The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Text of the Inscriptions 

The Chutus

The Chalukyas of Badami

The Rashtrakutas

The Chalukyas of Kalyana

The Kalachuryas

The Yadavas

The Hoysalas

The Vijayanagara Kings

The Western Gangas

The Rattas

The Kadambas

The Sode Chiefs

The Muslim Rulers

Miscellaneous

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

BOMBAY - KARNATAKA INSCRIPTIONS

INTRODUCTION

The Kalachuryas

As already noted above, the earliest member of this dynasty mentioned in the inscriptions of this Volume is Bijjarasa referred to as a feudatory of Somesvara I in A.D. 1057 in a record (No. 37) from Chadchan in the Indi Taluk of the Bijapur District. His son Kannamarasa or Krishnaraja is represented by a single inscription (No. 133), which also comes from the same place and is dated Saka 988 or A.D. 1067.  He is stated to have been ruling from mangaliveda an, through he is associated with feudatory titles like Samadhigata-pancha-maha-sabda and Mahamandalesvara, no over-lord is mentioned in the record.  The inscription is important in that it is the only record of Kannamarasa or Krishnaraja discovered so far.  He was the great-grandfather of Bijjala II who usurped the Chalukya kingdom. 

Permadi, the father of Bijjala II, is represented by one record (No. 134).  It is dated in his 12th regnal year, Saumya, which corresponded to A. D. 1129.  Though this year falls right within the reign period of theChalukya king Somesvara III, Permadi does not mention any over-lord nor are any feudatory titles associated with him.  This may suggest that he was trying to assert his independence.  In the concluding portion of the record, it is stated that Mahaprabhu  Vikramadityarasa would protect the gift.   But it is not certain who this Vikramatiya living in A.D. 1129 could be. 

The next ruler, Bijjala II, who was responsible for usurping the Chalukya kingdom, is represented by sixteen records in the Volume.  The earliest of them (No. 135) comes from Chikkalgi and is dated in the year.[1] Isvara, Karttika su. 9, Monday, regularly corresponding to October 14, A.D. 1157.  The record does not mention the ruling monarch Taila III but straightaway applies imperial titles to the Bijjala.  The non-mention of the Chalukya overlord and the assumption of the imperial titles would indicate that Bijjala was trying to declare himself independent and that he was probably acknowledged as such as early as A.D. 1157. in some suggested by the Lakshmesvara inscription (No. 137)  wherein the genealogy of the Chalukya king Taila III is given, though the formal preamble indicating the rule or the latter king is not there.  This would show that Bijjala did acknowledge some sore of suzerainty of Taila III, though he did not hesitate to record is own regnal reckoning. 

The Chikkalgi inscription is also interesting in that it associates Bijjala’s son (Kumara) Mailugi in the rule of the kingdom.  This is the earliest mention, of this prince. 

A feudatory of Bijjala is introduced in the person of Mahapradhana Lakshmideva-Dandayanaka as the governor of the 36-village-division in a record (No. 138) from Bhuyar dated in the 7th regnal year of the king, falling in the year Chitrabhanu or A.D. 1162.  If the chief Lakshmideva-dandanayaka is identical with lakshmidevayya-dandanayaka who was an officer under Sankama in A.D. 1178, then an earlier date is furnished for him in the Bhuyar record under review.  

Another feudatory of Bijjala, in the person of Sridhara-dandanayaka mentioned in No. 144, dated in A.D. 1166, is evidently the same for whom Fleet found the dates A.D. 1157 and 1162 and suggested that he was governing the territory in the neighbourhood of Anigere.  The record under review expressly states that he was governing Huligere-300 and supplies a later date, viz. , A.D. 1166 for him.  It also informs us that he was the son of Hariyanayya-dandadhisa and Muddikavve and the grandson of Dasiraja and Dugganavve. 

Bijjala’s son Rayamurari Sovideva, in whose favour the former is known to have abdicted the throne, is represented by thirteen inscriptions in this Volume.  The earliest of them (No. 151) is dated in A.D. 1168 while the latest (No. 159) bears the date A.D. 1176. The former record mentions his feudatory Mahamandalesvara Singidevarasa fo the Silahara family as governing Elamelu.  Another record (No. 154) refers to the king’s feudatory Dandanayaka Kumara Bammidevarasa as governing Sagara, Hagarittage and Elamela divisions and under him, Mahamandalesvara Singidevarasa, apparently the person of this name mentioned above, was administering Elamelu.   

Mallugi or Mallikarjuna is represented as an independent ruler in three records, Nos. 164, 165 and 166.  Two of them (Nos. 164 and 166) are dated in his second regnal year Durmukhi, corresponding to A.D. 1176, thereby indicating that he commenced his rule from the year Manmatha or A.D. 1175.  He is mentioned as a prince (Kumara) in two records (Nos. 135 and 143) of his father Bijjala dated in A.D. 1157 and 1166 respectively.  The former mentions him as associated with his father in the rule of the kingdom.  No. 165, dated Saka 1098 or A.D. 1176, states Mallikarjuna was ruling from his capital at Masanur.  

There are two inscription (Nos. 167 and 168) of Sankama and one (No. 169) of Ahavamalla.  No. 167 is dated in the king’s 3rd regnal year, Vilambi, corresponding to A.D. 1179, which shows that his first year was Durmukhi or A.D. 1176.  No. 168 states that the king was ruling from his capital at Kalyana.  Ahavamalla’s inscription is dated in his 4th regnal year, Sobhakrit, corresponding to A.D. 1183 and accordingly his first year would be Sarvari or A.D. 1180.  

A word may be said about the capitals (nelevidu) of the Kalachurya rulers as gleaned from their inscriptions in this Volume.  While Krishna or Kannama had his capital at Mangaliveda (no. 133), no less than three places are mentioned as the capitals of Bijjala II, viz., Mangaliveda(no. 149(, Kalyana (nos. 138 and 142, and Kangara (no. 143).  Sovideva also had three capitals, Mangaliveda (nos. 151 and 158), Seleyahalli (No. 154) and Modeganur (No. 162).  The records of Mallugi and Sankama mention Masanur (no. 165) and Kalyana (No. 168) respectively.

The Yadavas

Bhillama is represented by eight records in the Volume.  While editing his Bimbal inscription (no. 172), I have shown that the epigraphs of this king suggest different dates ranging from A.D. 1184-85 to A.D. 1187-88 as his initial year.  The present inscription shows that he started his reign in Visvavasu or A.D. 1185-86.  

We may review here two inscription (Nos. 173 and 174) coming from Bekkinal and Kalkeri in the Sindgi Taluk of the Bijapur District.  Both of them are dated in the second regnal year of a certain Viranarayanadeva and give the same details, viz., Plavanga, Kartiga, Purnima, Monday, while one of them (No. 174) also mentions the Saka year 1109.  The details of the date regularly correspond to Monday, the 19th October, A.D. 1187.  We are not informed about the name of the family or dynasty to which this Viranarayanadeva belonged.  Both the inscriptions record certain gifts by a certain Echibhatta who purchased them from Dandanayaka Vikramaditya, the prabhu of Kalkere.  No. 174 further informs us that Mahamandalesvaa Viruprasa administering Hagaritage-nadu at the time.  We know from other records belonging to the reign of Bhillama that Mahamandalesvara Viruparasa and Dandahipa Vikramanka were his feudatories.  Therefore Viranarayana of the inscriptions under review has to be identified with Bhillama who must have borne that epithet in addition to the usual yadavanarayana.  This Viranarayana must be distinguished from the Kalachurya kingAhavamalla who also bore the tile Viranarayana but whose initial regnal year corresponds to Saka 1102 or A.D. 1180-81.  

An inscription (No. 178) belonging to the reign of Bhillama bears the date Saka 1115, paridhavi, Bhadrapada ba. 8, Monday, while his son Jaitugi is represented as a ruling king in a record (no. 180), dated Saka 1114, Paridhavi, Pushya ba. 10, Sunday.  Paridhavi corresponded to Saka 1114 expired or Saka 1115 current.  From these two records it would be clear that Jaitugi must have ascended the throne between the 31st August and 21st December of A.D. 1192.  

Besides Mahamandalesvara Viruparasa and Dandanayaka Vikramaditya or Vikramanka referred to above, the records of Bhillama mention the following important officials not noticed by Fleet.  They are Mahapradhana, Dandanayaka Mayideva, Mahamandalesvara Virabandugidevarasa and Mahamandalesvaras Bandarasa and Gonarasa of the Selara or Silahara family.  

As noted above, Jaitugi’s earliest inscription (No. 180) is dated the 21st December, A.D. 1192, while his latest date in the records of this Volume is furnished by No. 185 which mentions his 11th regnal year, Durmati, corresponding to A.D. 1201.  Fleet observed that the earliest epigraphic reference to the capital city of Devagiri (modern Daulatabad near Aurangabad in Maharashtra) is to be found is a record of A.D. 1210 mentioned as the capital of Singhana, the son and successor of Jaitugi.  But No. 180 of A.D. 1192 noticed above informs us that Jaitugi was ruling from his capital at Devagiri, thereby providing an earlier, or rather the earliest, epigraphic reference so for, to that city.  Among the officers of Jaitugi, not noticed by Fleet, may be mentioned Mahapradhana Soyideva-dandanayaka, Dandanayaka Mayideva (probably the same who is mentioned under Bhillama) and Mahamandalesvara Lakshmideva.  

The next king, Singhana, is represented in this Volume by no less than twenty-eight records.  The earliest of them (No. 186) is dated Saka 1127, Raktakshi or A.D. 1204 while the latest (No. 205) bears the date Saka 1169, Plavanga or A.D. 1247.  

If Bhillama’s initial yielded 3 or 4 different dates, Singhana’s record.  Suggest at least six different reckonings for the commencement of his rule.  They may be shows as follows.    

 

Nos Regnal year and equivalent Initial Year
189 10 = A.D. 1208-09
192 16 = A.D. 1215 A.D.1199-1200
204 41 = A.D .1245        A.D. 1205-06  
187 1   = A.D. 1207   A.D. 1207-08  

196

16 = A.D. 1224  
199 32 = A.D. 1240}       A.D. 1209-10  
195 14 = A.D. 1223        A.D. 1210-11  
193 7 = A.D. 1217  A.D. 1211-12  

It is indeed difficult to account for these different dates.  

No. 186 records certain gifts, made by the king, in the name and for the merit of one Chiladevi.  The relationship of this lady is not indicated but it is not unlikely that she was a queen of Singhana.  She appears to be the real donor of the gift.  

The inscription of Singhana mention the following feudatories and officials, not noticed by Fleet.   Dandanayaka Kapiladeva who, in A.D. 1208, was governing Tardavadi-nadu (no. 188); Mahamandalesvara Bommidevarasa of the Silara or Silahara family (No. 189); the king’s minister (mantri) Vasudeva (No. 199); Mahapradhana Madhavadeva-nayaka and his son Kesavadeva nayaka (No. 201).  Mallisetti who, in A.D. 1227, was governing Karnata-vishaya (No. 198) and bore the title Konkana-chakravarti (No 206) is apparently the same person whom Fleet mentions as a feudatory of Singana’s son Kannaradeva or Krishna and who was the elder brother of Bichana, the famous general of Singhana.  Nos. 202 and 206 inform us that Mallisetti had two sons called Chavunda and Reva.  

Two inscriptions (Nos. 202 and 205) reveal interesting information regarding the family of Bichana or Bichiraja referred to above.  We learn that he was the son of Chikkadeva and Chikkambika and the younger brother of Mallisetti.  He had a daughter by name Rajaladevi and since he had no sons, he adopted Payisetti as his son.  This Payisetti is stated to be the real son of Nakisetti of the Roddamane family.  The genealogy may be tabulated as follows:

Relationship chart

No. 216 of Kannara’s reign is dated in his 4th regnal year coupled with the year Sadharana-samvatarasa corresponding to A.D. 1250-51.  According to his reckoning, his first year would be Plavanga corresponding to A.D. 1247-48 which is also the dates suggested by Fleet.  

Kannara’s brother Mahadeva has two records in the Volume, viz. Nos. 219 and 220.  The former is dated in his 10th regnal year, Sukla, corresponding to A.D. 1269, thereby yielding A.D. 1260-61 as his first year which is also the date suggested by Fleet. But  the other record dated in the next year Pramoduta is equated with the king’s 12th regnal year which would indicate his first year as A.D. 1259-60.  

The last ruler Ramachandra is represented by six records.  Nos. 222 and 223 are dated in his regnal years 17, Sarvajit, Kartika, and 18, Sarvadhari, Pushya, corresponding to A. 1287, October and A.D. 1289, January, respectively.  This reckoning yields A.D. 1271-72 as his first year which agrees with the date suggested by Fleet.  In No. 225 of  A.D. 1304 a certain Chalava who is described as ‘born in the royal family (raja-vamsodbhava) figures as a donee of a gift.  The two officers mentioned therein, viz., Mahamandalesvara Jaitapala-deva-rane and Sarvadhikari Vithaladevanayaka were not known before.  Similarly, No. 226, dated in A.D. 1306 introduces a hitherto unknown feudatory of the king named Mahapradhana Sarvadhikari Ranganatha at whose command a gift of land was made.  

Another important feudatory of Ramachandra is brought to light by No. 221, dated Saka 1205 or A.D. 1283.  He is Mahamandalesvara Vikramadityadeva of the Gutta family of Guttavolal.  This Vikramaditya is mentioned apparently as the son of Jogama who is stated to have been the younger brother of Gutta and the son of Mailambika.  Mailakbika’s sons Gutta and Jogama are evidently identical with Gutta III and Joyideva III who is mentioned by Fleet and by Fleet and for whom a date in A.D. 1265 is furnished by an inscription from Chaudadampur, belonging to the reign of Mahadva.  The inscription under review thus carries the pedigree by one more generation in the person of Mahamandalesvara Vikramaditya, son of Jogama or Joyideva.  The record also reveals the name of his wife Padmaladevi for the first time.

The Hoysalas

There is only one record (No. 228) of this dynasty included in the Volume.  It belongs to the reign of Vira-Ballala II and is dated in his regnal year 17, Prabhava, Margasira su. 11, Monday.  The cyclic year Prabhava corresponded to A.D. 1207-08 but the other details mentioned do not agree with this year while in the previous year, viz., Kshaya, they regularly correspond to A.D. 1206, November 13.  This, therefore, seems to be the intended date of the record.  According to this reckoning, the commencement of Vira-Ballala’s reign would be A.D. 1190-91, one year earlier than the date suggested by Fleet.  If, however, we calculate the initial year on the basis of 1207-08 as the 17th regnal year, it would fall in A. D 1191-92 as suggested by Fleet.

continued


[1] In ARSIE, 1938-39, APP. E., No. 50, regnal year 5 has been wrongly read in this record.   There is however, no mention of any regnal year in the record.  So the inference, based on this wrong reading, that Bijjala began his independent rule as early as A.D. 1153, is unwarranted (Kan Sa. Par. Patr., Vol. 37.)  There is no need to revise Fleet’s opinion, based on Bijjala’s Annigere inscription of his 2nd regnal year Isvara, that the first year was counted from the year Dhatu corresponding to A.D. 1156-57.

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