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Saturday, November 19, 2005


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

VOLUME XIX - INSCRIPTIONS OF PARAKESARIVARMAN

No. 211

(A.R. No. 216 of 1926)

Kilappaluvur, Udaiyarapalayam Taluk, Tiruchirapalli District

On the north wall of the central shrine, Pasupatisvara temple

This records the sale of 2 ma of land to Chandesvara-Bhatara in the temple of Maravanisvara at Siru-Paluvur a brahmadeya Kunra-kurram for 8 kalanju of fire tested pure’ gold by two brothers Iravi Vadugan and Iravi-Dattan of Tirunallur a brahmadeya in Maraik-kurram.  The name of the temple is suggestive of its origin to a Palavettaraiyar chief Maravan Kandan in the reign of Parantaka I whose inscription (No. 278 of 1926) is also found here.  In early times the transactions of Siva temple were all done in the name of Chandesvara.

No. 211-A

(A.R. No. 219-A of 1926)

On the west wall of the same shrine

This is an unfinished inscription engraved near No. 219 of 1926 (No 237) which mentions two brothers Varakkiyan Iravi Vadugan and Iravi Dattan and Siru-Paluvur a brahmadeya in Kunra-kurram.

No. 212

(A.R. No. 237 of 1926)

On the south wall of the central shrine, Vatamulesvara temple in the same village

This records a gift of 12 sheep left in charge of the sabha of Siru-Paluvur by Raman Koviyar wife of Paluvettaraiyar Vikramaditya for burning a lamp in the temple of Tiruvalandurai-Mahadeva, with a pidi of ghee supplied every day.  This is probably an inscription of Uttama-Chola.

No. 213

(A.R. No. 145 of 1928)

Tiruppalanam, Tanjavur Taluk, Tanjavur District

On the north wall of the central shrine, Apatsahayesvara temple

This records a gift of 990 sheep for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tiruppalanam with an ulakku of ghee every day, by Tiruvadi Ayiravan of Nandipuram alias Ayirattali.  Nandipuram the present Palaiyaru is known to have been a capital of the Chola kings and an important town and is frequently referred to in inscriptions. 

No. 214

(A.R. No. 176 of 1929)

Govindaputtur, Udaiyarpalayam Taluk, Tiruchirapalli District

On the south wall of the central shrine, Gangajatadhara temple

This is evidently an inscription of Vikrma-Chola as it refers to a channel called after his father Kulottunga.  It records an exemption from the taxes kudimai, silvari, etc.  on 121 (veli) and odd of the devadana village Velur belonging to the temple Vijayamangalam-udaiya-Mahadevar, granted by the assembly (perunguri-perumakkal) of Parantaka-Chaturvedimangala, on receipt of 230 kalanju of gold from the temple.  It also records an extra gift of 1600 kuli of tax-free land to the same temple for growing kuvalai (lotus) flowers for worship to the god.

No. 215

(A.R. No. 125 of 1931)

Tiruchchatturai, Tanjavur Taluk, Tanjavur District

On the north wall of the central shrine, Odanavanesvara temple

This records a gift of sheep for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tiruchchorrutturai with an ulakku of ghee every day by a shepherded of the place named Kilavan Tattan, who left the gift in charge of an other local shepherd.

No. 216

(A.R. No. 436 of 1904)

Vedarnyam, Tirutturaipundi Taluk, Tanjore District

On a pillar in the mandapa in front of the central shrine, Vedaranyesvara temple

This records a gift of 90 sheep for a perpetual lamp in the temple of Tirumaraikkadudaiyar on behalf of Senan alias Maratakasetti a merchant of Karuvur (the present Karur), by the community Tigai (Disai) Ayirattainnurruvar.  The origin of this body is not clear.  As its name implies, it must have comprised a membership of 1500 individuals or families.  Karuvur is mentioned frequently in inscriptions, the earliest reference being found in the Brahmi record from Pugalur of about the 3rd century B.C. (A.R. No. 343 of 1928).

No. 217

(A.R. No. 475 of 1904)

On a pillar in the mandapa in front of the Tyagarja shrine in the same temple

This is much damaged.  It records a gift of 90 sheep for burning a lamp in the temple with an ulakku of ghee daily.

No. 218

(A.R. No. 524 of 1905)

Tiruvellarai, Tiruchirapalli Taluk, Tiruchirapalli District

On the rock in front of the Siva (Jambunatha) temple

This record an endowment of 25 kalanju of gold deposited with the mula-parishad (assembly) of tiruvellarai for a perpetual lamp in the temple of Tiruvanaikkal Perumanadigal by Kumaran Kon of Idaikkattur in Kiranur-nadu a division of Pandinadu, who was an officer under the Chola king.

No. 219

(A.R. No. 636 of 1905)

Tiruchchengodu, Tiruchchengodu Taluk, Salem District

On the rock to the east of the steps known as Arupadamabadi on  the Hill.

This records an endowment of 20 kalanju of gold deposited with the Tiruvonaganapperumakkal at Tiruchchengodu by one Arattan Nakkan’s son on behalf of Manikanti-Odaiyamandal a lady residing at Irodu (Erode), for feeding 20 Brahmanas (once) every month (probably on the Tiruvonam day).

No. 220

(A.R. No. 344 of 1906)

Tirumalpuram, Walajapet Taluk, North Arcot District

On he north, west and south walls of the central shrine, ruined Vishnu temple

This records and endowment of 15 kalanju of gold by Uttamadani a resident of Kaduvaykkudi to the temple of Perumanadigal at Govidapadi for the purpose of feeding one Brahmana in the temple after the offering to the deity.

No. 221

(A.R. No. 21 of 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

On the west wall of the central shrine, Sivayoganathasvami temple

This records some provision made by an oil-merchant by name Subrahmanyan of Kilmandur residing at Tiruvisalur, for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple with on ulakku of ghee every day.  The temple management and the perunguri perumakkal of the village undertook this maintenance.

No. 222

(A.R. No. 177 of 1907)

Tiruppalatturai, Tiruchirapalli Taluk, Tiruchirapalli District

On the north wall of the central shrine, Admilesvara temple

The details of the date viz., Mithuna, Saturdya, Chitta, give the possible equivalent A.D. 979, June 7 in the reign of Uttama-chola.

The inscription states that the assembly (perunguri-sabhai) of Uttamasili-chaturvedimangalam on the southern bank (of the Kaveri) received 4 ma of tax-free land within the boundaries of the village, from one Murtti Manaviran of Pirambil in Pattina-kurram for the formation of a madaivilagam (round the temple) in exchange for (a smaller area of) half a ma of madaivilagam already formed, the income from which was endowed by manviran for the daily offerings and worship to the image of Suryadeva set up by him in the temple.  The inscription mentions a hall called Dayaparan-ambalam in which the assembly met for transacting their business.

No. 223

(A.R. No. 179 of 1907)

On the same wall

This records an agreement given by the temple servants of Tiruppatturai to supply 16 ndi of ghee for burning a light on the day of Karttigai in Karttika month every year, for the 16 sheep they received from a resident of the village.  This seems to be assignable to the reign of Rajendra-Chola I.

No. 224

(A.R. No. 210 of 1907)

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tajnavur District

On the north wall of the central shrine, Mahalingasvami temple

This is an incomplete and damaged inscription. It seems to record an endowment of land after purchase, for burning a lamp and for offerings and worship to the goddess in the temple, by a resident of Tanjavur.  Mention is made of a field called Irumudi-Chola-vayakkal.  This is probably-assignable to the reign of Rajendra Chola I.

No. 225

(A.R. No. 331 of 1907)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbhakonam Taluk, Tanjavur District

On the south wall of the central shrine, Soivayoganathasvami temple

This is built in and damaged.  It records a gift of 90 sheep for a perpetual lamp in the temple by one Suyambuvan (Svayambhu) (a member?) of the body called Ayirattorunurruvar.

No. 226

(A.R. No. 573 of 1908)

This is the same as No. 223 above.

No. 227

(A.R. No. 421 of 1909)

Siddhalingamadam, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District

On the east wall of the prakara of the Vyaghrapadesvara temple

This records a provision made by a Vaikhanasa resident of the village by name Trivikraman Narayanan for the supply of 36 nali of oil once every year to burn during the seven days of the festival in the temple.

No. 228

(A.R. No. 134 of 1911)

Tiruvaramesvaram, Mannargudi Taluk, Tanjavur District

On the west wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine, Ramanathesvara temple

This records a gift of 2 kasu for burning a twilight lamp in the evening in the temple of Tiruviramisvaram by a devaradiyal attached to the temple.  Five servants of the temple who received the amount agreed to maintain the lamp.  This may be assigned to Uttama-Chola.

No. 229

(A.R. No. 393 of 1913)

Erumbur, chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District

On the north wall of the central shrine, Kadambavanesvara temple

This is an incomplete inscription.  It records a sale of seven ma of land irrigated by the ‘western tank’ with exemption of taxes, by the sabha of Urumur a devadana and brahmadeya of Nalvayalur-kurram on the north bank (of the river) for 10 kalanju of gold received by them from the temple of Siru-Tirukkyil, Perumanadigal.

No. 230

(A.R. No. 394 of 1913)

On the same wall

This records a gift of 90 sheep for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Sirutalikkoyil-Mahadeva at Urumur a devana and brahmadeya in Nalvayalur-kurram on the north bank (of the river), by a lady named Pichchaiyan Aruvangi.

No. 231

(A.R. No. 78 of 1914)

Kamarasavalli, Udaiyarpalayam, Tiruchirapalli District

On the south wall of the central shrine, Karkotakesvara temple

The details of the date given here are said toyed eight equivalents between A.D. 948 and 982.  (M.E.R. for 1915, App. F).  Of these A.D. 965 and 979 seem to be the most probable ones since the dates of accession of Aditya II and Uttama-Chola are A.D. 956 and A.D. 969 respectively.  This inscription registers the provision made as jivita by the perunguri-perumakkal (assembly) of Sri Kamaravalli-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya on the northern bank of the river towards the conduct of the sribali and tiruppalli eluchchi services in the temple of Tirunallu-Paramesvara.  The urvariyam (committee) of the assembly for each year was authorised to collect the paddy for this purpose through the temple servants at the prescribed rates of a tuni and padakku (on virivu) and a kuruni (on anai) on each ma of land under the Kodandarama-vayakal during every harvest.

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