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Sunday, February 25, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

XV.- Inscriptions of Parthivendravarman or Parthivendradhipativarman, who took the head of Vira-Pandya

No. 156 to 157 Kharapurisvara, Vaikuntha-Perumal temples

No. 152 to 155 Vaikuntha-Perumal, Madariamman temples

No. 158 to 161 On the east and north wall of the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple

No. 162 to 165 Vaikuntha-Perumal, Vishnu temples at Tirumalpuram

No. 166 to 170 Jalanathesvara temple at Takkolam

No. 171 to 176 Subrahmanya, Vaikuntha-Perumal, Masilamanisvara temples

No. 177 to 180 Siva, Varaha-Perumal temples

No. 181 to 184 Tiruvalisvara,  Vaikuntha-Perumal, Jalanathesvara temples

No. 185 to 189 Varaha-Perumal, Tiruvalisvara, Ullagaikulunda temples

No. 190 to 194 Jalanathesvara, Selliyamman, Vishnu temples

No. 195 to 198 Masilamanisvara, Manikanthesvara, Vishnu temples

No. 156.— ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE KHARAPURISVARA TEMPLE AT TIRUPPARKADAL[1]

This record refers to a number of committees which comprised the great assembly of Kaviripakkam alias Amaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam.  These were samvatsara-variyam, totta-variyam, eri-variyam, kalani-variyam, panchavara-variyam, kanakku-variyam, kalingu-variyam and tadivali-variyam.  Besides these, the assembly included a general body of bhattas (learned Brahmanas) of the village, the ‘ruler’ (i.e., the headman) of the village and the overseer.  Perhaps the two last-mentioned personages were the representatives of Government in the village assembly.  An elaborate description of the formation of the village assemblies during the time of Parantaka I.  is given in the two Uttaramallur inscriptions published by Rai Bhadur V. Venkayya in the Archaeological Survey Report  for 1904-05.

In the 3rd year of king Parthivendradivarman, the village assembly received a petition from one of the trustees of the temple stating that a garden and a field which were the archanabhoga of the god of Tirukkarapuram had been lying waste, being silted up by sand by the breaches in the river.  The assembly directed the kalni-variyam committee to grant 1,400 kuli of land from the village manjikkam which was lying untaxed.  The term manjikkam perhaps corresponds to the present poramboke and the right vested in the village assemblies to dispose of such land deserves to be specially noted.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity! In the 3rd year and the 39th day (of the reign) of king Parthivendradivarman, the great assembly of Kaviripakkam alias Amaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam, (a village) in Paduvur-kottam, consisting of the great men of the annual-supervision committee (samvatsarvariyam) for this year, the great men of the garden-supervision committee (totta-variyam), the great men to the tank-supervision committee (eri-variyam), the great men of the wet fields-supervision committee (kalani-variyam), the great men of (the suburb ?) Vada –Viranarayana ; the great men of the pancha-vara committee (panchavara-variyam), the great men of the accounts-supervision committee (kanakku-variyam), the great men of the sluice-supervision committee (kalingu-variyam), the great men of the fields-supervision committee (tadivali-variyam), the bhattas, visishtas and others of the big assembly together with Pallavan Brahmadarayan, the ruler of the villager and the overseer Arumbakilan, having met together in the abhisheka-mandapa of the big temple of this village.

(L. 4.) Mangandanan, a Siva-Brahmana of this temple (sthana), petitioned that the garden and the field which were the archchanabhoga of the god, the lord of Tirukkarapura, were lying waste, being silted up with sand by breaches in the river.  The members of the assembly directed that thegreat men of the wet field-supervision committee (holding office) this year shall themselves (grant) this one thousand four hundred kuli (of land) (measured) by the wet field-measure (kalani-kol) out of the manjikkam land of the village, (in lieu of) the land which is the archchanabhoga of the lord of this Tirukarapura and is lying waste being silted up, shall set up stones (for boundaries) and have (the order) engraved on stone.  In pursuance of the order (tirumugam) which the assembly was (thus) pleased to make, we the great men of the wet field-supervision committee gave the (following) land as archchanabhoga to the lord of Tirukkarapura : -

(L. 7.)  Four hundred kuli of land, (measured) by the wet field-measuring rod, comprised within the (following) four boundaries : — the eastern boundary of (this) land, which not being taxed, lies as the manjikkam  of the village to the south of the (channel) Mahadavaykal in the northern fields of Ochcheri, a hamlet of this village, (is) to the west of the land of Somasi of Mangadu ; the southern boundary (is) to the north of the high ground which has been lying as village manjikkam ; the western boundary (is) to the east of (the land called) Udamadampatti of the lord of Trumulattanam in (the temple of) Tirupanrisvaram and the northern boundary (is) to the south of the (channel called) Mahada-vaykal.

(L. 9.) Four hundred kuli south of this, (measured) by the wet field-measuring rod, — a village manjikkam land not taxed and (situated) on the north side of (the channel called) Tirunarana-vaykal in the wet-field of the high ground (called) Sirukarugesuva which was also a village manjikkam – and comprised within the (following) four boundaries: — (viz.) the eastern boundary (which is) to the west of (the channel) Nadaikal which runs closely to the west of the land belonging to Angarai Madeva-bhatta; the southern boundary (which is) to the north of the Tirunarana-vaykal; the western boundary (which is) to the east of the land of Aiyan Peruman and the northern boundary (which is) to the south (?)[2] of the land of Mudumbai-Porkuli.

(L. 11.) Again, six hundred kuli on the south side of this (Tirunaranavaykal) channel (measured) by the wet field-measuring rod, of (one)  ma of land which was also lying as village manjikkam not paying any tax, (included within) the (following) four boundaries (viz.,) : — the eastern boundary (which is) to the west of the land which paid no taxes; the southern boundary (which is) to the north of (the field called) Somasibbumi which belonged to Avattaikilavan and to the kundil to the east of it ; the western boundary (which is) to the east of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (the field called) Kalayasomasi-bhumi and to the south of the channel (i.e., Tirunarana-vaykal).

(L. 12.) Altogether these one thousand four hundred kuli (of land) we, the great men of the wet-field-supervision committee (doing duty) for this year . . . . . . . . . . . . . members of the assembly, gave as tax-free archchanabhoga as long as the moon and the sun (last) engraving it on stone and fixing (boundary) stones, to the god (perumanadigal) of this Tirukarapura for (providing) daily one sacred meal of two nali of rice, for performing worship at the three periods (of the day) and (for) lighting a lamp.

(L. 13.) This is the signature of me Manimangalam-udaiyan Gangadhara Mayilatti, the accountant of the wet field-supervision committee for this year, who wrote this stone inscription under orders, being (myself) one of the assembly (kuri).  I, the accountant . . . . . . . .and madhyasthan  Vamana . . . . . . . . . . Elayiravan wrote this under orders being (myself) one of the assembly (kuri).[3]

No. 157.— ON THE WEST WALL FO THE VAIKUNTHA-PERUMAL TEMPLE AT UTTARAMALLUR[4]

This record is dated in the 3rd year and the 119th day of Parthivendradhipativarman, who took the head of Pandya and registers that the great assembly of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam declared certain lands of the temple of Govardhana of that village, tax-free.

(Line 1.) Hail! Prosperity! In the 3rd year and 119th day of (the reign of) Parthivendradhipativarman who took the head of the Pandya (king), (this is) the writing of us (the members) of the great assembly of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam, (a village) in its own subdivision (tan-kurru) in Kaliyur-kottam.

(L. 2.) The (following) lands were given to the god (perumanadigal) of the sacred Govardhana of our village (viz.,): — 240 kuli of second rate (land) in the fifth square (sadukkam) west of (the path called) Amaninarana-vadi, of the first kannaru, north of (the path called) Vayiramega-vadi; in the same place, 480 kuli of second rate (land) in the fourth square (sadukkam) of the second kannaru ; in the same place, 160 kuli of first rate (land) in the first square (sadukkam) of the first kannaru ; in the same place, 280 kuli of second rate (land) ; in the same place, 60 kuli of first rate (land) in the second square (sadukkam) ; in the same place, 90 kuli of second rate (land) in the second square (sadukkam) ; in the same place, 220 kuli of second rate (land) in the second square (sadukkam) ; 160 kuli of first rate (land) in the first square (sadukkam) west of (the path called) Amaninarana-vadi of sixth kannaru, south of (the path called) Vayiramegavadi; 120 kuli of second rate (land) in the third square (sadukkam) west of (the path called) Uttarameru-vadi of the second kannaru, north of (the path called) Vayiramega-vadi.  (Thus) these . . . . . . . . 570[5] square kuli . . . . . . . . . . of land in all equal to . . . . . . . . . . . . [6], we declared free of (all) taxes such as [ved]nai, irai, echchoru, vetti and amanji for (providing) sacred offerings, sribali sacred worship and sacred lamps, to this god . . . . . . . . Sandiran Arunurruvan alias Elayirava Ma . . . . . . . . . . . . in Kandapurattu-pettai.

(L. 6.) We (the members) of the great assembly ordered that those who speak or act against this shall be liable to be punished each with a fine of twenty-five pon by the Sraddhamantas themselves and shall incur the sins . . . . . . . . . . . . . between Ganga (the Ganges) and Kumari (Cape Comorin).  I, madhyastan Serkuri Uttarameru-chaturvedimangala-Uttaman, wrote (this) under orders of the great men, being (myself) one of the assembly.

(L. 7.) Of the lands given to this same god as a gift from the great assembly (the following is the extent) : — First rate land (measuring) 120 kuli,  in the second sadukkam to the west of (the path called) Amaninarana-vadi of the first kannaru, north of (the path called) Vayiramega-vadi; in this same place, second rate land (measuring) 3,110[7] kuli ; in all, land (measuring) . . . . . . . . . . .  60 kuli, added to good (?) land (measuring) 300 kuli land (measuring) . . . . . . . . . . .[8] being the excess.  The classified land (thus) given to this god (measures) . . . . . . . . . . [9] Having received, so as to pay up the taxes on this land, purvachara  from the merchant Sendiran Elunurruvan alias Nulamba Mayilatti of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pettai, we, the members of the great assembly of Uttarameru-chaturvedimangalam, declared that on these lands no taxes of any kind such as irai, echchoru, vetti, amanji, would be shown (in the registers) and gave them away tax-free (accordingly).

(L. 10.) I, the arbitrator (madhyastha) Terkuri Uttaramerumangalalottaman wrote this, under orders of the assembly, being myself (one) of the assembly.


[1]  No. 692 of 1904.

[2]  The original uses the word vadakkum where we should have expected the word therkkum.

[3]  The last three lines, contain the names of six other signatories, viz., Aditta Elayiravan, Kanavadi, madhyasthan  Mangalasenapati . . . . . . . . .. . . . Elayiranilaiyalangan Karparadittan, madhyasthan . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teran of Kaverimangala and two others.  The lines are too fragmentary to translate.

[4] No. 13 of 1898

[5]  The total extent of land added up comes to 1,810 kuli ; but the text gives the symbol ha, and the figures , which cannot be explained.  Sadura-kuli  may convey a technical meaning.

[6]  The extent is expressed by ten symbols; see line 4 of the text.

[7]  The extent of the land in kulis which is given in numerical figures is not quite clear; see line 7 of the text.

[8]  The total of the land-extent is given in three symbols, whose significance is not apparent.

[9]  Before the word in the text occurs a symbol which corresponds to the Grantha.  I cannot explain what it indicates.  The group of symbols, which again is given in line 8 of the text, perhaps includes the extent of land already given and expressed in line 4 and that expressed by the three symbols in line 8.

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