29 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara
27 to 28 Rajgopala-Perumal temple
30 north wall of the mandapa
31 to 33 south, west wall of the mandapa
34 to 35 outside of the east wall of the inner prakara
36 to 39 south, east wall of the mandapa in the perumal temple
40 to 41 east wall of the Dharmesvara temple
29.- On the outside of the east wall of the inner prakara of the
Vol. II. p. 303, I noticed two inscriptions of the 4th
year of the reign of Parakesarivarman, alias Rajendradeva.
One of these is the subjoined inscription.
It is dated on a week-day (1. 14 f.) which will probably
admit of astronomical calculation as soon as a second, similarly
dated record of the same reign may be discovered.
The text of the historical introduction has been settled with
the help of two other inscriptions, viz.,-
Tv. = an inscription of the 4th year in the
Bilvanathesvara temple at Tiruvallam in the North Arcot district
(No. 190 of 1894).
Tm. = an inscription of the 8th year in the vaidyanatha
temple at Tirumalavadi
in the Trichninopoly district (No. 84 of 1895).
the inscriptions of his predecessor Rajadhiraja (p. 55 f. above) and
those of his successor Virarajendra I. (p. 33 above) this
inscription of Rajendra opens with a list of relatives on whom the
king conferred certain titles (II. 1 to 6).
The recipients of these honours were a paternal uncle of the
king, four younger brothers of his, six sons (?)
The fifth of the sons – Mudikonda-Chola with the title
- is perhaps identical with a prince of the same name and title, who
is mentioned in the inscriptions of Rajendra’s successor,
6 to 12 give a detailed account of the battle of Koppam, which is
only briefly noticed in the hitherto published inscriptions of
His enemy Ahavamalla (Somesvara I.) is here expressly called
Salukki, i.e., the Chalukya king (ii. 7, 9 and 10). The Chola king invaded Ratta-mandalam and was met by
Ahavamalla at Koppam. At
first the advantage seems to have been on the side of the Chalukya
king. Rajendra himself
and his elephant were wounded by arrows, and the men who had mounted
the elephant along with him were killd.
But fresh troops were advanced and truned the fortune of the
fled, and several of his officers fell.
Among these the inscription mentions a younger brother of the
Chalukya king – Jayasimha, Pulikesin,
Dasapanman, Asokaiyan, Araiyan,
Mottaiyan and Nanni-Nulamban,
and among those who took part in the flight, Vanniya-Revan, Tuttan
and Kundamayan. The
first of these three chiefs is perhaps identical with the Haihaya Mahamandalesvara
Revarasa, who is mentioned as a vassal of Somesvara I. in an
inscription of A.D. 1054-55.
Among the spoil of the battle were many elephants, three of
which are mentioned by name (1. 11), the banner of the boar, and two
queens by name Sattiyavvai and Sangappai (1. 12).
Rajendra dispatched an army to Ceylon, where the Kalinga king
Vira-Salamegan was decapitated and the two sons of the Ceylon king
Manabharanan were taken prisoners.
Another Vira-Salamegan, who is stated to have migrated to
Ceylon from Kanyakubja, had been killed by Rajendra’s predecessor
The same Chola king had decapitated another Manabharana, who
was, however, a Pandya king and not a king of Ceylon.
The Mahavamsa mentions two princes of the name
Manabharana, and two others of the name Kittisirimegha.
and Kittisirimegha I. were nephews and sons-in-law of the Ceylon
king Vijayabahu I. (chapter lix. Verses 42 and 44).
His queen Tilokasundari was a princess of Kalinga (ibid.
verse 29 f.).
Manabharanan and Vira-Salamegan in the subjoined inscription
might correspond to Manabharana and Kittisirimegha in the Mahavamsa,
and the reason why Vira-Salamegan is styled a Kalinga king in the
inscription might be thefact that his mother-in-law was a Kalinga
princess according to the Mahavamsa.
On the other hand king Vijayabahu I. is supposed to have
reigned from A.D. 1065 to 1120, and Vikkamabahu I. in whose time
Manabharana I. and Kittisirimegha I.
usurped the government of Ceylon, from A.D. 1121 to 1142,
while Rajendra and Virarajendra I. have to be accommodated between
A.D. 1050 and 1070.
Consequently, Manabharana and Vira-Salamegan in the
inscription must be distinct from, and prior to, Manabharana I. and
Kittisirimegha I. in the Mahavamsa.
But, as I have previously stated (p. 39 above), the conquest
of Ceylon by Rajendra is established by the existence of an
inscription of his in that island.
subjoined inscription records that the villagers received an
unspecified sum from Kamakkavvaiyal, the mother of the Senapti
Jayankonda-Chola-Brahmadhiraja, and granted in return a piece of
land at Amanpakkam – the modern Ammanambakkam – on the south of
to the temple. This
land was situated “to the south of the land that has been formerly
granted to this god by a stone inscription.”
The reference is to an inscription of Rajakesarivarman (No.
27 above), which registers a grant of land on the south of
Manimangalam and east of Amanpakkam.
bestowed high crows, resplendent with large jewels, on
Gangaikonda-Solan, who was the younger brother of his father (and
who was) powerful in defeating (his enemies), (with
the title) ‘Irumadi-Solan of exuberant valour;’ among his
royal younger brothers of warlike strength, on the victorious
(with the title) ‘Sola-Pandiyan whose valour conquers (enemies)
on the battle-field ;’ on Vira-Solan, the lord of Koli (i.e.
who wore ankle-rings, (with the title) ‘Karikala-Solan
(who is) praised on earth ;’ on Madhurantakan,
whose strong and broad hand (wielded) the sword in warfare, (with
the title) ‘Sola-Gangan ;’ on Parantakadevan, whose valour was combined
with strength of shoulders, (with the title)
among (his) sons,
who regarded with kindness (their enemies ?) in distress, on
Rajendra-Solan, (who was) praised on this earth, (with the
title) ‘Uttama-Solan ;’ on Mudikonda-Solan, (who
wore) a garland of opening buds (as) an ancient (i.e.,
hereditary)ornament, (with the title) ‘the brave
Vijayalayan ;’ on Sola-Keralan,(who holds) a long
bow ;’ on Kadarankonda-Solan
of great valour, (with the title) ‘Sola-Janakarajan
in whom the eminence of the race of the Sun rests ;’ on
Mudikonda-Solan, who conquered the earth (surrounded by) the
roaring ocean (and who was) praised by many, (with the
title ) ‘Sundara-Solan;’ on Irattapadikonda-Solan,
(who was) the rock of support to pure Tamil, (with the title)
the lord of the ancient earth ;’ then, among the sons of his sons,
who was (i.e., resembled) the great sun (and who wore)
sounding ankle-rings, (with the title) ‘Sola-Vallabhan
(who leads) a victorious army ;’ and on the matchless
whose hand (held) a strong bow, (with the title) ‘Nripendra-Solan.’
6.) While (the Chola king) was resplendent on earth,
the proud and furrous Salukki (i.e., Chalukya king)
Ahavamallan, - having heard the substance of the report that the
Valavan (i.e., the Chola king), desirous of war, had started
(from his country), had reached Iratta-mandalam, (whose
inhabitants are) very brave, and had destroyed many rivers ( ! ),
districts and towns, - exclaimed : “This (is) a disgrace to
me !,” sprang up, (his) eyes burning (with rage),
went into Koppam, the strength (of whose position is) hard to
describe, (and) commenced to attack the enemy.
8.) At that time, when the shower of his (viz.,
Ahavamalla’s) straight arrows pierced the forehead of his (i.e.,
the Chola king’s) elephant, his royal thigh, and (his)
shoulders which resembled hillocks, and when the warriors wearing
ankle-rings, who had mounted the elephant along with him, fell, (the
Chola king) distributed (on the battle-field) many matchless warlike
regiments (which had) not (yet been) detached, and
transported to heaven Jayasingan, (who was) the
younger brother of that strong Salukki, the warlike Pulikesi, and
Dasapanman, (who wore) a garland ; among proud princes
: the chief (Mandalin) Asokaiyan, Araiyan, who ruled (with)
great fame which was well deserved, Mottaiyan, (who wore) a
garland of half-open (buds) full of honey, Nanni-Nulamban of
great valour, and other
princes without number.
10.) The Salukki was defeated, - with Vanniya-Revan, Tuttan, (who
had) a powerful army, Kundamayan, whose army spoke (i.e.,
threatened) death, and other princes, - fled, trembling vehemently,
with disheveled hair, turning (his) back, looking round, and
tiring (his) legs, and was forced to plunge into the western
11.) At that time (the Chola king) captured in battle satrubhayamkara,
Karabhadra, Mulabhadra and many (other) excellent
elephants of noble breed, horses of lofty gait, herds of camels, the
victorious banner of the boar and the other insignia of royalty, the
peerless Sattiyavvai, Sangappai and all the other queens, a crowd of
women, and other (booty) which he (viz., Ahavamalla)
had abandoned on that battle-field, and performed the anointment of
12.) (The king) dispatched a warlike army into the southern
region, captured in Lanka, (surrounded by) the black ocean,
Vira-Salamegan, the king of the Kalingas, (who had) a
powerful army, with (his) elephants (which resembled)
the ocean, caused to be cut off (his head which wore) a brilliant
crown, and seized on the battle-field the two sons of Manabharanan,
the king of the people of Lanka.
13.) On the 8nd day of the fourth year (of the reign) of (this)
king Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendradeva, who (continually)
increased very much (his) very great fame, - we, the great
assembly of Rajasulamani-chaturvedimangalam in Maganur-nadu, (a
subdivision) of Sengattu-kottam, (a district) of
Jayankonda-Sola-mandalam, being assembled, without a vacancy in the
assembly, in the Brahmasthana-mandapa
in our village on the day of Rohini, which corresponded to a
Thursday and to the eighth tithi of the second fortnight of
the month of Simhain this year, gave the following land to (the
temple of) Srimad-Dvarapati, alias Sri-Kamakkodi-Vinnagar-Alvar,
in our village.
15.) Land at Amanpakkam, a southern hamlet of our village.
The eastern boundary (of this land is) to the
west of the Mannikkal (channel) ;
the southern boundary (is) to the north of the Mannikkal
(channel) ; the western boundary (is) to the east of the Araisanguttam
(pond) and of the field named Nangasi ; and the
northern boundary (is) to the south of the bank of the Nakkapputteri
(tank) at Paluvur and to the south of the land that has been
formerly granted to this god by a stone inscription.
18.)Having received funds (svam) from Kamakkavvaiyal, the
mother of the Senapati Jayankonda-Sola-Brahmadhirajar, we,
the great assembly, are bound to pay the taxes on this land for as
long as the moon and the sun exist, and to give the whole land
enclosed within these four boundaries, the water-courses, the
breaches (in the bands of tanks),
the trees over ground and the wells underground.
21.) Having been present in the assembly and having heard the order
of Karambisettu Narayana-Kramavittan,
of Irayur, and Sahanai Madhava-Kramavittan, who had districted the
and inspected the blocks, I, Alankaran Sriraman, the
village-accountant of this village, wrote (the above).
This (is) my writing.