1 to 4 north & west wall of the same shrine
5 to 8 south wall of the same shrine
9 to 11 north wall of the mandapa
12 to 14 west & south wall of the same mandapa
the road from Conjeeveram to Wandiwash, at a distance of five miles
south of Mamandur, lies the village of Kulambandal.
It contains a Siva temple, which is now deserted, but in
tolerably god preservation. The
approximate time of the foundation of this temple is settled by an
inscription on its north wall, which is dated in the 12th
year of the reign of Rajendra-Chola I.
It records the grant of an allowance of paddy and gold to
twenty-four dancing-girls, and states that the temple was built by
the priest Isanasiva-Pandita, whose name is also met with in a
Tanjore inscription of the 6th year of the same king
(Vol. II. No. 9). The
same wall of the temple at Kulambandal bears an inscription of the
22nd year of Rajendra-Chola I., and the south wall one of
the 33rd year of Rajadhiraja.
The ancient name of the temple, Gangaikonda-Cholesvara, is
derived from a surname of Rajendra-Chola I.
village of Ukkal
is one mile distant to the east of Kulambandal. In contains the ruins of an ancient temple of Vishnu, which I
visited in 1893. Of the
shrine itself, only the lower portions remain standing, and the mandapa
in front of the shrine threatens to collapse at any moment.
The bases of the shrine and of the mandapa bear
seventeen inscriptions. Of
these, fourteen were copied and are published below.
The remaining three were omitted, as they are incomplete.
subjoined list shows, in chronological order, the kings to whose
reigns the Ukkal inscriptions belong.
of the reign.
to the inscriptions, the ancient name of the temple was
Puvanimanikka-Vishnugriham, i.e., ‘the Vishnu temple of
word means ‘the ruby of the world’ and may have been a biruda
of the unknown found of the temple.
In an inscription of Rajaraja I. (No. 2, 1 2), the deity of
the temple is called Tiruvaymolidevar, i.e., ‘the god of
the Tiruvaymoli.’ This
is the name of that portion of the Nalayiraprabandham, which
was composed by Sathagopa, alias Nammalvar. The fact that, in the time of Rajaraja I., an idol was named
after the Tiruvaymoli, implies that this work was considered
holy already at that period, and hence that its author must have
lived centuries before A.D. 1000.
village in which the temple stands, bears the name of Ukkal in the
inscriptions No. 4 and No. 10.
In the two archaic inscriptions of Kampavarman (Nos. 5 and
8), we find the more ancient forms Utkar and Utkal.
Other names or surnames of it were Sivachulamanimangalam
(Nos. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 12 and 14),
Vikramabharana-chaturvedimangalam (Nos. 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12,
13 and 14), and Aparajita-chaturvedimangalam (No. 1).
These three surnames appear to be derived from birudas of
royal persons. In No.
1, Ukkal is stated to have belonged to Pagur-nadu, a subdivision of
the district of Kaliyur-kottam, while, according to other
inscriptions, it formed a separate subdivision of the same district,
which was one of the ancient divisions of Tondaimandalam or, as it
was also called from the time of Rajaraja I.,
(Nos. 4 and 10).
village of Ukkal was governed by an assembly (sabha or mahasabha),
which was subdivided into several committees.
These were ‘the great men elected for the year’ (Nos. 5,
7, 11, 12, 13 and 14), ‘the great men in charge of the tank’
(nos. 6, 11, 12 and 13), and ‘those in charge of gardens’ (No.
12). The transactions
of the assembly were put in writing by an officer who had the title
‘arbitrator’ (madhyastha, Nos. 2, 3, 6, 10 and 12), and
who is once called ‘an accountant’ (karanattan, No. 10).