- KARNATAKA INSCRIPTIONS
already noted above, the earliest member of this dynasty
mentioned in the inscriptions of this Volume is
Bijjarasa referred to as a feudatory of Somesvara I in
A.D. 1057 in a record (No. 37) from Chadchan in the Indi
Taluk of the Bijapur District. His son Kannamarasa or Krishnaraja is represented
by a single inscription (No. 133), which also comes from
the same place and is dated Saka 988 or A.D. 1067.
He is stated to have been ruling from mangaliveda
an, through he is associated with feudatory titles like
Samadhigata-pancha-maha-sabda and Mahamandalesvara, no
over-lord is mentioned in the record.
The inscription is important in that it is the
only record of Kannamarasa or Krishnaraja discovered so
far. He was
the great-grandfather of Bijjala II who usurped the
the father of Bijjala II, is represented by one record
(No. 134). It is dated in his 12th regnal year, Saumya, which
corresponded to A. D. 1129.
Though this year falls right within the reign
period of theChalukya king Somesvara III, Permadi does
not mention any over-lord nor are any feudatory titles
associated with him.
This may suggest that he was trying to assert his
the concluding portion of the record, it is stated that
would protect the gift.
But it is not certain who this Vikramatiya living
in A.D. 1129 could be.
next ruler, Bijjala II, who was responsible for usurping
the Chalukya kingdom, is represented by sixteen records
in the Volume. The
earliest of them (No. 135) comes from Chikkalgi and is
dated in the year.
Isvara, Karttika su. 9, Monday, regularly corresponding
to October 14, A.D. 1157.
The record does not mention the ruling monarch
Taila III but straightaway applies imperial titles to
the Bijjala. The
non-mention of the Chalukya overlord and the assumption
of the imperial titles would indicate that Bijjala was
trying to declare himself independent and that he was
probably acknowledged as such as early as A.D. 1157. in
some suggested by the Lakshmesvara inscription (No. 137)
wherein the genealogy of the Chalukya king Taila
III is given, though the formal preamble indicating the
rule or the latter king is not there.
This would show that Bijjala did acknowledge some
sore of suzerainty of Taila III, though he did not
hesitate to record is own regnal reckoning.
Chikkalgi inscription is also interesting in that it
associates Bijjala’s son (Kumara) Mailugi in the rule
of the kingdom. This
is the earliest mention, of this prince.
feudatory of Bijjala is introduced in the person of
Mahapradhana Lakshmideva-Dandayanaka as the governor of
the 36-village-division in a record (No. 138) from
Bhuyar dated in the 7th regnal year of the
king, falling in the year Chitrabhanu or A.D. 1162.
If the chief Lakshmideva-dandanayaka is identical
with lakshmidevayya-dandanayaka who was an officer under
Sankama in A.D. 1178, then an earlier date is furnished
for him in the Bhuyar record under review.
feudatory of Bijjala, in the person of
Sridhara-dandanayaka mentioned in No. 144, dated in A.D.
1166, is evidently the same for whom Fleet found the
dates A.D. 1157 and 1162 and suggested that he was
governing the territory in the neighbourhood of Anigere.
The record under review expressly states that he
was governing Huligere-300 and supplies a later date,
viz. , A.D. 1166 for him.
It also informs us that he was the son of
Hariyanayya-dandadhisa and Muddikavve and the grandson
of Dasiraja and Dugganavve.
son Rayamurari Sovideva, in whose favour the former is
known to have abdicted the throne, is represented by
thirteen inscriptions in this Volume. The earliest of them (No. 151) is dated in A.D. 1168 while
the latest (No. 159) bears the date A.D. 1176. The
former record mentions his feudatory Mahamandalesvara
Singidevarasa fo the Silahara family as governing
record (No. 154) refers to the king’s feudatory
Dandanayaka Kumara Bammidevarasa as governing Sagara,
Hagarittage and Elamela divisions and under him,
Mahamandalesvara Singidevarasa, apparently the person of
this name mentioned above, was administering Elamelu.
or Mallikarjuna is represented as an independent ruler
in three records, Nos. 164, 165 and 166.
Two of them (Nos. 164 and 166) are dated in his
second regnal year Durmukhi, corresponding to A.D. 1176,
thereby indicating that he commenced his rule from the
year Manmatha or A.D. 1175.
He is mentioned as a prince (Kumara) in two
records (Nos. 135 and 143) of his father Bijjala dated
in A.D. 1157 and 1166 respectively.
The former mentions him as associated with his
father in the rule of the kingdom.
No. 165, dated Saka 1098 or A.D. 1176, states
Mallikarjuna was ruling from his capital at Masanur.
are two inscription (Nos. 167 and 168) of Sankama and
one (No. 169) of Ahavamalla.
No. 167 is dated in the king’s 3rd
regnal year, Vilambi, corresponding to A.D. 1179, which
shows that his first year was Durmukhi or A.D. 1176.
No. 168 states that the king was ruling from his
capital at Kalyana.
Ahavamalla’s inscription is dated in his 4th
regnal year, Sobhakrit, corresponding to A.D. 1183 and
accordingly his first year would be Sarvari or A.D.
word may be said about the capitals (nelevidu) of the
Kalachurya rulers as gleaned from their inscriptions in
this Volume. While
Krishna or Kannama had his capital at Mangaliveda (no.
133), no less than three places are mentioned as the
capitals of Bijjala II, viz., Mangaliveda(no. 149(,
Kalyana (nos. 138 and 142, and Kangara (no. 143).
Sovideva also had three capitals, Mangaliveda
(nos. 151 and 158), Seleyahalli (No. 154) and Modeganur
(No. 162). The
records of Mallugi and Sankama mention Masanur (no. 165)
and Kalyana (No. 168) respectively.
is represented by eight records in the Volume.
While editing his Bimbal inscription (no. 172), I
have shown that the epigraphs of this king suggest
different dates ranging from A.D. 1184-85 to A.D.
1187-88 as his initial year.
The present inscription shows that he started his
reign in Visvavasu or A.D. 1185-86.
may review here two inscription (Nos. 173 and 174)
coming from Bekkinal and Kalkeri in the Sindgi Taluk of
the Bijapur District.
Both of them are dated in the second regnal year
of a certain Viranarayanadeva and give the same details,
viz., Plavanga, Kartiga, Purnima, Monday, while one of
them (No. 174) also mentions the Saka year 1109. The details of the date regularly correspond to Monday, the
19th October, A.D. 1187.
We are not informed about the name of the family
or dynasty to which this Viranarayanadeva belonged.
Both the inscriptions record certain gifts by a
certain Echibhatta who purchased them from Dandanayaka
Vikramaditya, the prabhu of Kalkere.
No. 174 further informs us that Mahamandalesvaa
Viruprasa administering Hagaritage-nadu at the time.
We know from other records belonging to the reign
of Bhillama that Mahamandalesvara Viruparasa and
Dandahipa Vikramanka were his feudatories.
Therefore Viranarayana of the inscriptions under
review has to be identified with Bhillama who must have
borne that epithet in addition to the usual
yadavanarayana. This Viranarayana must be distinguished from the Kalachurya
kingAhavamalla who also bore the tile Viranarayana but
whose initial regnal year corresponds to Saka 1102 or
inscription (No. 178) belonging to the reign of Bhillama
bears the date Saka 1115, paridhavi, Bhadrapada ba. 8,
Monday, while his son Jaitugi is represented as a ruling
king in a record (no. 180), dated Saka 1114, Paridhavi,
Pushya ba. 10, Sunday.
Paridhavi corresponded to Saka 1114 expired or
Saka 1115 current.
From these two records it would be clear that
Jaitugi must have ascended the throne between the 31st
August and 21st December of A.D. 1192.
Mahamandalesvara Viruparasa and Dandanayaka Vikramaditya
or Vikramanka referred to above, the records of Bhillama
mention the following important officials not noticed by
are Mahapradhana, Dandanayaka Mayideva, Mahamandalesvara
Virabandugidevarasa and Mahamandalesvaras Bandarasa and
Gonarasa of the Selara or Silahara family.
noted above, Jaitugi’s earliest inscription (No. 180)
is dated the 21st December, A.D. 1192, while
his latest date in the records of this Volume is
furnished by No. 185 which mentions his 11th
regnal year, Durmati, corresponding to A.D. 1201.
Fleet observed that the earliest epigraphic
reference to the capital city of Devagiri (modern
Daulatabad near Aurangabad in Maharashtra) is to be
found is a record of A.D. 1210 mentioned as the capital
of Singhana, the son and successor of Jaitugi.
But No. 180 of A.D. 1192 noticed above informs us
that Jaitugi was ruling from his capital at Devagiri,
thereby providing an earlier, or rather the earliest,
epigraphic reference so for, to that city.
Among the officers of Jaitugi, not noticed by
Fleet, may be mentioned Mahapradhana
Soyideva-dandanayaka, Dandanayaka Mayideva (probably the
same who is mentioned under Bhillama) and
next king, Singhana, is represented in this Volume by no
less than twenty-eight records.
The earliest of them (No. 186) is dated Saka
1127, Raktakshi or A.D. 1204 while the latest (No. 205)
bears the date Saka 1169, Plavanga or A.D. 1247.
Bhillama’s initial yielded 3 or 4 different dates,
Suggest at least six different reckonings for the
commencement of his rule.
They may be shows as follows.
year and equivalent
= A.D. 1208-09
||16 = A.D. 1215
||41 = A.D .1245
|16 = A.D. 1224
||32 = A.D. 1240}
||14 = A.D. 1223
||7 = A.D. 1217
is indeed difficult to account for these different
186 records certain gifts, made by the king, in the name
and for the merit of one Chiladevi.
The relationship of this lady is not indicated
but it is not unlikely that she was a queen of Singhana.
She appears to be the real donor of the gift.
inscription of Singhana mention the following
feudatories and officials, not noticed by Fleet.
Dandanayaka Kapiladeva who, in A.D. 1208, was governing
Tardavadi-nadu (no. 188); Mahamandalesvara Bommidevarasa
of the Silara or Silahara family (No. 189); the king’s
minister (mantri) Vasudeva (No. 199); Mahapradhana
Madhavadeva-nayaka and his son Kesavadeva nayaka (No.
who, in A.D. 1227, was governing Karnata-vishaya (No.
198) and bore the title Konkana-chakravarti (No 206) is
apparently the same person whom Fleet mentions as a
feudatory of Singana’s son Kannaradeva or Krishna and
who was the elder brother of Bichana, the famous general
of Singhana. Nos.
202 and 206 inform us that Mallisetti had two sons
called Chavunda and Reva.
inscriptions (Nos. 202 and 205) reveal interesting
information regarding the family of Bichana or Bichiraja
referred to above.
We learn that he was the son of Chikkadeva and
Chikkambika and the younger brother of Mallisetti.
He had a daughter by name Rajaladevi and since he
had no sons, he adopted Payisetti as his son.
This Payisetti is stated to be the real son of
Nakisetti of the Roddamane family.
The genealogy may be tabulated as follows:
216 of Kannara’s reign is dated in his 4th
regnal year coupled with the year Sadharana-samvatarasa
corresponding to A.D. 1250-51. According to his reckoning, his first year would be Plavanga
corresponding to A.D. 1247-48 which is also the dates
suggested by Fleet.
brother Mahadeva has two records in the Volume, viz.
Nos. 219 and 220. The
former is dated in his 10th regnal year,
Sukla, corresponding to A.D. 1269, thereby yielding A.D.
1260-61 as his first year which is also the date
suggested by Fleet. But
the other record dated in the next year Pramoduta
is equated with the king’s 12th regnal year
which would indicate his first year as A.D. 1259-60.
last ruler Ramachandra is represented by six records.
Nos. 222 and 223 are dated in his regnal years
17, Sarvajit, Kartika, and 18, Sarvadhari, Pushya,
corresponding to A. 1287, October and A.D. 1289,
This reckoning yields A.D. 1271-72 as his first
year which agrees with the date suggested by Fleet.
In No. 225 of
A.D. 1304 a certain Chalava who is described as
‘born in the royal family (raja-vamsodbhava) figures
as a donee of a gift.
The two officers mentioned therein, viz.,
Mahamandalesvara Jaitapala-deva-rane and Sarvadhikari
Vithaladevanayaka were not known before.
Similarly, No. 226, dated in A.D. 1306 introduces
a hitherto unknown feudatory of the king named
Mahapradhana Sarvadhikari Ranganatha at whose command a
gift of land was made.
important feudatory of Ramachandra is brought to light
by No. 221, dated Saka 1205 or A.D. 1283.
He is Mahamandalesvara Vikramadityadeva of the
Gutta family of Guttavolal. This Vikramaditya is mentioned apparently as the son of
Jogama who is stated to have been the younger brother of
Gutta and the son of Mailambika.
Mailakbika’s sons Gutta and Jogama are
evidently identical with Gutta III and Joyideva III who
is mentioned by Fleet and by Fleet and for whom a date
in A.D. 1265 is furnished by an inscription from
Chaudadampur, belonging to the reign of Mahadva.
The inscription under review thus carries the
pedigree by one more generation in the person of
Mahamandalesvara Vikramaditya, son of Jogama or Joyideva.
The record also reveals the name of his wife
Padmaladevi for the first time.
is only one record (No. 228) of this dynasty included in
the Volume. It
belongs to the reign of Vira-Ballala II and is dated in
his regnal year 17, Prabhava, Margasira su. 11, Monday.
The cyclic year Prabhava corresponded to A.D.
1207-08 but the other details mentioned do not agree
with this year while in the previous year, viz., Kshaya,
they regularly correspond to A.D. 1206, November 13.
This, therefore, seems to be the intended date of
the record. According
to this reckoning, the commencement of Vira-Ballala’s
reign would be A.D. 1190-91, one year earlier than the
date suggested by Fleet.
If, however, we calculate the initial year on the
basis of 1207-08 as the 17th regnal year, it
would fall in A. D 1191-92 as suggested by Fleet.