The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Topographical Index

Dynastic Index

Text of the Inscriptions 

Chola

Pandya

Vijayanagara

Nayakas of Madurai

Nayakas of Tanjavur

Pallava

Rashtrakuta

Kakatiya and Feudatory

Pottapi-Chodas

Chera

Setupati

Kongu

Kodumbalur

Unidentified Pandya or Chola

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1906-07

Tribhuvanavira 

 

 

Tribhuvanavira (Kulottunga III )

No. 382 (Page No 272)

(A. R. No. 382 of 1907)

Mayuram, Mayuram Taluk, Tanjavur District

Panchanadesvara temple – on the same wall

Kulottunga-Chola III :  year 33 :  1211 A.D. 

The king is here called Tribhuvanaviradeva ‘who performed the anointment of heroes and victors after having taken Madurai, Ilam, Karuvur and the crowned head of the Pandya.’ The details of the date given viz., Rishabha, ba. 10, Monday, Uttirattadi would give the equivalent A.D. 1211, May 6. This registers a gift of a quarter (veli) of land belonging to the sabha of Nallur-Pudukkudi, to the temple of Tiruvaiyarudaiyar as tirunamattukkani and urkil-iraiyili after relieving it from the previous holder.

No. 386 (Page No 278)

(A. R. No. 386 of 1907)

Maruttuvakkudi, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Airavatesvara temple – on the north wall of the mandapa

In front of the central shrine

Kulottunga-Chola III :  year 39 :  1215-16 A.D

The king is called Tribhuvanaviradeva ‘who took Madurai, Ilam (and Karuvur) and the crowned head of the Pandya, and performed the anoitment (of heroes and victors)’. The inscription is much damaged in the first half. It seems to register an endowment of land by one Tirunattapperuman a resident of Anaichchul in Tiramur-nadu a division of Uyyakkondar-valanadu for the requirements of worship, both daily and special, to god Tiruvenkadudaiyar consecrated by the donor in the western portion of the first prakara in the temple of Tiruvidaikkulam-udaiyar at the place. This seems to have been added to two veli of land at Danavinodanallur presented to the main temple in the 25th year of the king by Arayan Edirillisolar alias Soliyavaraiyar of Palaivayal under the name Soliyavaraiyar-kudikkadu and supplemented by the latter with another gift of one veli of land in the next year. It is not clear why there was an interval of 14 years between the gift and its recording on stone.

No. 467 (Page No 347)

(A. R. No. 467 of 1907)  

Periyakottai, Palani Taluk, Madurai District

Cholesvara temple – on the same wall

Tribh. Tribhu[vanavira]deva :  year 3 

This is also much damaged. It seems to record a gift of money for a twilight lamp in the temple by a Vellala.

No. 476 (Page No 352)

(A. R. No. 476 of 1907)  

Rishyur, Tirutturaippundi Taluk, Tanjavur District

Kailasanatha temple – on the north wall

Kulottunga III :  year 33 :  1211 A.D. 

The king is called Tribhuvanaviradeva ‘who took Madurai etc, The details of date are given as Mina, ba, 13, Monday, Purattadi yielding the equivalent A.D. 1211, March 14: f.d.n. 19. This is stated to be a renewal deed (punapramana-isaivutittu) given by Arayan Tiruvanaikkavudaiyan alias Malaiyappiyarayan of Perumur in Vennikkuram, a division of Suttamali-valanadu to the temple of Tiruvanaikkavudaiyar at that place (Perumar), by which he confirmed the gift of 4 veli of land (out of seven situated at Pilisur) which he had made in the 30th year of  the king for the expenses of worship in that temple. The supporting document for that grant having been worn out (land lost) in the meanwhile the tanattar of the temple applied to him for another authority. The seven veli of land is said to have been the Sridhana of the donor’s deceased wife Arayan Alavandal from her father Kalattur Kilavan Tillaiyulvilli Periyalvar alias Kulottungasola-Vanakovaraiyar and to have become his Property by marriage. Of the remaining 3 veli, two are said have been presented by him to Brahmanas as Sradaha-dana in memory of his wife, half a veli for worship of god Vanakovraiyar’s wife (donor’s mother-in-law) and 3 ma and of land for worship of goddess Sarasvatiyar consedcrated by Vanakovaraiyar existence of this comprehensive grant at this place.

Virarajendra (Kulottunga III )

No 57 (Page No 35)

(A. R. No. 57 of 1907.)

Kanippakkam , Chittoor Taluk, Chittoor district

Manikanthesvara temple --- on the east wall of the central shrine 

This is dated in the 8th year of the Chola king  Virarajendra-Choladeva (Kulottunga III ) and in saka 1108 (A.D. ) 1186-87) , Panguni. It is built in the middle. It records a gif of a kalanju of gold for burning a twilight lamp in the temple of Manikanthesvaram-Udaiyar by one I laraiyan Sagararajan Siyagangan. The donor was evidently a member of the Ganga family of chiefs of Kolar who were subordinate to the Chola and should have been related to, if not identical with, Amarabharanan Siyagangan figuring in No. 10 of 1893 and No. 195 of 1892 (An. Rept. for 1893, para 8 ), and also in a Tiruvallam inscription (S.I.I.Vol. III, p. 122) as a feudatory of Kulotunga, and who was the patron of Pavanandi the author of the Tamil Grammar Nannul.  

No. 369 (Page No 256)

(A. R. No. 369 of 1907)

Aduturai, Papanasam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Apatsahayesvara temple – on the same wall

Tribh. Virarajendradeva (Kulottunga III) :  year 2 :  1178-79 A.D. 

This is also damaged. It registers a similar agreement by the Sivabrahmanas of the temple to pay interest by way of paddy annually to the temple on the amount received by them by the sale of a piece of land or house-site situated in the Tirumadaivilagam (surrounding streets) of god. Refers to the construction of a guhai by one Kanjaran Tirunattaperumal Vantondar. 

No. 456 (Page No 341) 

(A. R. No. 456 of 1907)  

Periyakottai, Palani Taluk, Madurai District

Cholesvara temple – on the door-post, right side

Virarajendradeva year 15+3 

This is stated to be the gift of Kannapertti alias Jayagonda-gamindan, a vellala of Pulariyur in Pongalurkka-nadu. 

No. 461 (Page No 344)

(A. R. No. 461of 1907)  

Periyakottai, Palani Taluk, Madurai District

Cholesvara temple – on the south wall

Raj. Virarajendradeva 

This is also in complete like the above. It seems to record the installation of the image of Chandesvara in the temple and gift of a Palanjalagai-achchu for a twilight lamp before the deity, by a Vellala by name Avanasi Puliyan.

No. 464 (Page No 346)

(A. R. No. 464 of 1907)  

Periyakottai, Palani Taluk, Madurai District

Cholesvara temple – on the same wall

Raj. Virarajendra :  year lost 

This is also fragmentary. It records some gift of money made to the temple by a lady by name Mallammai, daughter of Mayipalar and wife of some chief whose name is lost.

Rajaraja III 

No. 159 (Page No 127)

(A. R. No. 159 of 1907)

Peraiyur, Tirumayam Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District

Naganathasvami temple – on the same wall

Rajaraja III : year 20 : 1235-36 A.D. 

This record an order of a samanta (feudal chief) of the king by name Mahasahani Satruganda granting to the temple of Tirunagesvaram-udaiya-Nayanar at Tirupperaiyur, all the income (tevai and taragu) like kadamai, antarayam, silvari, peruvari, kalavai, kaduvetti (?) and mudippon accruing to him from Sendamangalam in Perayilnadu a division of Jayasingakulakala-valanadu, for the requirements of daily worship to the god. 

Another inscription of three lines dated in the same year of the king which is unfinished is found engraved below the present one. 

No.  186 (Page No 145)

(A. R. No.  186 of 1907)

Uraiyur, Tiruchirapalli Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District

Panchavarnesvara temple –on the north wall of the central shrine

Parak : Rajaraja II : year 7 (A.D. 1152) 

The details of date are given as 7th year, Makara, su. 14, Monday, Uttiram. Makara, su. 14 can never combine with Uttiram. The intended date was probably A.D. 1152, January 21, f.d.t. 80, the Nakshatra on this day being Purarvasu. The inscription is damaged with portions lost. It seems to register a grant of land by the assembly of Rajasraya-chaturvedimangalam in Uraiyur-kurram for the expenses of daily worship and of a festival in the month of Vaigasi in the temple of Tiru-Udaitalai-Mahadeva at Tiru-Uraiyur. 

No. 291 (Page No 346)

(A. R. No. 291 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – in the same place

Rajarajadeva III :  year  27 : 1243-44 A.D. 

The details of the date given viz., Makara, su. 5, Wednesday, Pushya are irregular, as Makara su. 5 and Pushya can never combine. This registers the sale of a quarter veli of land by the temple for 2500 kasu, to one Tiruvekampamudaiyar an Arya from Karmirai (Kashmir ?) who endowed it back to the temple for the formation of a flower garden. Portions of the record are lost.

No. 310 (Page No 219)

(A. R. No. 310 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mahalingasvami temple – on the second eastern gopura

right of entrance

Rajarajadeva [III] :  year  6+1 

A few syllables at the end of each line are inaccessible and the inscriptions also damaged. It seems to register an order of the king confiscating the land belonging to some persons who proved traitorous (to the king ?) and distributing them, some by way of auction (Rajarajapperuvilai) and some by sale at estimated price. The details are not clear. However, the temple of Tiruvidaimarududaiyar is mentioned as having purchased some land in auction. Reference is made to Tillai-ambala-chaturvedimangalam as the tirunamattukkani and [devadana ?]-iraiyili of God Tiruchchirrambalam-Udaiyar, [Nataraja] and his consort Tirukkamakkottam-udaiya-Periyanachchiyar. Some bhatta-vritti lands at Tirubhuvanavira-chaturvedimnagalam are also referred to as having been granted as Sodakumba (for the merit of the dead king) of Periyadevar evidently meaning Kulottunga-Chola III who was known by the other name Tribhuvanaviradeva. 

Could the treachery referred to above be a symptom of the king’s weakness that contributed to his serious trouble later in his life?

No. 371 (Page No 257)

(A. R. No. 371 of 1907)

Mayuram, Mayuram Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mayuranathasvami temple – on the south wall of the first prakara

Rajaraja III :   year 2[9]+1+1+1 : 1245-46 A.D. 

This registers a gift of 2000 kasu deposited with the Sthanattar of the temple of Tirumayiladuturai-Udaiyar in Tiruvelundur-nadu to meet the expenses of daily worship, bath, apparel and offerings to the image of the goddess Bhuavanapati-Nachchiyar consecrated (by the donor) in the tirunaddai-maligai (circuit) of the temple by Ambalankoyil-kondan Arrapodaikkudavinan of Sambangudi.  

No. 372 (Page No 258)

(A. R. No. 372 of 1907)

Mayuram, Mayuram Taluk, Tanjavur District

Mayuranathasvami temple –in one of the shrines

On the northern side

Rajaraja III :  year 14 :  1229 A.D. 

The details of the date are given as Tula, ba. 3, Sunday, Rohini, which would correspond to A.D. 1229, October 7. This registers an endowment of 500 kuli of land named Anjolan-vilagam for rice offering to the goddess Tiruppalli-arai Nachchiyar during the early morning service in the temple, by Araiyan Tiruvegambam-udaiyan of Porosaikkudi in Uyyakkondar-valanadu, who had also consecrated the goddess.  The land was exempted from the taxes like antarayam and pattam by the adaippu-mudalis (?) and the mahasabha of the village (Nallor-Pudukkudi) in which the land was situated. After offering the rice was to be distributed among the members of the temple establishment. During the service the name of the donor was to be announced in the words “Porasaikkudaiyan-Tambiran has come”. 

No. 388 (Page No 281)

(A. R. No. 388 of 1907)

Maruttuvakkudi, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Airavatesvara temple – on the same wall

Konerinmaikondan :  year 21 

This may also be an inscription of Rajaraja III, whose order issued on the 274th day of the year quoted, through the Tirumandiravoai Minavan-Muvendavelan to his officers and to the temple, grants ulvari for some land given tax-free for the expenses of worship. Like No. 387 above, this also quotes the 40th year of the previous king. The details of the transaction are lost owing to the badly damaged state of the record. 

No. 389 (Page No 283)

(A. R. No. 389 of 1907)

Maruttuvakkudi, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Airavatesvara temple – on the same wall 

This is dated in the 21st year evidently of the same king (Rajaraja III). The king whose 40th year is quoted in the foregoing records is here clearly referred to as Periyadevar Tribhuvanaviradeva (Kulottunga Chola III). This is the ulvari document as finally executed and incised on the wall by order of the king, specifying the remission of taxes in the Registers on the 11 veli and odd of land with its income of 476 kalam of  paddy mentioned in No. 387 above.

No. 391 (Page No 285)

(A. R. No. 391 of 1907)

Maruttuvakkudi, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

Airavatesvara temple – on the same wall

[Rajaraja III] year 21 :  1236-37 A.D. 

The assessment of some lands made in the 40th year of Periyadevar Tribhuvanaviradevar is referred to in this record also as in No. 389 above. This is dated in the 260th day of the regnal year quoted and is connected with No. 388 which is 14 days later. It is however curious to note that this earlier document is the actual ulvari document of execution of the other record. Though the lacunae of the damaged portion of the later are partly filled up the present inscription a connected account of the transaction cannot be clearly made out. Of the two pieces of land granted as devadana-iraiyili to the temple of Tiruvidaikkulam-Udaiyar, one is stated to be situated in the village Irumarabuntuya peruman-[chaturvedimangalam] in Kurumbur-nadu and the other in Kulottungasolan-Nyaya-paripala-chaturvedi-mangalam in Tiraimur-nadu. In connection with each of these lands are also mentioned the villages Sembiyan-Nerkuppai a part of Tiraimur alias Ulaguyyakkondasola-chaturvedimangalam in Vilai-nadu, a division of Jayagondasola-valanadu and Vikramasola-chaturvedimangalam (No.388) [in Tiraimur-nadu?], from the accounts of which these lands are said to have been separated.

No. 596 (Page No 417)

(A. R. No. 596 of 1907)  

Nandaluru, Rajampet Taluk, Cuddapah District

Saumyanatha temple – In the same place

Rajaraja III.  Year 23 and 24 

This records a gift of 6 madai and a lampstand each for two perpetual lamps in the temple of Sokkapperumal by a merchant named Semmasetti of Muranotta-mangalam in Valluva-nadu a division of Malai-mandalam, and his wife Unnipillai Akkan, one made in Hevilambi, Kumbha, ba. 6, Saturday, Svati, and the other a year later in Vikari, Tula ba. 3, Monday, Mrigasirsha corresponding respectively to A.D. 1238, February 6, f.d.t. 05, and to A.D. 1239, October 17, f.d.n. 11.

No. 620 (Page No 432)

(A. R. No. 620 of 1907)  

Gundluru, Rajampet Taluk, Cuddapah District

Agastyesvara temple – on another slab set up

in the same place

Tribh. Rajaraja (III).  Year 21 :  1236-37 A.D. 

The cyclic year Durmukhi corresponding to the 21st regnal year of the king makes the inscription one of Rajaraja III. The record states that a certain Isanadevar, an andar looking after the flower garden of Tiruvagattisvaram-udaiya-Nayanar at Gundalur in Pottappi-nadu which was a subdivision of Merpakkai-nadu, died by taking the alari plant poison probably under suspicious circumstances. On an order received from Kunrapillaiyar Gandagopalan, the Nattavar and the officers with the Mahesvaras of the temple made enquiries into the matter and punished the culprits responsible for the mishap. The manraduvar (assembly) of Gundalur undertook to burn a perpetual lamp in the temple for the merit of the deceased and the sons of the latter were to pay a third of the expense. 

Rajendra-Chola III

No. 495 (Page No 376)

(A. R. No. 495 of 1907)  

Kuttalam, Mayuram Taluk, Tanjavur District

Uttaravedisvara temple – on the same wall

Tribh. Rajendra Chola (III) :  year 15 

The date is given as Tula, su. 9, Thursday, Avittam equivalent to A.D. 1260, October 14. 

This registers a sale of 2 adjacent house-sites measuring 3 kol and 9 kol east to west with a depth of 14 kol situated on the north side of the tirumadai vilagam of the temple of Tiruchchattimurram-Udaiyar at Kil-Palaiyaru alias Rajarajapuram in Kulottungasola-valanadu to a matha at that place belonging to the lineage of Meynanasivar, for 700 kasu by the temple of Sonnavararivar.     

No. 580 (Page No 400)

(A. R. No. 580 of 1907)  

Nandaluru, Rajampet Taluk, Cuddapah District

Saumyanatha temple – on the 5th tier of the north base, the north and

West walls of the same mandapa and the north wall of the central shrine

Rajendra-Chola III year 13 : 1257-58 A.D. 

The inscription is also dated in Saka 1179, Pingala, Mesha-Sankranti. It is written in three languages, the gift part being in Sanskrit ; the next comprising mostly of the names of the donees with the number of their shares of land, is in Telugu but in Grantha alphabet like the first part ; and the last portion of about 20 lines, giving the main gist of the record is in Tamil. The epigraph begins with a eulogy of a king by name Trinetra (Trilochana-Pallava ?) who founded many agraharas to the east of the Tripurantaka hill. A successor of his of the same name – Mukkanti-Kaduvetti established and gave the village Perungandur in Paschima-Paka-nadu a division of Adhirajendra-Chola-mandalam to 52 Brahmanas in Saka 723 (mistake for Saka 730 ?), Sarvadhari, Mesha-Sankramana, ba. 6, Wednesday, Mula (A.D. 808, March 21 , Tuesday ?). The donees were in enjoyment of their shares for a long time, when some Velumas from Inumbrolu escaping from the mari-jvaram of their place, settled in fields near them, agreeing to pay rents for their lands, along-side the residents of Sakali-Kodura who had also emigrated from their place on account of some riots. During a famine that followed the Brahmanas left their places and when they returned found themselves supplanted in their possessions by the new comers who had in the meantime named their new settlement as Koduru, and refused to give the rent due to the Brahmana landlords. The latter then made a representation to the chief Manumasiddhi, whose genealogy is here introduced viz Dayabhima, Betabhupa, Erasiddhi, Manmasiddha, and Tikkanripa the father of the ruling chief. This Manumasiddhi is said to have conquered a chief named Vijaya and tried to secure the friendship of Kakatiya-Ganapati by fighting a battle for him on the banks of the Godavari. He was a feudatory under the Chola king Rajendra-Chola III whose regnal year is quoted. 

Manumasiddhi sent for the cultivators against whom the complaint was made and after due enquiry with witnesses, decided the case in favour of the dispossessed Brahmanas, to whom he renewed the grant of the village Koduru for the merit of his father. Then follows a detailed list of all the share-holders, in Telugu. The concluding portion of the inscription which is in Tamil registers an order of Madurantaka-Pottappi-Chola Manumasiddhi, granting the village Koduru a hamlet of Perungandur to the Brahmanas, thus restoring their ancient possessions, when the inhabitants from Inumbudol (Inumbrolu) could not prove their case.

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