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Tuesday, September 26, 2006


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Inscriptions of the Ranganathasvamy Temple, Srirangam

HOYSALAS

 

  

Vishnuvardhana

No. 258 (Page No. 279)

(A. R. No.440  of 1954-55)

Kottaram, wall, (outside) facing the Garuda-Mandapa.

Mentions vishnuvarddhana Pratapachakravarti Posala and quotes the 15th year equated to Khara, probably of the king’s reign. The record is very fragmentary.

Published in Ep. Ind., vol. XXXVI, pp. 203—06.

Vira Narasimha II

 No. 259 (Page No. 280)

(A. R. No. 69 of 1936-37)

South wall of the fourth prakara, right of entrance.

Records a gift of land offerings to the god during the early morning service by Bharadvajakulatilakan  Srirama Bhattan of the temple of Tirukkulaludina-Pillai (Krishna) consecrated by Umadevi, the queen of Vira-Vallaladeva at Dorasamudra. The donor lived in the time of Naraharibhupala (vira Narasimha II) who is attributed the title  Cholendrapratishthaguru. The details of the date viz., Saka 1154, Nandana, Chittirai, Svati, Tuesday, lunar eclipse, agree regularly for A.D.1232, April 6, Tuesday, .77; f.d.n. 29, lunar eclipse; and the date falls in the reign of Vira-Narasimha II.

No. 260 (Page No. 280)

(A. R. No. 54 of 1892)

East wall of the second prakara.

Registers a gift of 40, 000 kasu by Devaladeviyar probably identical with Somesvara’s queen (vide No 274 below), daughter of  . . . . adavvai, towards the purchase of lands for running a service of offerings of food, sandal paste, musk, civet, etc., to god Ranganatha and two other gifts of 10,000 kasu and 5,000 kasuby Bharadvaji Andan Sirandan Bhattan and Aritan Sri Govindaperumal alias Vedanerikattinan Brahmarayan respectively towards purchase and maintainance of garden lands for offerings of garlands to the god. Mentions Rangaya Dandanayakkar, brother of Bhujabalabhima Kesava Dandanayakkar, as a Mahapradhana of king Vira-Narasimha and probably as related to Devaladevi. The services were to take effect from Sunday, su. Panchami of Karttika in the cyclic year Vijaya. These details correspond to A.D. 1233, October 9, Sunday.

(Published in S.I.I., Vol IV, No. 501.)

Somesvara

No. 261 (Page No. 281)

(A. R. No. 362  of 1953-54)

Wall behind the Achchavayyan shrine, to the east of Mettalagiyasingar shrine.

Partly covered up under the floor. Registers a gift of land for a gosala (tirukkosalaippura-iraiyili) by one of the palace officers (araimanai-pradhani) of Puttur in Tulumandalam (name lost), for the welfare of the chief queen (pattattup-periyarasi) Vijvala-Mahadevi. The gift is said to have been approved by Jatavarman Vikrama-Pandyadeva in the 4th year and 270th day of his reign at the instance of Annan Vanadhirajar and the gift land seems to have formed part of Vikramapandya-chaturvedimangalam in Pandimandalam evidently named after the Pandya king. The title Jatavarman is obviously a mistake for Maravararman since no Pandya king bearing the title Jatavarman and the name Vikramapandya is known to have existed during this period On the other hand, a Maravarman Vikramapandya is known to have commenced to rule from c.1249 A.D., with whom this Vikramapandya may be identified.

The portion containing the regnal year of the king is lost. The details su. 5, Monday, Tiruvonam, are insufficient for calculating the date of the record.

No. 262 (Page No. 283)

(A. R. No. 68 of 1892)

North wall of the same prakara.

Registers a gift of 20 kuli of land purchased for 3,000 kasu to Idavai Tiruvarangadasar, a Srivaishnava, towards offering of garlands by Tevarattu Iraiannan, for his own merit. The record is dated in the 6th year of Vira Somesvara. The donor is stated to have belonged to the tevaram of queen Somaladeviyar.

(Published in S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 515)

No. 263 (Page No. 283)

(A. R. No. 318 of 1952-53)

Tirukkuralappan (vamana) shrine, north wall.

Commences with the introduction Samasta bhuvanasraya etc. Registers a gift of land in Naranamangalam alias Chembiyan-Nerkuppai in Uraiyur-kurram yielding about 300 and odd kalam of other grain, as sarvanamasya (tax-free) to the Brahmans of Kalingaraya-chaturvedimangalam by Sivanindakaln alias Kalingarayan of Cheluvattur in Kadavur in Tirukkanapperkkurram with certain stipulations (details lost). Among the taxes that are exempted on the gift land may be mentioned vaikkol, ayattundam etc.

The date portion of the record is badly damaged.

No. 264 (Page No. 285)

(A. R. No. 361 of 1953-54)

Wall behind the Achchavayyan shrine, to the east of Mettalagiya, singar shrine.

Partly covered up by the floor. Records a grant of land by Paramesvaran Narayanan of Aliyappadambil, a Kudiraichchetti of Malaimandalam after purchased the same from Pagaivali Anukku-Nambi alias Urangalilli of Edavur. The record is dated in the 22nd regnal year of king Somesvara and the details of the date viz. Vrischika, ba. 6, Monday, Pusam correspond regularly to A.D. 1252, November 2, Monday, 30; 25.

Ramanatha

No. 265 (Page No. 285)

(A. R. No. 67 of 1892)

Same wall

Registers a gift of land by purchase from the Srivaishnavas of the temple for gardening by Nallur Tuppa-Nayakkan, a Kudiraichchetti of Malaimandalam to Tiruvaravanai-Niraindar, son of Srirangaraja Brahmadhi- rajar of Tiruvalundur, and a nambi serving the god (Sripadantangum), towards offering of garlands for his own merit. The record is dated in the 2nd year of king Ramanatha and the details of the date viz. Kumbha, su 7, Wednesday, Bharani correspond to A. D. 1256, February 4, Friday, (not Wednesday), 70;11.

(Published in S.I.I., Vol. IV, No.514)

No. 266 (Page No. 286)

(A. R. No. 80 of 1936-37)

Slab set up in front of the Dhanvantari shrine in the fourth prakara.

Records the founding of a salai on the west side of the gopura enshrining the god Eduttakai-Alagiya-Nayanar in the Ranganatha temple and an endowment of land for its upkeep by [Chi]ngadeva Singanna-Dandanayaka, a pradhana  of the king. The salai was entrusted to the care of Garudavahana-Pandita who is styled the rakshaka of the donor. The endowment is said to have been made in the month of Karttigai, in the 3rd year of the king’s reign.

(Published in Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV, pp. 90—100)

No. 267 (Page No. 288)

(A. R. No. 74 of 1936-37)

South wall of the fourth prakara

Highly damaged. Seems to record a gift of land for a flower garden by a member of the mint establishment (Kambattattu Anikkarar) in the 7th regnal year of the king. The details of date viz., 7th year, Rishabha, ba. 5, Friday Tiruvonam regularly correspond to A.D. 1261, May 20, 62; 55.

No. 268 (Page No. 288)

(A. R. No. 62 of 1936-37)

Same wall

Records a gift of land in tirukkuraipparru by purchase for a flower garden to a person named Vaikunda-dasar with the stipulation that he should grow flower and supply garlands to the temple for the merit of queen Kamaladevi, the daughter of Ariyapillai-Dandanayaka, a pradhana of the king, and her two daughters Periyatangi Iraiyakkan and Vichchannan. The inscription is dated in the 8th regnal year of the king.

No. 269 (Page No. 289)

(A. R. No. 74 of 1936-37)

Same wall

Registers gift of land by purchase to Vaikunda-dasar (Vide No. 268 by Kamaladevi,  a queen of Vira- Ramanatha, for her own merit. This record also probably belongs to the 8th regnal year of the king.

No. 270 (Page No. 289)

(A. R. No. 64 of 1936-37)

Same wall

Records a gift by purchase of land adjoining that mentioned in No. 268 to the same donee mentioned in the above number, by  Somaladeviyar, daughter of Ariyapillai Dandanayaka, the pradhani of Vira-Rama- natha, for the merit of her daughter Siruttagi. The record is not dated; however, since its proximity and contents bear close relationship to No. 268, this may also be assigned to the same year of reign viz. 8th , as the other record. 

No. 271 (Page No. 290)

(A. R. No. 70 of 1936-37)

Same wall

Records a gift of gold by Sahala-Bhatta, son of Ahala-bhatta, of the Sakala gotra, who belonged to the community of Paradesi-savasi merchants, for offerings during one service in the temple and for supplying garlands to the god for his own merit and that of his son. The details of date viz. 8th year, Makara, su. 5, Monday, Uttirattadi regularly correspond to A.D. 1263, January 15, f.d.t. 10; 76.

No. 272 (Page No. 291)

(A. R. No. 377 of 1953-54)

V Prakara, east wall, north end, opposite the 1000-pillared Mandapa.

Purports to be an order of the deity ratifying the proposals made in the 9th year of reign of Vira-Rama- nathadeva by Echi-Bhattan of Kausika gotra, the Kudinir-savasi of the palace (araimanai) who, along with the other temple servants made a representation to the god in respect of the Lakshminarayap-purumal temple situated in Bhadrakara-chaturvedimangalam that (1) as a protective measure, a row of house sites all around the temple be given to deserving brahmanas, (2) that some more lands from Gunasila-chaturvedi-manglam be acquired and endowed to the temple to augment its income from the existing endowments which was found to be inadequate for maintaining worship and offerings in it, for which purpose Echi-Bhattan deposited 7500 kasu in the temple treasury. Among the signatories of the documents figures Pallavan Vilupparaiyan.

No. 273 (Page No. 293)

(A. R. No. 372 of 1953-54)

Kottaram; outer wall facing the garuda-mandapa

Damaged. Seems to record an endowment of a perpetual lamp for the merit of Viraya-dandanayaka, a mahapradhani of the king. The record is dated in the 10th year of the king’s reign.

No. 274 (Page No. 293)

(A. R. No. 57 of 1892)

North wall of the second prakara

Registers an endowment of garden-land after having purchased the same from the temple lands by Ponnambalamahadeviyar, sister of Vira-Ramanatha, Vira-Somesvara of Devalamahadevi, a Chalukya Princess.  (vide No. 60).  From out of the produce, a service of civet ointment, ornament and other offerings to Periyaperumal on the day of Karttigai, were to be connected on behalf of Ekkadai Devar. The record is dated in the 12th regnal year of the king.

(Published in S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 504.)

No. 275 (Page No. 295)

(A. R. No. 52 of 1892)

South wall of the same prakara

Records a gift of a crown embedded with rubies, two fly-whisks and a betel-pot made of gold Ranganatha by Chokkavilli Bhattar alias Mudaliyar Kariyamari of Patakam who bore the title of Sakalavidyachakravarti and who is said to have received this gift from perumal Vira-Pandyadeva, probably identical with Jatavarman Vira-Pandya I. The record however is dated in the 15th regnal year of Vira-Ramanatha- deva and quotes astronomical details Mina, su 1, Monday, Asvati, which correspond regularly to A.D. 1270, 24th March, 21; 43.

(Published in S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 499.)

No. 276 (Page No. 295)

(A. R. No. 51 of 1892)

Same wall

This is a Sanskrit version of No. 275 but does not mention the Hoysala king.

(Published in S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 498.)

No. 277 (Page No. 296)

(A. R. No. 74 of 1892)

Room in the south-west corner of the third prakara

Registers an endowment of 100,000 kasu with the approval of god Ranganatha towards various daily offerings to Nayanar Thirukkulaludiyarulugira Pillai and his consort, by Alagiya Manavalabhattar alias Kachchiyaraya Brahmadhirajar of Vangaipuram in Ranadhira-chaturvedimangalam in Tirumunaippadi Aviyanur-nadu. The details of the date viz. 15th year , Mithuna, ba. 11 Sunday, Bharani, correspond regularly to A.D.1270, June 15, Sunday, 73; 42.

(Published in S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 521).

No. 278 (Page No. 297)

(A. R. No. 114 of 1937-38) (Page No. 297)

Pillar in the western porch of the thousand pillared Mandapa

The inscription gives the name Mandalikayamarajan Kampaya-Dandanayakan. The same name is found in nine other similar pillars in this mandapa.

In characters of the 13th century A.D.

No. 279 (Page No. 297)

(A. R. No. 139 of 1937-38 )

III Prakara, room adjoining the Truppaniyara-Arai

Records the setting up of the images of Sarasvati-Deva, Vedavyasa-bhagavan and Hayagriva which had been newly installed in the mandapa built as an adjunct to the Sarasvati-bhandara (library) by Nilakantha-Nayaka of Palpalli and the endowment of 100,000 kasu for providing offerings to the deities. The donor of this inscription is known to us from an inscription of this king from Jambukesvaram near Srirangam (No.4 of 1937-38).

Miscellaneous

No. 280 (Page No. 298)

(A. R. No. 419 of 1961-62 )

Proper left of entrance into the Vellai-Gopuram

In fragments. Seems to record sale of lands by (1) Araiyan Kurukkaipadi, son of Valavataraiyan, the headman of Kuriyur in [Pal]kunra-kottam and (2) Araiyan Kalappalarayan, Nandiyarayan and others to Vittaiya-dandanayaka who apparently granted the same to provide for worship. Other details are lost.

The inscription is engraved in characters of about the 13th century.

No. 281 (Page No. 298)

(A. R. No. 46 of 1937-38 )

II Prakara, north wall.

The inscription is in Sanskrit engraved in Grantha characters of about the 13th century. It describes Ravi-varman alias Samgramadhira or Kulasekhara as the son of Jayasimha and Umadevi. According to this inscription Ravivarman was born in the Saka year 1188 (as given in chronogram dehavyapya)= A.D. 1266-67, married a Pandya princess and took possession of Kerala in his 33rd year, i.e., A.D.1299-1300. He also defeated a Virapandya and at the age of 46 (i.e., about 1312-13 A.D.) got himself crowned on the banks of Vegavati.

It records that the king set up an image of Ranganatha, celebrated the festival of lights and provide for payment, on the day of Satabhishaj in the month of Kanya, i.e., Purattasi, of 100 panas each to 50 learned men. The inscription in verse, is said to have been composed by Kavibhushana.

(Published in Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, pp. 148 ff.) 

No. 282 (Page No. 301)

(A. R. No. 179 of 1951-52)

III Prakara, nalikettanvasal, stone jamb bearing the figure of a rampant tiger at the top

No date

The record is in Sanskrit in Grantha. Gives the relationship of king Champaka Kerala as the dauhitra (daughter’s  son) of Jayasimha, the son of Godesvara. The sister’s son of kulasekhara and brother of Marttanda, and refers to the setting up the lamp post (ketu-stambha) by him in front of Rangesa (god Ranganatha). The pillar bears at the top of the inscription, a graffito of a couchant tiger (?) with its month open, the paw raised and the tail twisted. The record is not dated. 

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