’[21] on Parantakadevan,[22] whose valour was combined with strength of shoulders, (with the title) ‘Sola-Ayottiyarajana ;’[23] among (his) sons,[24] who regarded with kindness (their enemies ?) in distress, on Rajendra-Solan, (who was) praised on this earth, (with the title) ‘Uttama-Solan ;’[25] on Mudikonda-Solan, (who wore) a garland of opening buds (as) an ancient (i.e., hereditary)ornament, (with the title) ‘the brave Vijayalayan ;’[26] on Sola-Keralan,[27](who holds) a long bow ;’ on Kadarankonda-Solan[28] of great valour, (with the title) ‘Sola-Janakarajan[29] in whom the eminence of the race of the Sun rests ;’ on Mudikonda-Solan, who conquered the earth (surrounded by) the roaring ocean (and who was) praised by many, (with the title ) ‘Sundara-Solan;’ on Irattapadikonda-Solan,[30] (who was) the rock of support to pure Tamil, (with the title) ‘Sola-Kannakuchchiyarajan,[31] the lord of the ancient earth ;’ then, among the sons of his sons,[32] on Madhurantakan,[33] who was (i.e., resembled) the great sun (and who wore) sounding ankle-rings, (with the title) ‘Sola-Vallabhan[34] (who leads) a victorious army ;’ and on the matchless Anaichcheagan,[35] whose hand (held) a strong bow, (with the title) ‘Nripendra-Solan.’

(L. 6.) While (the Chola king) was resplendent on earth, the proud and furrous Salukki (i.e., Chalukya king) Ahavamallan, - having heard the substance of the report that the Valavan (i.e., the Chola king), desirous of war, had started (from his country), had reached Iratta-mandalam, (whose inhabitants are) very brave, and had destroyed many rivers ( ! ), districts and towns, - exclaimed : “This (is) a disgrace to me !,” sprang up, (his) eyes burning (with rage), went into Koppam, the strength (of whose position is) hard to describe, (and) commenced to attack the enemy.

(L. 8.) At that time, when the shower of his (viz., Ahavamalla’s) straight arrows pierced the forehead of his (i.e., the Chola king’s) elephant, his royal thigh, and (his) shoulders which resembled hillocks, and when the warriors wearing ankle-rings, who had mounted the elephant along with

him, fell, (the Chola king) distributed (on the battle-field) many matchless warlike regiments (which had) not (yet been) detached, and transported to heaven Jayasingan, (who was) the younger brother of that strong Salukki, the warlike Pulikesi, and Dasapanman, (who wore) a garland ; among proud princes : the chief (Mandalin) Asokaiyan, Araiyan, who ruled (with) great fame which was well deserved, Mottaiyan, (who wore) a garland of half-open (buds) full of honey, Nanni-Nulamban of great valour,  and other princes without number.

(L. 10.) The Salukki was defeated, - with Vanniya-Revan, Tuttan, (who had) a powerful army, Kundamayan, whose army spoke (i.e., threatened) death, and other princes, - fled, trembling vehemently, with disheveled hair, turning (his) back, looking round, and tiring (his) legs, and was forced to plunge into the western ocean.

(L. 11.) At that time (the Chola king) captured in battle satrubhayamkara, Karabhadra, Mulabhadra and many (other) excellent elephants of noble breed, horses of lofty gait, herds of camels, the victorious banner of the boar and the other insignia of royalty, the peerless Sattiyavvai, Sangappai and all the other queens, a crowd of women, and other (booty) which he (viz., Ahavamalla) had abandoned on that battle-field, and performed the anointment of victory.

(L. 12.) (The king) dispatched a warlike army into the southern region, captured in Lanka, (surrounded by) the black ocean, Vira-Salamegan, the king of the Kalingas, (who had) a powerful army, with (his) elephants (which resembled) the ocean, caused to be cut off (his head which wore) a brilliant crown, and seized on the battle-field the two sons of Manabharanan, the king of the people of Lanka.

(L. 13.) On the 8[2]nd day of the fourth year (of the reign) of (this) king Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendradeva, who (continually) increased very much (his) very great fame, - we, the great assembly of Rajasulamani-chaturvedimangalam in Maganur-nadu, (a subdivision) of Sengattu-kottam, (a district) of Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam, being assembled, without a vacancy in the assembly, in the Brahmasthana-mandapa[36] in our village on the day of Rohini, which corresponded to a Thursday and to the eighth tithi of the second fortnight of the month of Simhain this year, gave the following land to (the temple of) Srimad-Dvarapati, alias Sri-Kamakkodi-Vinnagar-Alvar, in our village.

(L. 15.) Land at Amanpakkam, a southern hamlet of our village.  The eastern boundary (of this land is) to the west of the Mannikkal (channel) ;[37] the southern boundary (is) to the north of the Mannikkal (channel) ; the western boundary (is) to the east of the Araisanguttam (pond) and of the field named Nangasi ; and the northern boundary (is) to the south of the bank of the Nakkapputteri (tank) at Paluvur and to the south of the land that has been formerly granted to this god by a stone inscription.

(L. 18.)Having received funds (svam) from Kamakkavvaiyal, the mother of the Senapati Jayankonda-Sola-Brahmadhirajar, we, the great assembly, are bound to pay the taxes on this land for as long as the moon and the sun exist, and to give the whole land enclosed within these four boundaries, the water-courses, the breaches (in the bands of tanks),[38] the trees over ground and the wells underground.

(L. 21.) Having been present in the assembly and having heard the order of Karambisettu Narayana-Kramavittan,[39] of Irayur, and Sahanai Madhava-Kramavittan, who had districted the blocks (karai)[40] and inspected the blocks, I, Alankaran Sriraman, the village-accountant of this village, wrote (the above).  This (is) my writing.

[1]  As the day of the year of the reign is mentioned besides the week-day, the calculation of the latter would also settle the very date of Rajendra’s accession to the throne.

[2]  See below, page 62, note 9.

[3]  The second son of the king also had the name Mudikonda-Chola, but bore the title Vijayalaya.

[4]  See p. 33 above.

[5]  See above, p. 39, and Vol. II. p. 303.

[6]  This prince is not mentioned in the Western Chalukya inscriptions.

[7]  This chief was named after the two Chalukya kings of the same name.

[8]  This chief was named after dasavarman or Yasovarman, the younger son of Tail II.  Dasavarman is a vulgar form of Yasovarman ; compare tuvaraya and tuvarasa for yuvaraja, Ep. Ind.  Vol. IV. P. 180 and note 5.

[9]  This may have been a Pallava chief of Nulambapadi ; see Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 180 and note 3.

[10]  Dr. Fleet’s Kanarese Dynasties, second edition, p. 439.

[11]  See page 56 above.

[12]  See ibid.

[13]  He became the father of king Parakkamabahau I. ; see chapter lxii. Verse 52.

[14]  Verse 46 mentions three of her relations, Madhukannava, Bhimaraja and Balakkara.

[15]  See page 32 above.

[16]  See above, p. 50 and note 3.

[17]  The same had been a surname of Rajaraja I. ; see above, p. 22 and note 11.

[18]  See above, Vol. II. p. 380 and notes 3 and 4.

[19]  Karikala had been the name of an ancient Chola king ; ibid. p. 377 f.

[20]  The same was the name or surname of three Chola kings (Ep. Ind. Vol. IV. P. 331) and the name of a son of Virarajendra I. (p. 33 above).

[21]  Chodaganga was also a surname of the Eastern Ganga king Anantavarman ; Ind.  Ant. Vol. XVIII. P. 161.

[22]  Parantaka had been the name of two Chola kings ; see the Table on p. 112 of Vol. I. above.

[23]  I.e. ‘the Ayodhya king (viz., Rama) among the Cholas.’

[24]  The word kadalar may also mean ‘friends.’

[25]  The same appears to have been a surname of Rajendra-Chola I.  This may be concluded from the surname of one of his officers; see p. 14 above.

[26]  This had been the name of the ancestor of the ruling Chola dynasty; see above, Vol. II. p. 379.

[27]  Compare the territorial designation Sola-Kerala-mandalam, p. 31 above.

[28]  I.e., ‘the Chola who conquered Kadram,’ which figures among the conquests of Rajendra-Chola I.’ se above, Vol. II. p. 105 f.

[29]  Janaka is the name of Rama’s father-in-law ; compare note 8 above.

[30]  I.e. ‘the Chola who conquered Rattapadi,’ which figures among the conquests of Rajaraja I and his successors.

[31]  I.e., ‘the Chola who conquered Rattapadi,’ which figures among the conquests of Rajaraja I. and his successors.

[32]  Or, ‘the friends of his friends;’ see note 9 above.

[33]  A similar title had been conferred by Rajadhiraja on one of his relatives; see p. 56 above.

[34]  Vallabha was a title of the Chalukya kings; compare above, p. 55, note 20.

[35]  This name means ‘a mahout’.

[36]  See above, p. 57 and note 9.

[37]  The same channel is mentioned in line 5 of No. 27 above.

[38]  Compare above, Vol. II. p. 393.

[39]  See above, p. 4, note 10.

[40]  Compare above, Vol. II. p. 116.

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