Inscriptions From the Tamil Country
here to continue...Introduction..
for the history of the Pallava Dynasty
Inscriptions of the Pallava Dynasty in South-Indian Inscriptions,
Vol. I, Part I (pp. 1 to 33),
A Pallava grant from Kram, ibid.
Part IV, Addenda No. 151.
Inscriptions of the Pallava Dynasty, ibid.
Vol. II, Nos. 72, 73, 74, 98 and 99.
A Prakrit grant of the Pallava king Sivakandavarman ; Epigraphia
Indica Volume I, No. 1.
Two cave inscriptions from the Trisirapalli (Trichinopoly) rock ; ibid,
A plate of a Pallava copper-plate grant ; ibid.
No. 45 (See also ibid.
Vol. II, No. 40)
Udayendiram plates of Nandivarman ; ibid, Vol. III. No. 23 (see
also ibid) No. 38-A).
Mahendravadi inscription of Gunabhara ; ibid, Vol. IV, No. 19.
Inscriptions at Kil-Muttugur and Ambur ; ibid., Nos. 22 and 23.
Jaina rock-inscriptions at Panchapandavamalai ; ibid, No. 14-A.
Rayakota plates of Skandasishya ; ibid, Vol. V, No. 8.
Mayidavolu plates of Sivaskandavarman ; ibid, Vol. VI, No.
Two cave inscriptions at Siyamangalam ; ibid, No. 32.
Three Memorial stones ; ibid, Vol. VII, No. 4.
A rock inscription at Tandalam ; ibid, No. 5.
Inscriptions at Tirukkovalur ; ibid, No.
20, A, B and C.
Inscriptions at Solapuram; ibid, Vol. VIII, No. 12.
British Museum plates of Charudevi ; ibid, Vol. VIII, No. 12.
Pikira grant of Simhavarman; ibid,
Chendalur plates of Kumaravishnu II ; ibid, No. 23.
Triplicane inscription of Dantivarman ; ibid, No. 29 (See also ibid,
Vol. IX, No. 10)
The Pallava inscriptions of the Seven Pagodas ; ibid, Vol. X, No.
Tiruvellarai inscription of Dantivarman ; ibid, Vol. XI, No. 15
(See also ibid, Nos. 22 and 35).
Two cave inscriptions at Dalavanur ; ibid, Vol. XII, No. 27 (also
see ibid, NO. 28).
Uruvupalli grant; Ind. Ant., Vol. V, pp. 50 ff. (See also the
Aihole inscription in the same volume, p. 67).
Mangadur grant ; ibid. pp. 154 ff.
Hian’s Kingdom of Dakshina, ibid. Vol. VII, pp. 1 ff).
Badami Pallava inscription ; Int Ant., Vol. IX, p. 99 f.
Pallava grant of Vijaya-Buddhavarman ibid.
p. 100 f.
Pallava grant of Attivarma ; ibid. p. 102 f.
Grant of Nandivarman Pallavamalla ; ibid. Vol. VIII, pp. 273 ff.
The Chalukyas and Pallaas ; ibid. pp. 23 ff.
Grant of the Pallava king Nandivarman ; ibid. pp. 167 ff.
The probable age of some Pallava remains ; ibid. Vol. XVII, p. 30
f. (Pallavas and Prakrit ; ibid. XXXIII, p. 170).
Two Pallava copper –plate grants ; Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, pp. 246
Pallavas (the later) in Nellore ; Ind. Ant., Vol. XXXVIII,
Pallava antiquities in two volumes by Jouveau Dubreuil.
The Ancient History of Conjeeveram in the Sketches of Ancient Dekkan
by K. V. S. Aiyar.
publishing his paper on the yupa inscriptions
of king Mulavarman from Koetei (East Borneo), Dr. J. Ph. Vogel throws
out a suggestion that there might have existed a direct intercourse
between the ancient Pallava capital Kanchi and the Archipelago.
It is a well known fact that Siam, Annam, Cambodia, Java and
Borneo abound in antiquities of Indian origin (See Book VIII in
Fergusson’s History of Indian and Eastern Architecture).
revived line of the Cholas begins with Vijayalaya who is distinguished
by the title Parakesarivarman. There
are copper and lithic records which though not referring directly to his
rule, mention him as a Chola king who had well established himself on
the Chola throne. The
Uttama-Chola plates already referred to in connection with Karkala
mention the 22nd year of a Parakesarivarman different from
the later Parakesarivarman Parantaka I, ‘who took Madirai and Ilam’
(also referred to in the same inscription).
Evidently the earlier Parakesari is Vijayalaya to whom also under
the same title are attributed two stone records from the Kailasantha
temple at Conjeeveram
and another from Ukkal.
Tiruvalangadu plates state that Vijayalaya captured the city of Tanjavur
and made it his capital and that he also built in it a temple to the
goddess Nisumbhasudani (Durga). The
Kanyakumari inscription states that he constructed the city of Tanjapuri
anew. Nos. 672 to 675 and
1071 of Prof. Kielhorn’s “Lists of Inscriptions of Southern India”
are attributed to Vijayalaya.
These come from Conjeeveram, Ukkal, Tirukkovalur and Suchindram.
The first three are places in Tondai-mandalam and the fourth is
in the Pandya kingdom outside the limits of the Chola country.
the resuscitation of the new Chola line of Tanjore was due to the
conquests of Vijayalaya and its expansion in the north and south to
those of his son Aditya I and his grandson Parakesarivarman Parantaka I,
respectively, it is highly improbable that the records mentioned above
could beattributed to the founder Vijayalaya.
Probably they are to be assigned to Parakesarivarman Parantaka I.
is not stated in any of the records, who the enemy was from whom Tanjore
was wrested by Vijayalaya. About
the middle of the 8th century A.D. Tanjore and the
surrounding country was under the rule of Muttaraiyan chiefs.
In the Sendalai Pillar inscription of Perumbidugu Muttaraiya, the
latter is styled “the king Maran, the Lord of Tanjai (Ko-Maran-ranjai-kkon)
a Kalva of Kalvas, the
distinguished Lord of tanjai.”
In another place the following phrase occurs “nirkinra
tanpanai-torum Tanjai-ttiram padi ninrar”.
There extracts show that in the 8th century Tanjore
was ruled by a family of chiefs known as the Muttaraiyans.
From the title Maran which Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan held, it may
be gathered that he was either of Pandya descent or was a chief,
subordinate to that family. At
time there was a great struggle going on between the Pallavas and
the Pandyas for the political supremacy of South India.
In this disturbed state of affairs, Vijayalaya seems to have
found a good opportunity to defeat the Muttaraiyan chiefs, and make
himself the ruler of Tanjore and the surrounding Chola country.
I., the son of Vijayalaya, was the first great Chola king that extended
or rather recovered the ancestral dominions by the conquest of
Tondai-mandalam. This event
is referred to in the Tiruvalangadu plates as follows : -
conquered in battle the Pallava king Aparajita who possessed a brilliant
army, though he was in name Aparajita (i.e., unconquered) he (i.e.,
Aditya) took possession of his (i.e., Aparajita’s) beloved country and
thus fulfilled the object of his desire.”
Pallava king Aparajita, allying himself with the Ganga king Prithivipati
I., fought a battle at Sripurambiyam against the Pandya Varaguna, in
which he defeated the latter though his ally lost his life in the
epigraphical records being found in the Tondai country up to his
eighteenth year, Aditya’s conquest of Aparajita and the invasion of
the Pallava dominions must have taken place only after that date.
Aditya’s occupation of Tondai-mandalam is confirmed by an
inscription at Tirukkalukkunram (Chingleput district)
dated in the 27th year of Rajakesarivarman Aditya I which
ratifies a grant that was formerly made by the Pallava king Skandasishya
and renewed by “Vatapikonda Narasingappottaraiyar” (identified by
Mr. V. Venkayya with the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I, the conqueror
a record of the 24th year of Aditya
found at Niyamam mentions a grant made by Adigal Gandan Marambavai,
queen of Nandippottaraiyar of the Pallavatilaka family. The fact that the Pallava queen made a grant in the reign of
the Chola king, suggests that the Pallavas had been completely subdued
by this time, and that Nandippottaraiyar, the husband of Marambavai, was
also dead. The conquest of
the Tondai-mandalam earned for Aditya the epithet “Tondai-nadu-pavina
Rajakesarivarman”, i.e., Rajakesarivarman who overran Tondai-nadu,
which is given him in an inscription at Tillasthanam.
relations appear to have existed between the Cheras and the Cholas in
the reign of Aditya I. In
the Tillasthanam record mentioned above, a certain Vikki Annan is stated
to have received royal honours from Aditya, as well as from his Chera
contemporary Sthanu Ravi.
Anbil plates of Sundara-Chola give Aditya the surname Rajakesarin only
and state that he built for Siva, large number of temples on either side
of the river Kaveri commencing from the Sahya mountain where the river
takes its rise right up to the sea where it pours its waters.
Kanyakumari inscription supplies us with the information that Aditya was
also known by the surname Kodandarama.
In later times, this same title was borne by his grandson, prince
conquest of the Kongu country by the Cholas, should also have taken
place in the reign of Aditya I. Inscriptions
of Parantaka I, the son of Aditya, are found in the Kongu-desa but that
monarch does not make any claim to have conquered it.
Therefore it is not improbable that the conquest of Kongu was
achieved by Aditya himself.
an inscription at Tirumalpuram (Tirumalper) dated in the 14th
year of the later Chola king Aditya II., Karikala, king Parantaka I and
his predecessor Aditya I., distinguished by the epithet
“Tondaimanarrur-tunjina-udaiyar” (i.e., the king who died at
Tondaimanarrur), are referred to. The
place Tondaimanarrur has been identified by Mr. V. Venkayya with
Tondamanad near Kalahasti in the North Arcot district.
In this village there still exists a temple called
Kodandaramesvara, also mentioned in its inscriptions by the name
Adityesvara. In one of the
Tondamanad inscriptions reference is made to a “pallippadai”
(i.e., a shrine built over or near a burial ground)
apparently at the same village. It
is evident, therefore, that Aditya died at Tondaimanarrur near Kalahasti
and that his son Parantaka I built a Siva temple over his ashes.
On the whole, it appears that Aditya had a long and victorious
reign during which he laid the foundation of the future greatness of the
addition to the surnames which have been already noticed he bore the
epithets Viranarayana, Virakirti (No. 108), Vira-Chola, Vikrama-Chola
We learn from the uttaramallur inscriptions that he also bore the
following birudas : - Devendran (lord of the gods), Chakravartin
(the emperor), Panditavatsalan (fond of learned men), Kunjaramallan (the
wrestler with elephants) and Surachulamani (the crest jewel of the
heroes). His is also said
to have resembled the celestial tree in his gifts. One of his sons, Rajaditya, has been already mentioned.
Kodandarma was a surname of this prince as it was of his
grandfather Aditya I. The
second son of Parantaka was Gandaraditya, who figures as the author of
one of the hymns in the Tamil Tiruvisaippa.
Arikulakesari, Arindama or Arinjaya (Arinjigai in Tamil) was also
another of his sons. A
still another son of Parantaka who figures in inscriptions is Parantakan
Uttamasili. He does
not appear to have lived long enough to succeed to the Chola throne, but
appears to have given his name to the village
Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam in Vila-nadu and to the irrigation canal