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Sunday, February 25, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

XV.- Inscriptions of Parthivendravarman or Parthivendradhipativarman, who took the head of Vira-Pandya

No. 166 to 170 Jalanathesvara temple at Takkolam

No. 152 to 155 Vaikuntha-Perumal, Madariamman temples

No. 156 to 157 Kharapurisvara, Vaikuntha-Perumal temples

No. 158 to 161 On the east and north wall of the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple

No. 162 to 165 Vaikuntha-Perumal, Vishnu temples at Tirumalpuram

No. 171 to 176 Subrahmanya, Vaikuntha-Perumal, Masilamanisvara temples

No. 177 to 180 Siva, Varaha-Perumal temples

No. 181 to 184 Tiruvalisvara,  Vaikuntha-Perumal, Jalanathesvara temples

No. 185 to 189 Varaha-Perumal, Tiruvalisvara, Ullagaikulunda temples

No. 190 to 194 Jalanathesvara, Selliyamman, Vishnu temples

No. 195 to 198 Masilamanisvara, Manikanthesvara, Vishnu temples

No. 166. ON THENORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE JALANATHESVARA TEMPLE AT TAKKOLAM[1]

This record is dated in the 3rd year of Parthivendravarman and registers a gift of money by the merchants for a sleeping cot presented by queen Arumolinangai to the temple of Tiruvural-Alvar.  Mention has been made, in Nos. 49 and 52 of 1898 printed below, of Tribhuvana-Mahadeviyar, another queen of Parthivendra.  Villavan-Madeviyar still another queen of his, is mentioned in No. 193 below.

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the [3]rd year of (the reign of) king Parthivendravarman, we the merchants (nagarattom) gave gold that would secure annually nine manjadi by means of interest in a lump-sum from the third (year) as long as the moon and the sun (endure), for one sacred sleeping cot given by Arumolinangaiyar, wife of the king (udaiyar) to (the temple of) Tiruvural-Alvar at Takkolam.

No. 167. ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE VAIKUNTHA-PERUMAL TEMPLE AT UTTARAMALLUR[2]

This inscription is dated in the 3rd year of Parthivendradhipativarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya, and records a gift of land to the temple of Ayyan, the great Sasta of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam, for current expenses, a perpetual lamp, sribali and archchanabhoga.  Ayyan or Sasta is a popular village god ; see South-Indian Gods and Goddesses, page 229 f.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 3rd year and the 50th day (of the reign) of Parthivendradhipativarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya, (this is) the writing of us (the members) of the great assembly of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam, (a village) in its own subdivision in Kaliyur-kottam.  The following are the lands given to (the temple of) Ayyan, the great Sasta, on the south side of our village for the sacred current expenses (tiruchchennadai), a perpetual lamp, sribali and worship[3].

(L. 2.) Eight hundred and forty kuli of first rate (land) which forms the third padagam  in the first square, west of (the path called) Paramesvara-vadi of the first kannaru (situated) to the south of the village ; 400 kuli of first rate (land) of the third square to the west of (the path called) Paramesvara-vadi in the second and third kannaru on the south side of the village; 360 kuli of first rate (land) of the fourth and fifth squares to the west of (the path called) Paramesvara-vadi in the second kannaru on the south side of the village ; in all 1,600 kuli of land equal to ma of land[4].  We made these lands tax-free as long as the moon and the sun last, having receiving purvacharam from Sattan Brahmakuttan of Puliyangudi and agreeing that we do not show (as due) against (them) any kind of (tax such as) irai, echchoru, vetti and amanji.

(L. 5.) Those who deviate from this and show the taxes (as due) shall pay a fine of 25 kalanju of gold to the credit of the court of justice whenever demanded, and those who act against this charity shall incur the sin committed (by sinners) between Ganga (the Ganges) and Kumari (Cape Comorin).  We (the members) of the great assembly of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalm having unanimously agreed to this grant, freed this land from taxes.  Under orders of the assembly, I, the arbitrator (madhyastha) Sivadasan Aiyayirattirunurruva Brahmapriyan, wrote (this).

No. 168. ON THE SAME WALL[5]

This document of the 3rd year of Parthivendradhipativarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya, registers a gift of land for worship and offerings to Mahadeva (Siva) of the temple at Kumanpadi, a hamlet of Uttaramallur.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 3rd year of (the reign of) Parthivendradhipativarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya, (this is) the writing of us (the members) of the great assembly of Uttaramelur-chaturvedimangalam, (a village) in its own subdivision in Kaliyur-kottam.  The lands given to the Mahadeva (Siva) of the sacred temple (srikoyil) on the east side[6] at Kumanpadi, (a suburb) of our village, to provide for worship and sacred offerings (are as below) : -

(L. 2.) 240 kuli of first rate (land) in the second square (sadukkam) west of (the path called) Videlvidugu-vadi of the sixth kannaru to the south of (the path called) Vayiramega-vadi ; 415 kuli of first rate (land) in the eighth square (sadukkam) east of (the path called) Marapidugu-vadi of the sixteenth kannaru (situated) to the north of (the lane called) Subrahmanya-narasam ; 440 (kuli) of fourth rate (land) in the sixth square to the east of the path which goes straight to the Kavanur tank of the sixteenth kannaru (situated) to the north of (the lane) Subrahmanya-narasam.  In all, we gave (these) 1,095 (kuli) freed of taxes, having received purvacharam from Sandaran Elunurruvan alias Nulamba Mayilatti.  We (also) decreed them tax-free agreeing not to exact irai, echchoru, vetti and amanji.

(L. 6.) Those who obstruct this (deed) shall incur the sin committed (by the sinners) between Ganga (the Ganges) and Kumari (Cape Comorin) and shall pay a fine of 25 kalanju  of gold at the court of justice (danmadana, dharmasana).  I, PuliyaSivan alias[7] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wrote (this) by order of the great assembly I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wrote (this) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by order of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . assembly.

No. 169. ON THE SAME WALL[8]

The inscription records that in the 3rd year of Parthivendradivarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya, the members of the assembly of Uttaramelur-chaturvedimangalam made a gift of land to the goddess Jyeshtha[9] at Kumanpadi, a suburb of this village, for the maintenance of worship and sacred offerings.

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 3rd year of (the reign of) Parthivendradivarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya, we (the members) of the assembly of Uttaramelur-chaturvedimangalam, (a village) in its own subdivision in Kaliyurkottam wrote (thus) : The land given for the maintenance of worship (archanabhoga) and for sacred offerings of (the goddess) Jyeshtha in Kumanpadi of our village (is as follows) : 408 (kuli) of first rate (land) in the third square (sadukkam) to the west of (the path called) Kola-vadi in the fourth kannaru . . . . . . . . . . . . (situated) south of the high-level channel (mugattu-kal); 480 kuli of (the lane called) Subrahmanya-narasam; and to the north of this, first rate (land) (measuring) 260 kuli in the ninth square to the south of the path leading straight to the Kavanur tank, in the eighteenth kannaru.  We, (the members) of the great assembly, exempted (all) this land from tax and declared it tax-free.  We, (the members) of the great assembly, having received purvacharam from Mayilatti declared (the land) tax-free.  Those who cause obstruction (to this) shall incur the sins of those who commit (sinful acts) between Ganga (the Ganges) and Kumari (Cape Comorin).

No. 170. ON THE SAME WALL[10]

The assembly of Uttaramerur-chaturvedimangalam received the usual purvacharam from Sandiran Elunurruvan Nulamba-Mayilatti, a merchant of Ranavirappadi in Kanchipura and exempted taxes on certain lands which they had given to a priest of the temple, in the fourth year (of the reign) of Parthivendradhipativarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 4th year of (the reign of) Parthivendradhipativarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya, (this is) the writing of us (the members) of the great assembly of Uttaramerur-chaturvedimangalam (situated) in its (own) subdivision (karu) in Kaliyur-kottam.  The land given to Atrayan Ta[t*]ta-bha[t*]tan who performs the worship of the god (perumanadigal) in the big hall (periya-mandapa) of our village, for archanabhoga, sacred offerings and sacred lamps (is as follows) : -

(L. 3.) Six hundred kuli of first rate (land) in the second square (sadukkam) and in the third square west of (the path called) Videlvidugu-vadi of the first kannaru,l north of (the path called) Vayiramega-vadi; also every sort of land which formed the one share assigned (by us) to Kandadai Ponnaiyakramavitta Somasiyar Ambalattadigal.  We (the members) of the great assembly having received purvacharam for this land from Sandiran Elunurruvan Nulamba Mayilatti, a merchant (residing in) Ranavirappadi in Kanchipura, ordered (it to be made) tax-free.  We shall not enter (in books) amanji, vetti, irai, echchoru or any other kind (of tax); we (the members) of the great assembly (further) ordered that those who act against this shall be liable to a fine of twenty-five kalanju of gold in the court of justice and that they shall incur the sins of the sinners (residing) between Gangai (the Ganges) and Kumari (Cape Comorin).


[1]  No. 7 of 1897.

[2]  No. 15 of 1898.

[3]  Archchanabhoga corresponds to archanavritti of other inscriptions.

[4]  The symbol va denotes one-fourth veli of land and ma, one-twentieths.  These two added up give us only 600 kuli of land, on the supposition that one veli is equal to 2,000 kuli.  Some inscriptions, however, point to a veli being = 6,376 or nearly 6,400 kuli in whch case ma here may not represent the usual one-twentieth of a veli.

[5]  No. 25 of 1898.

[6]  Kizhai koyil means evidently a Siva temple in contrast to the Vishnu temple of a village which goes by the name of mettralli or malaikoyil.  This relative position of the Siva and Vishnu shrines in a village temple is seen for example, in the disposition of the linga and the sleepingfigure of Vishnu in the Shore Temple at Mahaseepuram.

[7]  The name that follows begins with the numerals 1,200 which evidently stand for Ayirattirunurru[van], a sort of family-name or surname.

[8]  No. 23 of 1898.

[9]  The worship of Jyeshtha is not now popular in the south ; see South-Indian Gods and Goddesses, pages 216 ff.

[10]  No. 24 of 1898.

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