II, Irivabedanga Satyasraya, Jayasimha II | Somesvara I & II
VI | Somesvara
III, Jagadekamalla II
Taila II, who restored the Chalukya sovereignty after overthrowing the
Rashtrakutas, we have two records in this volume.
One of them (No. 40) dated aka 915 (A.D. 994) says that he was
ruling from his capital Manyakheda.
This would show that Manyakheda (modern Malkhed), which was
formerly the capital of the Rashtrakutas, continued to enjoy that
position for some time after the Chalukyas made Kalyana their capital.
The second inscription (No. 41) which is dated Saka 918 (A.D.
996) indicates that the title Bhuvanaikamalla was applied to the
prince Dasavarma who, me know, was a son of Taila.
This title was not known to have been given to him so far.
the inscriptions of Jayasimha II three wives of Kundaraja, who
is described as ‘the son’ of Irivabedanga, are mentioned.
They are Jogabbarasi, Kundaladevi and Pampadevi. Jogabbarasi
is stated to have been managing the village of Ajjadi in Saka 941 (A.D.
1019) (No. 44).
Kundaladevi was governing Banavasi Twelve-thousand and Payve-nadu
conjointly with her husband in Saka 950 (A.D. 1028) (No. 47).
No. 52, the date of which is lost, states that Pampadevi was
administering the village of Jidugur.
It is interesting to observe that while one of the ladies was
sharing the governance of the province with her husband, the other two
were independently administering two villages.
inscription of Jayasimha which gives some new information regarding the
chiefs of the Matura family may be notice here.
This record (No. 43) of A.D. 1017, gives the names of the chiefs
of this family for five generations. But their relation with one another
is not definite in all cases on account of the damaged condition of the
They are: Dosi, Sinda, Santivarma, Payyara, his wife Charakabbe
and their son Siriyagara.
We know that two members of this family namely, Machiyarasa
and Santivarma, were holding responsible positions under the
Rashtrakutas in the 10th century A.D.
Since Santivarma’s dates range from A.D. 972 to 992, it is not
improbable that he is not different from the Santivazrma of the present
It may not be out of place to mention here another member of this
family, namely, Vijayaditya, who was a subordinate of Vikramaditya VI in
the A.D. 1088 (No. 93).
In addition to Vijayaditya this record speaks of Siriyagaradeva
who by his name appears to be also of ht Mature family.
The earliest notice of this family seems to be found in a record
of 9th century A.D. of a Rashtrakuta king, whose name and
date are lost (No. 38).
The name of this family is spelt as Mattara in that record.
the exploits of Kundaraja recounted in one of the inscriptions (No. 44)
the following are noteworthy.
He is stated to have undertaken to burn the (city of) Muggeri, to
humble the pride of Mummuni and to force the lord of Kanyakubja to flee
to the Himalayas.
It is difficult to identify the Mummuni mentioned here.
earliest date we have for the only Mummuni we know of , is A.D.
is the Silahara prince of Northern Konkan.
Since the record under review is of A.D. 1019, it cannot be
ascertained if the two Mummunis are identical.
the inscriptions of Somesvara I, No. 68, dated Saka 985 (A.D.
1062), mentions Indrakesiyarasa of the Manaleyara lineage
as a manneya.
Evidently he is identical with Indrakesi, who is stated in
the Prince of Wales Museum record to have made a grant of land in A.D.
the present record would extend his period by two years.
feudatory of a well-known family is referred to in No. 66.
He is Mahamandalesvara Toyiladeva of the Kadamba
dynasty (of Hangal), who was governing banavasi Twelve-thousand and
Panungal Five-hundred in Saka 984 (A.D. 1062).
Though this name is not found among the already know members of
this family, it is not improbable that he is the same as Toyimadeva, the
son of king of Somesvara’s aunt Akkadevi, for he (Toyimadeva) was
governing the same divisions in A.D. 1064.
It may be noted here that at the time of making the grant
recorded in this inscription, Toyiladeva was residing in the camp (irke-vidu)
This information is interesting as it would show that
Payitthana (Pratishthana) which was the capital of the Satavahanas as
early as the 1st century B.C. continued to be an important
place even in the 11th century A.D.
who was governing
Belvola Three-hundred from Annigere, as a subordinate of Somesvara I,
bore the title Cholangonda (No. 70).
From another undated record of the same reign, it is seen that
one of the deities at Annigere had the name of
Cholangonda-Traipurushadeva, apparently because it was installed by
This title Cholangonda no doubt refers to one of the
victories gained against the Cholas by Somesvara during a series of
encounters that took place in his reign between him and the Cholas.
inscription of Somesvara II published in this volume do not add
much to our knowledge of his reign .
However one of them (No. 74) contains one or two items of useful
It introduces an officer named Madhuvarasa who was the Kannada-sandhivigrahi
and Dandanayaka of the king.
He bears a number of epithets among which Visalar-ankusa is
Evidently he acquired title after success in some conflict with
his adversary, named Visala.
We know that a ruler named Visala of the imperial Chahamana
dynasty flourished about this period, He may be placed in A.D. 1070
since he had married Rajadevi, a daughter of the Paramara king Bhoja (circa.
From one other epithet of Madhuvarasa., viz.,
Chalukya-rajy-abhyudaya-karana it may be gathered that he played an
important part in firmly establishing the Chalukya suzerainty,
apparently by quelling the disturbances which, occurred during this
is known to have been the governor of the province of Banavasi
Twelve-thousand and the district of Santalige Thousand in 1112-13 under
Vikramaditya VI is found to be in charge of these regions as early as
A.D. 1074 as a subordinate of Somesvara II (No. 78).
Another feudatory of this king, viz., Marasimha of
the Silahara family is stated to be governing Kumdi
Three-thousand and MirimjeThree-thoudand districts in A.D. 1074 (No.
he is to be identified with Marasimha of this family for whom A.D. 1058
is the only known date.
The present record would therefore extend his period by sixteen
inscriptions of Vikramaditya VI are, as usual, the largest in
number but only a few of them are of some value.
In one of these inscriptions (No. 88) dated Chalukya-Vikrama year
5 (A.D. 1080), Mahamandalesvara Channa, who is described as the
subordinate of Yuvaraja Jayasimha is credited with the
subjugation of Goggi of Paive and Malapa Nagavarma.
Though these two names occur among the Silaharas of Northern
Konkan and the Kadambas of Hangal respectively, the period in which they
flourished is too early for that of Channa.
Jayasimha is stated to be holding sway over the extensive
territory which was bounded by Perdore (i.e., the river
Krishna) on the north and the ocean in the other three directions.
chiefs of Jatachola lineage are described in an undated
inscription (No. 112) of this reign, as the hriday-avalambi (who
were favored by affection, i.e., favorite subordinates) of
the Guttas. The following genealogy of these chiefs is given in
here to Genealogy...
to the fact that the Gutta chief Mallideva is
spoken of as the subordinate of Mahapradhana Govindarasa, a
well-known officer of Vikramaditya VI, Fleet has assigned this inscription
to circa. A.D. 1115.
This Jatachola, from whom the family mentioned above traces its
descent, may in all probability be the same as Jatachoda who is
mentioned as the eponymous ancestor of the Telugu Chodas in their
In some of these Karikala is mentioned as the son of Jatachoda.
This Karikala is considered by scholars to be identical with
Karikala famous in Tamil literature of the Sanga age.
He is placed by Prof. Nilakanta Sastri in circa. A.D. 190
and by the late Raj Bahadur V. Venkayya in the end of the 5th
Mallideva of the Gutta family referred to above had younger
brother named Joma is revealed from an inscription at Honnatti
(No. 124) dated in the Chalukya Vikrama year 48 (A.D. 1124).
In the genealogical lists of this family which have so far come
to light the name of this Joma has not been found.
The date A.D. 1124, now discovered for him, would show that A.D.
1115, the date which Fleet suggested for his elder brother Mallideva
(cf. No. 112) is not wide of the mark.
The chieftain Joma is stated to be holding the manneya of
Beluhuge Seventy and Bennevur Twelve, when Mahamandalesvara
Simhanadeva was governing Seguna-desa, Paliyanda Four
thousand and the agrahara of Honnavatti.
Though the family of this Simhana is not specified in the
record, it can be safely surmised that he was a Yadava chief, as
he was governing Seuna-desa. We
know from the Vrata-khanda of Hemadri that a Simharaja of the
Yadava family “brought an elephant of the name of Karpuratilaka from
Lanjipura and thus did a piece of service to Paramardin”.
This Paramardin has been identified with the Chalukya king
It is therefore clear that Simhanadeva of the present record is
the same as Simharaja mentioned by Hemadri.
scholars thought that Ayyana, the younger brother of Vikramaditya
V, did not rule, but one of the inscriptions of the reign of
Vikramaditya VI (No. 89), dated Chalukya-Vikrama year 5 (A.D. 1080)
stated distinctly that he did rule.
According to that record the kings Taila, Sattimadeva,
Vikramanska, Ayyana, Jayasimha, Ahavamalla and his son Somesvara ruled
in regular succession (kramadimide).
This statement would support the view expressed by Dr. A.
Venkatasubbiah that Ayyana ruled, though for a short time, and the
present inscription is an addition to Ayyana ruled, though for a short
time, and the present inscription is an addition to the list of records
already noticed by him as mentioning Ayyana as a reigning king.
here: Among the more important officers under Vikramaditya VI...
are only a few noticeable inscriptions of the time of Bhulokamall
Somesvara III, Of particular interest is the one (No. 135) mentioning Mahaprachanda-Dandanayaka
It will be easily recognized that this name Holakesi is a variant
of Polekesi (Pulakesi).
The meaning of this name, which was borne by two illustrious
rulers of the Chalukya dynasty has baffled scholars.
Various explanations have been offered in deriving the etymology
of this word.
Most of these explanations take th first half of th world to be puli,
meaning “tiger” in Kannada and the second half to be Sankrit kesin
meaning “haired”, the two halves making the meaning
“tiger-haired” or “having a coat of short, thick and close hair
like that of a tiger”.
A verse in the Kauthem grant of Vikamaditya V would suggest that
the name signifies “one by hearing whose name the hair of the hearers
stand on end as with joy”, by connecting the first part of the name
with the Sanskrit word pulaka (horriplation).
scholar derives the first half of the word from the Sanskrit root pul
meaning “to grow” or “to be great” and takes kesi to mean
a lion and explains the whole word as “the great lion”.
the earliest form of the name is Polekesi and, as suggested by Fleet, is
in all probability the original form.
And it is worth noting that it is this form which even kielhorn
So an attempt is made here to interpret this original form
Pole in Kannada means impurity of child-birth, i.e., of
the natal chamber, and in Kannda the word Kesi as a shortened
form of Kesava is found not only in literature but also in inscriptions.
For example, the author of the famous Kannad grammar Sabdamanidarpana
is Kesiraja and he also calls himself Kesava.
In one of the inscriptions an officer of the Klachurya monarch
Bijjala is called by the alternative names of Kesava, Kesiraja and
An inscription of the Chalukya king Somesvara I mentions a
general named Kesava-gavunda, who is also referred to therein as
Kesi-gavunda and Kesi-raja.
So the expression Polekesi can be taken to mean “he who was
like Kesava, ie., Lord Krishna (in his prowess) even in the natal
And we know that according to the Puranas Lord Krishna
exhibited his superhuman qualities even in the natal chamber.
So evidently this ruler was given the name Polekesi because he
showed extraordinary qualities like Lord Kesava or Krishna even from the
time of his birth.
Accordingly we led to the conclusion that this name is Kannada
word meaning “one who resembled Krishna in prowess from
And this name Polekesi, as explained here, is quite appropriate
in the case of one who was the real founder of the Chalukyan kingdom and
even more appropriate in the case of his famous grandson, the great
Pulakesin II, who struck terror even into the heart of the might monarch
of the north, Harshavardhana.
other inscriptions of Somesvara III deserve to be reviewed here relate
to the Kadamba chiefs of Hangal and they will be discussed in the
section dealing with those chiefs.
inscription (No. 145) of Perma Jagadekamalla, the successor of
Somesvara III, supplies a date which would show that the initial year of
Jagadekamalla’s reign commenced sometime before 10th March
This inscription cites the date as the 4th year of the
reign of Jaadekamalla, Durmati, Chaitra su. Padiva, Monday, solar
According to Swamikannu Pillai’s Indian Ephemeris, these
details regularly correspond to A.D. 1141, March 10, Monday.
But the initial year fixed by this record would push back the
date suggested by Fleet for the commencement of the reign of this king.
It is, however, difficult to reconcile this with the latest known
date for his predecessor Somesvara III falling in November-December
it may be pointed out that Dr. Venkatasubbaiah is of the opinion that
Jagadekamalla began to reign on 23rd December 1137.
A scion of the Bali family, named Boppagavunda is stated in one
of the inscriptions of this reign (No. 149) to have made, along with his
brothers, gifts to god Boppesvara of Makanur.
Apparently this Bali family is the same as the one mentioned in
some of the Sudi inscriptions, while editing which Dr. Barnett had
discussed the origin of this family.
there is nothing of special interest to be discussed in the inscriptions
of Taila III, we may pass on to the reign of the next Chalukya
King, i.e., Somesvara IV.
One of his inscriptions (No.161) dated Saka 1106 and the
third year of his reign shows that be began to count his regnal years
from sometime before 5th November 1182.
This would advance the beginning of his reign by a few months
before the date suggested for this event by Fleet.
Venkatasubbaiah, however, considers that this king ascended the
throne in A.D. 1184.
This inscription is of further interest on account of the fact
that in it figures a Yadava chief named Gomadeva as making
a gift to a god (name lost).
Among the early Yadavas of Sevundesa mentioned by Hemadri, a Govindaraja
He is the great grandson of Simharaja who was a subordinate of
Vikramaditya VI and for who we have the date A.D. 1124.
It is therefore not improbable that Gomadeva of the present
record is the same as Govindaraja.
The god to whom Gomadeva made a gift is stated in the same
inscription to have been installed by another Yadava chief called Hemmadideva
in the 10th year, Prabhava, of a king whose name is not fully
preserved; but he is in all likelihood Jagadekamalla(II), the tenth year
of whose reign is usually coupled with the cyclic year Prabhava.
We do not seem to have come across this Hemmadideva before.
Though it was known that Barmadeva, the mahapradhana of
Somesvara was instrumental in restoring the Chalukya sovereignty be
defeating the Kalachuryas, the inscription under review says clearly that
the Kalachurya king who suffered defeat was Simghana.
inscription (No. 169) which belongs to the Chalukya period, but which
does not refer itself to the reign of any particular king, is of some
It is dated in the Chalukya-Vikrama year 60 (A.D. 1135) and it
discloses the fact that Mahamandalesvara Brittiyarasa attacked
Hahanur (modern Havanur on the bank of the river Tungabhadra).
The name Bittiyarasa would suggest that he may be the Hoysala
prince Visnuvardana who was also called Bittideva and Bittiga, and whose
dates range from A.D. 1111 to 11141.
This surmise against strength by the fact that he made himself
bold enough to attack Hahanur leads to the conclusion that this prince
was trying even as early as A.D. 1135, to declare himself independent of
his suzerain, the Chalukya king.
family of some local importance which held the office of nalgamunda, practically
throughout the Chalukya period and even earlier, finds mention in some
of the records in thsis volume.
The members of this family which was called the Chikkamba-kula
(or-anvaya) were the nalgamundas of
the subdivision of Sattalige Seventy from about the 9th
century A.D. to the 12th.
This office was apparently herediatary and the following persons
figure in this capacity in the record published below:- Kuluga-gamunda
who flourished sometime during the 9th century A.D. is
mentioned in an undated Rashtrkuta inscription (No. 38).
Bijja was the nalgamunda under Krishna II in A.D. 901-02
Uttavayya was a subordinate of Chalukya Jayasimha II in A.D. 1033
Mahasamanta Goyimmarasa was holding this office in A.D.
1066 (No. 71) in the reign of Somesvara I and in A.D. 1074, during the
reign of Somesvara II (No. 78) No. 133 belonging to the reign of
Somesvara III mentions Mahasamanta Bammarasa as enjoying this
position in A.D. 1127.