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Monday, February 26, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Miscellaneous Inscriptions From the Tamil Country

Introduction

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Bibliography for the history of the Pallava Dynasty

(1) Inscriptions of the Pallava Dynasty in South-Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I, Part I (pp. 1 to 33),

(2) A Pallava grant from Kram, ibid.  Part IV, Addenda No. 151.

(3) Inscriptions of the Pallava Dynasty, ibid.  Vol. II, Nos. 72, 73, 74, 98 and 99.

(4) A Prakrit grant of the Pallava king Sivakandavarman ; Epigraphia Indica Volume I, No. 1.

(5) Two cave inscriptions from the Trisirapalli (Trichinopoly) rock ; ibid, No. 9.

(6) A plate of a Pallava copper-plate grant ; ibid.  No. 45 (See also ibid.  Vol. II, No. 40)

(7) Udayendiram plates of Nandivarman ; ibid, Vol. III. No. 23 (see also ibid) No. 38-A).

(8) Mahendravadi inscription of Gunabhara ; ibid, Vol. IV, No. 19.

(9) Inscriptions at Kil-Muttugur and Ambur ; ibid., Nos. 22 and 23.

(10) Jaina rock-inscriptions at Panchapandavamalai ; ibid, No. 14-A.

(11) Rayakota plates of Skandasishya ; ibid, Vol. V, No. 8.

(12) Mayidavolu plates of Sivaskandavarman ; ibid, Vol. VI, No. 8.

(13) Two cave inscriptions at Siyamangalam ; ibid, No. 32.

(14) Three Memorial stones ; ibid, Vol. VII, No. 4.

(15) A rock inscription at Tandalam ; ibid, No. 5.

(16) Inscriptions at Tirukkovalur ; ibid, No.  20, A, B and C.

(17) Inscriptions at Solapuram; ibid, Vol. VIII, No. 12.

(18) British Museum plates of Charudevi ; ibid, Vol. VIII, No. 12.

(19) Pikira grant of Simhavarman; ibid,  No. 15.

(20) Chendalur plates of Kumaravishnu II ; ibid, No. 23.

(21) Triplicane inscription of Dantivarman ; ibid, No. 29 (See also ibid, Vol. IX, No. 10)

(22) The Pallava inscriptions of the Seven Pagodas ; ibid, Vol. X, No. 1.

(23) Tiruvellarai inscription of Dantivarman ; ibid, Vol. XI, No. 15 (See also ibid, Nos. 22 and 35).

(24) Two cave inscriptions at Dalavanur ; ibid, Vol. XII, No. 27 (also see ibid, NO. 28).

(25) Uruvupalli grant; Ind. Ant., Vol. V, pp. 50 ff. (See also the Aihole inscription in the same volume, p. 67).

(26) Mangadur grant ; ibid. pp. 154 ff.

(Fa Hian’s Kingdom of Dakshina, ibid. Vol. VII, pp. 1 ff).

(27) Badami Pallava inscription ; Int Ant., Vol. IX, p. 99 f.

(28) Pallava grant of Vijaya-Buddhavarman ibid.  p. 100 f.

(29) Pallava grant of Attivarma ; ibid. p. 102 f.

(30) Grant of Nandivarman Pallavamalla ; ibid. Vol. VIII, pp. 273 ff.

(31) The Chalukyas and Pallaas ; ibid. pp. 23 ff.

(32) Grant of the Pallava king Nandivarman ; ibid. pp. 167 ff.

(33) The probable age of some Pallava remains ; ibid. Vol. XVII, p. 30 f. (Pallavas and Prakrit ; ibid. XXXIII, p. 170).

(34) Two Pallava copper –plate grants ; Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, pp. 246 ff.

(35) Pallavas (the later) in Nellore ; Ind. Ant., Vol. XXXVIII, p. 85.

(36) Pallava antiquities in two volumes by Jouveau Dubreuil.

(37) The Ancient History of Conjeeveram in the Sketches of Ancient Dekkan by K. V. S. Aiyar. 

In publishing his paper on the yupa  inscriptions of king Mulavarman from Koetei (East Borneo), Dr. J. Ph. Vogel throws out a suggestion that there might have existed a direct intercourse between the ancient Pallava capital Kanchi and the Archipelago.  It is a well known fact that Siam, Annam, Cambodia, Java and Borneo abound in antiquities of Indian origin (See Book VIII in Fergusson’s History of Indian and Eastern Architecture).

The revived line of the Cholas begins with Vijayalaya who is distinguished by the title Parakesarivarman.  There are copper and lithic records which though not referring directly to his rule, mention him as a Chola king who had well established himself on the Chola throne.  The Uttama-Chola plates already referred to in connection with Karkala mention the 22nd year of a Parakesarivarman different from the later Parakesarivarman Parantaka I, ‘who took Madirai and Ilam’ (also referred to in the same inscription).  Evidently the earlier Parakesari is Vijayalaya to whom also under the same title are attributed two stone records from the Kailasantha temple at Conjeeveram[1] and another from Ukkal.

The Tiruvalangadu plates state that Vijayalaya captured the city of Tanjavur and made it his capital and that he also built in it a temple to the goddess Nisumbhasudani (Durga).  The Kanyakumari inscription states that he constructed the city of Tanjapuri anew.  Nos. 672 to 675 and 1071 of Prof. Kielhorn’s “Lists of Inscriptions of Southern India  are attributed to Vijayalaya.  These come from Conjeeveram, Ukkal, Tirukkovalur and Suchindram.  The first three are places in Tondai-mandalam and the fourth is in the Pandya kingdom outside the limits of the Chola country.

If the resuscitation of the new Chola line of Tanjore was due to the conquests of Vijayalaya and its expansion in the north and south to those of his son Aditya I and his grandson Parakesarivarman Parantaka I, respectively, it is highly improbable that the records mentioned above could beattributed to the founder Vijayalaya.  Probably they are to be assigned to Parakesarivarman Parantaka I.

It is not stated in any of the records, who the enemy was from whom Tanjore was wrested by Vijayalaya.  About the middle of the 8th century A.D. Tanjore and the surrounding country was under the rule of Muttaraiyan chiefs.  In the Sendalai Pillar inscription of Perumbidugu Muttaraiya, the latter is styled “the king Maran, the Lord of Tanjai (Ko-Maran-ranjai-kkon) and Kalvar-Kalvan[2],  Tanjai-nar-pugal-alan, a Kalva of Kalvas, the distinguished Lord of tanjai.”  In another place the following phrase occurs “nirkinra tanpanai-torum Tanjai-ttiram padi ninrar”.[3]  There extracts show that in the 8th century Tanjore was ruled by a family of chiefs known as the Muttaraiyans.  From the title Maran which Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan held, it may be gathered that he was either of Pandya descent or was a chief, subordinate to that family.  At this time there was a great struggle going on between the Pallavas and the Pandyas for the political supremacy of South India.  In this disturbed state of affairs, Vijayalaya seems to have found a good opportunity to defeat the Muttaraiyan chiefs, and make himself the ruler of Tanjore and the surrounding Chola country.

Aditya I., the son of Vijayalaya, was the first great Chola king that extended or rather recovered the ancestral dominions by the conquest of Tondai-mandalam.  This event is referred to in the Tiruvalangadu plates as follows : -

“Having conquered in battle the Pallava king Aparajita who possessed a brilliant army, though he was in name Aparajita (i.e., unconquered) he (i.e., Aditya) took possession of his (i.e., Aparajita’s) beloved country and thus fulfilled the object of his desire.”[4]

The Pallava king Aparajita, allying himself with the Ganga king Prithivipati I., fought a battle at Sripurambiyam against the Pandya Varaguna, in which he defeated the latter though his ally lost his life in the conflict.  Aparajita’s epigraphical records being found in the Tondai country up to his eighteenth year, Aditya’s conquest of Aparajita and the invasion of the Pallava dominions must have taken place only after that date.  Aditya’s occupation of Tondai-mandalam is confirmed by an inscription at Tirukkalukkunram[5] (Chingleput district) dated in the 27th year of Rajakesarivarman Aditya I which ratifies a grant that was formerly made by the Pallava king Skandasishya and renewed by “Vatapikonda Narasingappottaraiyar” (identified by Mr. V. Venkayya with the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I, the conqueror of Vatapi).

Again a record of the 24th year of Aditya[6] found at Niyamam mentions a grant made by Adigal Gandan Marambavai, queen of Nandippottaraiyar of the Pallavatilaka family.  The fact that the Pallava queen made a grant in the reign of the Chola king, suggests that the Pallavas had been completely subdued by this time, and that Nandippottaraiyar, the husband of Marambavai, was also dead.  The conquest of the Tondai-mandalam earned for Aditya the epithet “Tondai-nadu-pavina Rajakesarivarman”, i.e., Rajakesarivarman who overran Tondai-nadu, which is given him in an inscription at Tillasthanam.

Friendly relations appear to have existed between the Cheras and the Cholas in the reign of Aditya I.  In the Tillasthanam record mentioned above, a certain Vikki Annan is stated to have received royal honours from Aditya, as well as from his Chera contemporary Sthanu Ravi[7].

The Anbil plates of Sundara-Chola give Aditya the surname Rajakesarin only and state that he built for Siva, large number of temples on either side of the river Kaveri commencing from the Sahya mountain where the river takes its rise right up to the sea where it pours its waters[8].

The Kanyakumari inscription supplies us with the information that Aditya was also known by the surname Kodandarama.  In later times, this same title was borne by his grandson, prince Rajaditya.

The conquest of the Kongu country by the Cholas, should also have taken place in the reign of Aditya I.  Inscriptions of Parantaka I, the son of Aditya, are found in the Kongu-desa but that monarch does not make any claim to have conquered it.  Therefore it is not improbable that the conquest of Kongu was achieved by Aditya himself[9].

In an inscription at Tirumalpuram (Tirumalper) dated in the 14th year of the later Chola king Aditya II., Karikala, king Parantaka I and his predecessor Aditya I., distinguished by the epithet “Tondaimanarrur-tunjina-udaiyar” (i.e., the king who died at Tondaimanarrur), are referred to.  The place Tondaimanarrur has been identified by Mr. V. Venkayya with Tondamanad near Kalahasti in the North Arcot district.[10]  In this village there still exists a temple called Kodandaramesvara, also mentioned in its inscriptions by the name Adityesvara.  In one of the Tondamanad inscriptions reference is made to a “pallippadai  (i.e., a shrine built over or near a burial ground) apparently at the same village.  It is evident, therefore, that Aditya died at Tondaimanarrur near Kalahasti and that his son Parantaka I built a Siva temple over his ashes[11].  On the whole, it appears that Aditya had a long and victorious reign during which he laid the foundation of the future greatness of the Chola empire.

Though a Saiva himself, Aditya seems to have been tolerant of other religions as proved by his Vedal inscription (No. 92).  In his time provision for repairs of tanks proved a special item of charity (No. 93).  Sarvajnatman, the pupil of Suresvaracharya and a pupil’s pupil of the great Samkaracharya, wrote his Samkshepasariraka under the patronage of a certain Manukuladtya.  It is not unlikely that the king here referred to is Aditya I (who ruled about Saka 800) of the Manukula (i.e., the Chola family[12]) ; cf. names like Manukulachulamani-chaturvedimangalam which occur in inscriptions.  The latest year of Aditya found from inscriptions being his 27th and the accession of his successor derived from astronomical calculations being 907 A.D. it may be inferred that Aditya I ruled from at least 879 to 907 A.D.

Aditya, as stated above, was succeeded by his son Parakesarivarman Parantaka I.  Prof.  Kielhorn, by calculating the astronomical details of date furnished in one of his inscriptions from Gramam (North Arcot district), has come to the conclusion that Parantaka I began to reign between the 15th January and 25th July A.D. 907.[13]  This is confirmed by the details of date combined with a total eclipse of the sun given in the Anaimalai inscription of his 33rd year (NO. 106).  He continued the expansion of the Chola dominions which was begun by his father.  In the north, he fought against the Vaidumbas and the Banas who were formerly the feudatories of the Pallavas.  The Banas were defeated and their territory was bestowed upon the Ganga king Prithivipati II, along with the title “the Lord of the Banas”.  The Udayendiram plates[14] of Prithivipati II give us an account of his connection with the Banas and the Gangas.

From his third year onwards Parantaka is called “Madiraikonda Parakesarivarman” (i.e., Parakesarivarman who took Madura) in his inscriptions.  This title he assumed after his first victory over the Pandyas.  It has been already suggested that prior to the rise of the Cholas to political supremacy in Southern India, the Pallavas and the Pandyas were the dominant powers in the land.

After the Pallavas had been subverted by Aditya I, the Cholas had to deal with the Pandyas of Madura, before they could claim undisputed sway over the whole of the Southern Peninsula.  The power of the Pandyas had by this time grown weak.  King Varagunavarman was defeated by the Pallava king Paparajita at the battle of Sripurambiyam and there were also internal dissensions among the Pandyas which weakened their power.

Early therefore, in his reign, Parantaka seems to have conducted campaigns in the Pandya country against Rajasimha-Pandya, the last king of the Pandya line furnished in the Sinnamanur plates[15], when Madura, the capital of the Pandyas, was captured by him and this gave him the occasion for assuming the title Madiraikonda.  The Kanyakumari record says that Parantaka “killed the Pandya with his whole army, robbed him of all his wealth, reduced Madhura to ashes and assumed the name Madhurantaka.”  Verse 9 of the Udayendiram plates of the Ganga-bane king Prithivipati II seems to refer to this event in the following words[16] :-

“His army having crushed at the head of a battle the Pandya king together with an army of elephants, horses and soldiers seized a herd of elephants, together with Madura.”

The Chola king naturally was very proud of this achievement, as the Pandyas were, till then, the dominant power in the Tamil land the hereditary dominions of the Cholas themselves being under them.  As his first campaign against the Pandyas is referred to in inscriptions of his third year, this event must have taken place in A.D. 909-10.  The Vattelettu inscription at Anaimalai, 6 miles from Madura, confirms Parantaka’s capture of Madura and perhaps also his temporary occupation of it.

Before his 12th year, Parantaka I had to fight a second time with the Pandyas.  An inscription[17] dated in the 12th year of his reign mentions a battle fought by him at Velur against the combined forces of the Pandyas and Singhalese.  When the Pandya king Rajasimha was defeated by the Chola king in his first campaign, he appears to have be sought the Singhalese king to take up his cause.  The Tiruvalangadu plates say in this connection : -

“Encircled by the first of whose (i.e., the Chola king’s) prowess, the Pandya king at once entered the sea, as if intent upon quenching that affliction, in haste abandoning his royal glory and his hereditary dominion”  (V. 51).  Again, the Udayendiram plates of the 15th year of Parantaka describe the events that followed in these words : - “Having slain in an instant, at the head of a battle, an immense army dispatched by the Lord of Lanka which teemed with brave soldiers (and) was interspersed with troops of elephants and horses, he bears, in the world, the title Sangramaraghava which is full of meaning.”  This was, perhaps, “the fierce battle” fought at Velur between Perumanadigal (i.e., Parantaka I) and the allied Pandya and Ceylon kings where four heroes fell on the occasion when Sennipperaraiyan of Araisur made a frontal attack with his colleagues’ enemy, as described in the Tirupparkadal record (No. 99).

Turning to the Ceylonese account, Mahavamsa, we find these events corroborated Chapter LII of that work contains the following account : “King Pandu, who had warred with the king of Chola and was routed, sent many presents unto him (i.e., Kassapa V), that he might obtain an army from him and the king, the chief of Lanka, took counsel with his ministers and equipped an army and appointing Sakkasenapati to the command thereof, accompanied it himself to Mahatittha, and he stood on the shore and brought to their minds the victories of former kings, and gave them courage, and thus sent them into the ships.  And Sakkasenapati carried them safely to the other side of the sea, and reached the Pandya country and when king Pandu beheld the army and the captain thereof, he was greatly pleased, and exclaimed, “All Jambuvipa shall I now bring under the canopy of one dominion.’ And then he led the two armies (his own and the Singhalese king’s) to battle.  But he succeeded not in conquering the king of the Cholian race and so he abandoned the struggle and returned (to his own place).  The statement here made that the Pandya king had been defeated in a previous war might refer to the events that took place in or before the third year of Parantaka I, i.e., A.D. 909.  It is also not unlikely that there was still another war between the first and the second encounters here described.  These events happened in the reign of Kassapa V who, according to the chronology of the Mahavamsa, reigned from A.D. 906 to 916.

Parantaka I seems to have undertaken yet another campaign in the Pandya country, and carried his arms farther even to the island of Ceylon.  After his 37th regnal year, he is styled “Madiraiyum Ilamum konda Parakesarvarman”, i.e., Parakesarivarman who took Madura and Ceylon.  This title was not adopted by him on the occasion of his victory over the allied Singhalese troops described above.  The epithet “Madiraiyum Ilamum konda” was adopted only after the 37th year as we gather from inscriptions.  A record at Kuram dated in his fortieth year[18] mentions that he actually entered Ceylon (Ilam-pugunda). The Tiruvalangadu plates refer to this same fact in the following terms : -

“The fire of whose anger after burning (his) enemies quenched not in the waters of the sea, (but) subsided (only) by the tears of the wives of the Singhalese (king) who was cut to pieces and killed by (his) weapons” (V. 52).

The account of this invasion of Ceylon by Parantaka is referred to in the Mahavamsa as follows : -In the reign of Udaya III (A.D. 941-9) who was a weak king addicted to drink and slothfulness, the Chola king sent an embassy to him, asking for the crown, etc., that the Pandya king had deposited with him in the reign of Dappula V (A.D. 917 to 929) evidently after the defeat of Velur, so that he may be duly inaugurated as the overlord of the Pandya country.  When this request was refused, the Chola king sent an army to Ceylong, which slew the commander of the Singhalese forces.  The Singhalese king fled to the Rohana district taking with him the regal insignia of the Pandya king.  The Cholas were not able to enter the Rohana country, and returned to India, without accomplishing the object for which the expedition was undertaken.  As Parantaka’s invasion of Ceylon happened only after his 37th year, i.e., A.D. 944, the above account of the Mahavamsa must correctly refer to the conquest of Ilam (Ceylon) by Parantaka[19].

Towards the close of his reign, Parantaka I seems to have received a check to his victorious career at the hands of the rashtrkuta king Krishna III.  The latter king’s invasion of the Chola country and the capture of Tanjore and Conjeeveram must have taken place during the lifetime of Parantaka.  For, Parantaka’s son, prince Rajaditya who was the Viceroy in the northern Chola dominions and was the first to oppose the invader was killed at Takkolam while fighting from the back of an elephant, by the Ganga prince Butuga, an ally and a near Kinsman of Krishna III.  The Kanyakumari inscription of Virarajendra states that Krishna III was actually defeated by Parantaka I.  This might refer to an earlier campaign other than the one in which Rajaditya lost his lefe and the capital towns Kanchi (Conjeeveram) and Tanjavur (Tanjore) belonging  to the Chola king were captured by the Rashtrakuta invader.  The last regnal year so far found out for Parantaka is 46, which is taken from a record of his found at Kandiyur[20].  This corresponds to A.D. 953-54.  Krishna III is said to have died in the Saka year 889[21] and his highest known regnal year is 30.  Consequently, he should have ascended the throne atleast in Saka 859 (=937 A.D.).  Dr. Fleet’s earliest date for him is 940.  He had invaded the Tondai-mandalam before his fifth year as an inscription of his, of that year is found at a place called Siddhalingamadam.  Rajaditya’s death occurred in the year 949 to 950 A.D. and the actual entry of Krishna III into Tondai-mandalam is mentioned in a Solapuram record[22] which states that the second year of that entry corresponded to Saka 871 (=949 A.D.).  Perhaps the years quoted in Kannara-Krishna’s Tamil inscriptions must be taken to count from 949 A.D. Therefore, we may come to the conclusion that prior to 949 Krishna III was making attempts to invade the Chola country and that in one of these  he was repelled by Parantaka.  About this time, Parantaka as we already known had his hands full with the affairs of the Pandyan and Singhalese wars.  In the meanwhile, the Rashtrakuta king seems to have pushed through his hostilities vigorously which resulted in the death of the prince.  Parantaka seems to have survived his son for about five years.

Parantaka’s dominions comprised almost the whole of the Tamil country right up to Nellore (No. 108).  By the defeat of the Pandya king Rajasimha, the Pandyas also acknowledged Parantaka as their ruler.  That he really held sway over that part of the county is proved by the fact that his inscriptions are found in the Madura and Tinnevelly districts.  On the east coast, his dominions should have extended as far as Nellore ; for one of his Tiruvorriyur records (No. 108), dated in the 34th year of his reign (=A.D. 941), states that a subordinate of Parantaka named Sembiyan Soliyavaraiyan of Sirukulattur was returning from the conquest of Sitpuli after destroying Nellur.  In the west an inscription of his reign has been found at Somur near Karur.  The Western Ganga king Prithivipati II, whose dominions lay partly in the Mysore State, was his feudatory.[23]  The friendly relations that existed between the Cheras and the Cholas as already gathered from the Tillasthanam inscription of Aditya I (No. 89) were further strengthened during this reign.  One of the queens of Parantaka who bore him the son Arinjaya was a daughter of the Kerala prince Paluvettaraiyar[24].  Queen Villavan Mahadeviyar mentioned in a Tirukkalavur inscription (No. 110) may be identical with this daughter of Paluvettaraiyar.  Two other queens of Parantaka I were Kilanadigal or Kokkilanadigal, the mother of Anaimerrunjinar Rajaditya and Adittan Karralippiratti.  In the Gramam inscription of Parantaka[25], mention is made of a general of prince Rajaditya, who came from the Kerala country.  Several fo the Tirunamanallur inscriptions also mention natives of Malabar as the personal servants of prince Rajaditya.  It appears that he had a special regiment of soldiers or a class of servants called the “Malayala retinue”.  Princess Ravi-Nili, the daughter of the Chera king Vijayaragadeva, is reported to have made some offerings to the temple at Tiruvorriyur in the Chola country[26].  All these facts go to prove that the relations between the Keralas and the Cholas during the reign of Parantaka were of a very cordial nature, and that there was a steady influx of people from Malabar to the Tamil country.

Though this king was engaged for the greater part of his long reign in warlike operations, yet he was not unmindful of the victories of peace.  That the internal administration of his country was a matter in which he took a keen interest, is amply proved by the inscriptions of Uttaramallur, in which the rules for the conduct of the village assemblies were minutely laid down.  The village institutions of South India, of course, date from a much earlier period than that of Parantaka I, but he introduced many salutary reforms for the proper administration of local self-Government.

Nor was the religious side neglected.  Many a temple in the Tamil land owed much to his bounty.  The booty which he had acquired in his numerous wars he seems to have spent in embellishing the shrine of Nataraja at Chidambaram.  The Tiruvalangadu plates say that he covered with gold the “small hall” at Chidambara.  He performed the Tulabhara and hemagrabha gifts, made grants of lands to Brahmins, and built many temples.  He was a devout Saia in religion, though in accordance with the laudable custom among most of the great Indian monarchs, he was tolerant of all the other creeds that were prevailing within his dominions.

In addition to the surnames which have been already noticed he bore the epithets Viranarayana, Virakirti (No. 108), Vira-Chola, Vikrama-Chola and Irumadi-Sola[27].  We learn from the uttaramallur inscriptions that he also bore the following birudas : - Devendran (lord of the gods), Chakravartin (the emperor), Panditavatsalan (fond of learned men), Kunjaramallan (the wrestler with elephants) and Surachulamani (the crest jewel of the heroes).  His is also said to have resembled the celestial tree in his gifts.  One of his sons, Rajaditya, has been already mentioned.  Kodandarma was a surname of this prince as it was of his grandfather Aditya I.  The second son of Parantaka was Gandaraditya, who figures as the author of one of the hymns in the Tamil Tiruvisaippa.  Arikulakesari, Arindama or Arinjaya (Arinjigai in Tamil) was also another of his sons.  A still another son of Parantaka who figures in inscriptions is Parantakan Uttamasili.   He does not appear to have lived long enough to succeed to the Chola throne, but appears to have given his name to the village Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam in Vila-nadu and to the irrigation canal called Uttamasili-vaykal. 


[1]  Kielthorn’s Southern List,  Nos. 672 and 673.

[2]  Ep. Ind., Vol. XIII, pp. 143 and 144.  It is very likely that in the title Kalvar-Kalvan we have to seek the origin of the name Kalabhra.  Perhaps Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan was a member of the latter family which in the Velvikudi plates is said to have held the Pandya country under its sway prior to Kadungon.

[3]  Ep. Ind., Vol. XIII, p. 141.

[4]  Below, p. 419 the Kanyakumari inscription states that he killed the Pallava king (perhaps) Aparajita himself being seated on a mad elephant.

[5]  Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 277.  Another inscription in a natural cave at Vedal in the North Arcot district and still another at Nerkunram in the same district have been attributed to Aditya.

[6]  Below, p. 226.

[7]  Ibid.  p. 221.

[8]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. XV, p. 50.

[9]  The Kongudesarajakkal confirms this.

[10]  Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1907, pp. 71 and 72

[11]  This temple deserves to be one of the specially protected monuments of the Archaeological Department.

[12]  See Dr. Bhandarkar’s History of the Deccan, p. 212.

[13]  Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 260 ff.0

[14]  Above, Vol. II.  p. 375 ff.

[15]  See below, No. 206.

[16]  South Ind. Inscrns., Vol. II, p. 387.

[17]  Below, p. 231.

[18]  Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p.1.

[19]  J.R.A.S., 1913, p. 525.

[20]  No. 2 of the Madras Epigraphical Collection  for 1895.

[21]  No. 236 of the Madras Epigraphical Collection for 1913.

[22] Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 195.

[23]  Archaeological Survey Report for 1904-05, p. 133.

[24]  Anbil grant of Sundara-Chola (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p.50)

[25]  Archaeological Survey Report  for 1905-06.

[26]  Below, p. 235.

[27]  Irumadi or correctly Irmadi means ‘twice’ and the epithet signifies that Parantaka I was the ‘second great king in the family,’ the first perhaps being his father Aditya I.  

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