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Sunday, February 25, 2007


South Indian Inscriptions


Part - III

Miscellaneous Inscriptions From the Tamil Country

XVI.- Inscriptions of Parakesarivarman (Aditya II Karikala) who took the head of Vira-Pandya or the Pandya (King)

No. 199 to 202 Ujjivanathasvamin, Nagesvarasvamin, Mahalingasvamin temple

No. 203 to 204 Nahesvarasvamin temple at Kumbakonam

No. 205 Tiruvalangadu copper-plates of the sixth year of Rajendra-Chola I


This record of the 2nd year of king Parakesarivarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya, has to be attributed to Aditya (II.) —  Karikala, whose defeat of the Pandya king while he was yet a boy is mentioned in the Tiruvalangadu plates printed in the sequel.  His father Sundarachola-Parantaka II. is already described as having driven a Pandya king into the forest.  This must be the early Vira-Pandya whose Vatteluttu inscriptions are found in the Tinnevelly district and in which he claims in his turn to have taken the head of the Chola.  Nandivarma-mangalam was evidently an earlier name of the modern Uyyakkondan Tirumalai and must have been so called after the Pallava king Nandivarman.  The temple of Karkudi is mentioned in the hymns of the Devaram.[2]

(Line 1.) In the 2nd year (of the reign) of king Parakesarivarman who took the head of Vira-Pandya, Irungolakkon alias Pugalvippiragandan Avanivallan gave ninety sheep which neither die nor grow old for burning one perpetual lamp, as long as the moon and the sun (last), to the god Paramesvara (Siva) of Tiruk-Karkudi in Nandipanmamangalam, a brahmadeya on the southern bank (of the Kaveri river).

(LI. 12 – 16.) We, the servants of the god (devarkanmi), have received (these) ninety (sheep) and have agreed to burn the lamp with one ulakku of ghee every day, measured by the ulakku marked with the trident.  This (gift) is (placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras.


This record, which belongs to the 3rd year of the reign of king Parakesarivarman who took the head of the Pandya, registers a grant of land by purchase by the chief Siringanudaiyan Koyilmayilai alias Parantaka Muvendavelan for expounding the system of Prabhakara.  This teacher was the founder of a new school of Mimamsa philosophy which was greatly popular for some time in the south.  The record under review is itself strong evidence of the popularity of the creed.  A telugu book called Sakalarthasagara makes Prabhakara, one of the pupils of Kumarila-Bhatta.  He was also widely known as Prabhakara-guru and was the teacher of Salikanatha.  Consequently Prabhakara’s period must have been about the beginning of the 8th century A.D.  See also Madras Epigraphical Report for 1912, page 65.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 3rd year (of thereign) of king Parakesarivarman who took the head of the Pandya (king), we the great men of the Mulaparadai (assembly) of Tirukkudamukkil, a devadana of Vadagarai Pambur-nadu sold of Sirringanudaiyan Koyilmayilai alias Parantaka-Muvendavelan of Sirringan in Inganadu, two ma out of the twenty-four veli of land which we own as abhishekadakshina from the king, in the village of Merkaviri in Innambarnadu as a bhattavritti, for expounding Prabhakaram.

(L. 10.) (The following are) the boundaries (of this land).  The eastern boundary is to the west of the land sold (by us) as salabhoga.  The southern boundary is to the north of the lands of Markaviri.  The western boundary is to the east of the lands of us, the vendors.  The northern boundary is to the south of the lands of us, the vendors.

(L. 15.) I, Parantaka Muvendavelan, gave the land thus enclosed by the four big boundaries above specified on the same terms as those that obtained when (I) purchased (it) from the members of the mulaparadai as a bhattavritti so as to endure till the moon and the sun.

(L. 19.) This is (placed) under the protection of the Almighty god Vishnu.[4]  This is the writing of Parantaka.

No. 201.— ON THE SAME WALL[5]

This record is dated in the 4th year of Parakesarivarman who took the head of the Pandya king.  The donor was a woman-servant who was living in a quarter of Tanjavur and was connected with queen Udaiyapirattiyar Kilanadigal, mother of Anaimerrunjinar.  This name Anaimerrunjinar has been identified with prince Rajaditya, one of the brothers of Aditya-Karikala’s grandfather Arinjaya (Madras Epigraphical Report  for 1912, page 62).

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 4th year (of the reign) of king Parakesarivarman who took the head of the Pandya (king), Devayan Pulalakkan alias Avanisikhamani, a palace-woman (living) in (the quarter called) kilaivelam of Udaiyapirattiyar Kilanadigal, the mother of Anaimerrunjinar, at Tanjavur in Tanjavur-kurram, gave one lamp-stand for a perpetual lamp to the god Paramesvara (Siva) of Tirukkuilkottam at Tirukkudamukkil, a devadana in Vadagarai-Pambur-nadu.

(L. 9.) (She also) gave ninety sheep for burning this perpetual lamp daily as long as the moon and the sun (endure) with one ulakku of ghee.  The shepherd manran Kunamari of this village received 45 (out of these ninety) sheep and receiving (these) forty-five agreed to measure out three nali and three ulakku of ghee for one month at one alakku every day and the shepherd Ayalanji Manran of this village received 45 sheep agreeing to measure out for the sacred lamp three nali and three alakku of ghee for one month at one alakku every day.  In this way. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


The record is dated in the 4th year of the reign of Parakesarivarman who took the head of the Pandya king and provides for the dance called Ariyakkuttu by Kirttimaraikkadan alias Tiruvelai-araichchakkai, in the temple of Tiruvidaimarudil.  The theatrical hall where the temple servants, the merchants and the king’s officer Koyilmayilai alias Parantaka Muvendavelan met together to decide this question appears to suggest that the Ariyakkuttu dance must have been a regular dramatic performance in which dancing and singing were evidently given a prominent place.  Sakkaikuttu which is referred to in some other inscriptions of the time of Rajendra-Chola was evidently another variety of a dramatic dance (see Madras Epigraphical Report for 1915, page 98, paragraph 27).

Ariyam and Tamil are mentioned as the two recognized varieties of dance, in the commentary of Adiyarkkunallar on text lines 12 – 25 of Chapter III of Silappadigaram (see Maha V. Swaminatha Ayyar’s edition, page 63).  That these must have been also accompanied by music is inferred from a reference made to these very two terms in a Tanjore inscription of Rajaraja I.  (South-Indian Inscriptions, Vol. II, page 299, section 428 – 492).

The king Parakesarivarman who took the head of Pandya king must evidently be Aditya (II.) —  Karikala, the son of Sundara-Chola Parantaka II.  The name Sirringan-Udaiyan Koyilmayilai alias Parantaka Muvendavelan appears in No. 200 above.  His name also occurs frequently in the records of Uttama-Chola Madurantaka as Madurantaka-Muvendavelan.

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 4th year of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman who took the head of the Pandya (king), the officer (adhikari) Sirringanudaiyan Koyil Mayilai alias Parantaka Muvendavelan, who supervises the temple affairs (srikarya), the members of the assembly of Tiraimur, the merchants (nagarattar) and the temple servants (devakanmi) of Tiruvidaimarudil, having assembled in the theatre-hall (nataka-salai), ordered that provision may be made for performing the (dance known as) Ariyakkuttu in the presence of the lord of the sacred Mulasthana (temple) at Tiruvidaimarudil, to Kirttimaraikkadan alias Tiruvelai-Araichchakkai.

Having received (one) veli of land inclusive of the land (called) Panaichcheripattu in Vilangudi which was a devedana (village) of this god (he) shall, from the year opposite to this year (of reign), perform one dance (kuttu) on the sacred festival of Tai-Pusam ; shall perform three dances commencing from the day after the bathing (of the god) ; and shall perform three dances commencing from the day after (the festival of) Vaigasi-Tiruvadirai.  In all, he shall perform these seven dances here (i.e., in this theatre-hall) and shall receive for maintenance (korru) fourteen kalam of paddy from the treasury.  If this paddy is not spent (thus), the stipulated paddy and maintenance shall be doubled, (and) from that year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[1]  No. 472 of 1908.

[2]  See above, Vol. II, p. 375.

[3]  No. 233 of 1911.

[4]  Aaiyiranthiruvadiudayar is evidently synonymous of the Purushasukta.

[5]  No. 226 of 1911.

[6]  No. 154 of 1895.

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