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Friday, January 27, 2006


The Indian Analyst


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

BOMBAY KARNATAKA INSCRIPTIONS

VOLUME III

The Kalachuryas

There area a few noteworthy inscriptions of the Kalachuryas who usurped the Chalukya throne for a short time.  One of them (No. 176) is rather intriguing has much as it would seem to fix the initial year of the reign of Bijjala in A.D. 1150 though according to all other records which reckon his regnal years,  the first year of his reign has been held to be A.D. 1156-57.  In this record the date is given as follows: First year of the reign of Vira-Tribhuvanamalla Bijjala, Pramadicha, the full-moon day of the month of Sravana, Thursday.  But the cyclic year Pramadicha coincided with A.D. 1133 by which time Bijjala could not have come to power, for the earliest date known for him even as a subordinate of the Chalukyas is A.D. 1142[1].  The details of the date also do not work out correctly for this cyclic year.  On the other hand, if the cyclic year Pramadicha is regarded as a mistake for Pramoduta (Pramoda) the given  details would correspond regularly to A.D. 1150, August 10, Thursday.  If this was the intended date, Bijjala should be considered to have been independent on this date and as this year is cited as the first year of his reign, it follows that he usurped the Chalukya throne before this date.  But, as stated above, he seems to have counted his regnal years from A.D. 1156-57 in which year he is believed to have thrown off the yoke of Chalukya subordination.  We have however no means of verifying the statement of the present record.

Another inscription (No. 180) declared that he was on the throne in A.D. 1168.  However, as remarked by Fleet, Bijjala should have abducted the throne in favor of his son Sovideva in A.D. 1167.  But as indicated by the Balagamve inscription as well as the present one he should have continued to take an active part in the governance of the country even after abdication.  This view is further corroborated by an inscription (No. 186) of the time of Sovideva himself wherein Bijjala is spoken of as being engaged in putting down the insurgents.

Before Bijjala’s son Sovideva ascended the throne, Mailugi and Karna ruled for a short while.  According to one of the records under publication (No. 296) this Karna was the grandson of Mailugi and Karna’s uncle (kiriyayya i.e., younger paternal uncle) was Soma, i.e., Sovideva is given as Kandaradeva andKalideva; and while Sovideva is stated to be the paternal uncle (anu-tata) of Kandara who was the grandson of Bijjala, Kalideva is termed the grandson of Mailugi, who was the younger brother of Bijjala.  It would therefore appear that Karna, Kandaradeva and Kalideva are identical.  But the apparent discrepancy in Kandaradeva being called the grandson of Bijjala, and Karna or Kalideva being called the grandson of Mailugi, the younger brother of Bijjala, can easily be explained, for its is a common Hindu practice to call a brother’s son as “son” and the brother’s grandson as “grandson”.  It cannot be definitely said, however, whether Karna was actually the grandson of Mailugi or Bijjala.

No. 176

(B.K. No. 176 of 1933-34)

Kannur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Slab in Pattadadevara Hirematha

Bijjala – A.D. 1150

This inscription is dated in the 1st year of the reign of Tribhuvanamalla Bijjaladeva, Pramadicha, Sravana su. Purnima, Thursday.  This cyclic year Pramadicha which coincided with A.D. 1133, takers the beginning of Bijjala’s reign to as early a date as A.D. 1133.  But we have no other evidence to corroborate this.  So it is likely that Pramadicha is a mistake for Pramoduta which coincided with A.D. 1150.  In that year the details correspond regularly to A.D. 1150, August 10, Thursday.

It states that Kundaya and others made a gift of land to god Svayambhu Chandesvaradeva.  Mention is made of Masaneya-Sahani.

No. 177

(B.K. No. 10 of 1932-33)

Devageri, Haveri Taluk, Dharwar District

Broken slab built into the tirtha-kunda in the temple of Yellamma

Bijjala – A.D. 1160

This is damaged inscription refers itself to the reign of Tribhuvanaikavira Bijjanadeva and is dated in 1082 (apparently of the Sake era), Vikrama, Chaitra su 1, Monday, Uttarayana-samkranti.  The date is irregular.  The tithi corresponds to A.D. 1160, March 10, Thursday, not Monday as stated in the record and there was no Uttatrayana samkranti on that day.

No. 178

(B.K. No. 175 of 1933-34)

Kannur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Slab in the Pattadadevara Hirematha

Bijjala – A.D. 1163

This inscription is dated in the 7th regnal year of Tribhuvanamalla Bij[I]aladeva, Subhanu, Pushya su.[8], Monday, solar eclipse.  Evidently the date is wrong.

There was however a lunar eclipse on Pushya Purnima of the year Subhanu corresponding to A.D. 1163.  December 12, Thursday.  This probably is the date intended.

It records a grant of land to the god Svayambhu-Chandesvaradeva of Kamnavuri made with the permission of the king, by Maduvana-Nayaka, the Sarvadhikari of Pasayitu Kundaya-Nayaka, and by a certain Maila-gavunda.  Another grant made to god Narayanadeva is also recorded.

No. 179

(B.K. No. 171 of 1932-33)

Sangur, Haveri Taluk, Dharwar District

Slab in the temple of Virabhadra.

Bijjala – A.D. 1167

This inscription referring itself to the reign of Tribhuvanaikavira Bijja is dated in Saka 1089, Sarvajit, Vaisakha su. 10, Uttarayana-samkramana.  The week-day is lost.  In Saka 1089, Sarvajit, Vaisakha su. 10 fell on Sunday, April 30, A.D. 1167.  There war however no Samkramana on that day.

It records the gift of land made by Mahapradhana Heggade Bammarasa to god Brahmesvara, installed by hi, when Kaliyammarasa of the Jimutavahana lineage and Khachara family was administering Basavur Hundred-and-forty.  Bammarasa is stated to be governing Banavase Twelve-thousand.  It also records gift made by the officer (name lost) who was in charge of herjjunka and vaddaravula.  The gift was entrusted to Brahmarishi-Pandita, son of Kalideva-Pandita.  The genealogies of Bammarasa and Kaliyammarasa are given.  The inscription is much damaged.

No. 180

(B.K. No. 58 of 1934-35)

Nadiharalhalli, Ranebennur Taluk, Dharwar District

Slab set up in the temple of Somesvara

Bijjala – A.D. 1168

This worn out inscription refers itself to the reign of Vira-Bijjanadeva, and is dated in Saka 1090, Sarvadhari, Chaitra Purnima, Monday, lunar eclipse corresponding regularly to A.D. 1168, March 25, Monday.

It registers a grant of land made by Arasi-gavundi and Naga-gavunda to the Jinalaya constructed by the latter at Gottagadi.  The gift was made for feeding the Jaina monks and nuns.  The genealogy of Naga-gavunda is given.  A supplementary grant of money for burning a perpetual lamp to the god, made by Nagandeva is also recorded.  Vasupujiya-munindra of the Mula-samgha, Surashtha-gana and Chitrakutanvya and Ravanandi-munindra, probably his disciple, are also mentioned.

No. 181

(B.K. No. 184 of 1933-34)

Nidoni, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Slab built into the east wall of the Hanumantadeva temple

Sovideva A.D. – 1170

This inscription, referring itself to the reign of Rayamurari Soyideva, is dated in the 4th year of his reign, Vikrita, Ashdha su. 11, Friday, Dakshinayana-samkramana, corresponding to A.D., 1170 June 26, Friday.  The samkranti however fell on the following Saturday.  The king is stated to be ruling from his capital Modiganur.

It states that a certain Brahmin named Virana reconstructed the temples of Surya and Gavaresvara at Niduvani which is called uttammad-agrahara.  It records a gift of money made by Bandhudeva, son of Piriya Sovarasa, for the recitation of Sauparnma in the shrine of Somanathadeva.  The coins Lokhi-priyasrahi-gadyana and Lokkiya-visa are mentioned.

No. 182

(B.K. No. 156 of 1933-34)

Bijapur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Slab (A.34, left side) in the Museum

Sovideva-A.D. 1170

This short inscription is dated in the 4th year of the reign of Rayamurari Soyideva, Vikrita, Ashadha, Amavasya, Wednesday corresponding regularly to A.D. 1170 July 15, Wednesday.  It states that Mahamandalesvara Chaudarsa, the Manneya of Tardavadi made a gift of land to the school at Pauthage (modern Salotgi).

No. 183

(B.K. No. 59 of 1934-35)

Nadiharalhalli Ranebennur Taluk, Dharwar District

Slab set up in the temple of Somesvara

Sovideva – A.D. 1172

This inscription referring itself to the reign of Rayamurari Sovideva is dated in Saka 109[5], Nandana, Sravana su. Thursday, Samkranti.  The tithi is not given.  The Saka year given is the current year.  In suddha-paksha of Sravana in the year Nandana  corresponding to A.D. 1172, Thursday occurred twice, once on July 27th on which day the tithi was 5, and again on 3rd August on which day the tithi 13 ended at .71.  But since the Simha-samkramana occurred on the 27th July at .60, the former seems to be the intended date.

It states that when Mahapradhana Kesimayya-Dandanayaka was governing banavase Twelve-thousand, Davarasa, the Sunkavergade of Nariyalige and Nurumbada, Sumkavergade Bannadeva 

No. 184

(B.K. No. 160 of 1933-34)

Bijapur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Slab (A.35) in the Museum

Sovideva – A.D. 1173

This inscription refers itself to the reign of  Rayamuraru Bhujabala nall Somesvara, ruling from Mangalavada and is dated in Vijaya . . . . .  bahula [Amavasya], Monday, solar eclipse.  The Saka year is lost. During the reign of Somesvara, the cyclic year Vjiya coincided with A.D. 1173 and the solar eclipse, the only one in that year occurred on June 12, Tuesday.  This, probably, is the intended date.  The week-day, cited seems to be a mistake for Tuesday.

It records that when Mahamandalesvara Lakheyadeva was governing Tardavadi, Ghateyama-Sahani made a grant of land to the god Mulasthanadeva of Tamba.

No. 185

(B.K. No. 161 of 1933-34)

Bijapur, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Slab (A-38 right side) in the Museum

Sovideva – A.D. 1173

This inscription is dated in the [7th] regnal year of Rayamurari Somesvara, Vijaya, Pushya ba. 4, Tuesday, Uttarayana-samkramana, corresponding regularly to A.D. 1173, December 25, Tuesday. It records a grant of land and house sites made by ghateyama-Sahani to Sridharabhatta and others as the brahmapuri of Mulasthanadeva.

No. 186

(B.K. No. 79 of 1932-33)

Haveri, Haveri Taluk, Dharwar District

Slab set up in the temple of Purada Siddhesvara

Sovideva (Undated)

This badly damaged record refers to Rayamurari Somesvara and registers some gifts for the worship of god Siddhesa made by Mayiyana-Chamupati.  It mentions.  Siddhapayya-Dandanayaka, a subordinate of the king.

A reference has also been made to Bijjana as vanquishing the enemies.

No. 187

(B.K. No. 120 of 1933-34)

Babanagar, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Slab lying in the ruined temple of Siva

Sovideva (Date lost)

This worn out inscription seems to be a composite record of two grants for a Jinalaya built at Kannadige.  The first grant made by Bijjala is dated in Saka 1083, Vikrama, Pu[shya].  The Saka year cited is the current year.  The details preserved correspond to A.D. 1160, November-December.  A certain Jaina priest (name lost) of Mangaladeva, belonging to Mula-samgha and Desi-gana is mentioned.  The date of the second grant which was made by Somesvara (i.e. Sovideva) is lost except Pushya ba. 13, Sunday, Uttarayna-[samkramana].  Modeganuru is mentioned as the capital.  The (coin called) Lokkiya-visa is also mentioned.

No. 188

(B.K. No. 120 of 1933-34)

Babanagar, Bijapur Taluk, Bijapur District

Slab lying in the ruined temple of Siva

Sovideva (Undated)

This inscription referring itself to the reign of Rayamurari Sovideva registers a gift f land made  by Kesiraja, the subordinate of Garuda-Pandyadeva, to a tank called Gangasamudra.  The gift was made in the presence of Sandhivigrahi Sovarasa and other pradhanas.  It also registers the grant of land made to god Virupakshadeva of lttige by Garuda-Pandyadeva, who is referred to as Banavasa-puravar-adhisvara and is stated to be governing Nurumbada from his capital Rattapalli.

No. 189

(B.K. No. 55 of 1934-35)

Mudennur, Ranebennur Taluk, Dharwar District

Hero-stone near Muchukundesvara temple

Sankama (1180 A.D ?)

This inscription which is very badly damaged is dated in the 13th year of Nissanikamalla Samkamadeva, Sarvari, Ashadha su. Hadiva, Sunday.  There appears to be a serious error in the date.  So far as is known at present the initial year of the reign of Nissankamalla is A.D. 1177 and he did not rule for 13 years.  During his reign the cyclic year Sarvari occurred in A.D. 1180.  But for that year too, the details do not work our correctly.   There were two Ashadhas in the year and su. 1 of neither fell on Sunday.

It records a grant of land, house and toll-income to Kuribara Kunteya-Nayaka whop probably died in fight.

No. 190

(B.K. No. 106 of 1933-34)

Maidur, Ranebennur Taluk, Dharwar District

Slab learning against the front wall of the temple of Kallesvara

Ahavamalla – A.D. 1182

This inscription, referring itself to the reign of Ahavamalladeva, is dated is Saka 1104, Subhakrit, Margasira su. Purnima, Thursday, lunar eclipse, Uttarayana-samkramana.  This date is irregular.  The tithi corresponds to A.D. 1182, November 12, Friday but there was no eclipse on that day, nor was there any samkramana.  It may be noted however that in the next month, i.e, Pushya there was a lunar eclipse on December 11, Saturday.

It records a grant of land made for the worship and offerings to god Kalideva of Mulasthana by Kumara Vira-Vikramadityadeva (apparently Vikramaditya II of the Gutta family), Susanga-Dandanayaka and other residents of Gudigeri.

No. 191

(B.K. No. 99 of 1933-34)

Hulihalli, Ranebennur Taluk, Dharwar District

Slab lying against the front wall of the temple of Ramalinga

Ahavamalla – A.D. 1182

This inscription referring itself to the reign of Ahvamalladeva is dated in Saka 1104, Subhakrit,margasira su. Purnima, Monday, Lunar eclipse.  The details are irregular.  In the cyclic year cited, Purnima  in the month of Margasira did not fall on Monday nor was there any lunar eclipse on that day.  The tithi corresponds to A.D. 1182 November 12, Friday.

It gives the genealogy of the Gutta chief Vikramaditya II and states that Nalprabhu Keta-gavunda made a grant of land to Kalyanasakti-Pandita, for offerings etc., to god Ramesvara.  The genealogy of Keta-gavunda is also given.  As in No. 192, here also Vikramaditya It is called the son of Joyideva II.  Ulihalli (modern Hulihalli) is praised.

No. 192

(B.K. No. 85 of 1933-34)

Gundadanveri, Ranebennur Taluk, Dharwar District

Slab set up in front of the temple of Kallesvara

Ahavamalla – A.D. 1183

This inscription referring itself to the reign of Ahvammallaeva is stated in Saka 110[4], Subhakrit, Margasira su. Purnima, Thursday, lunar eclipse, Uttarayana-samkramana In Margasira of Subhakirt there was no lunar eclipse, but in Sobhakrit thee was one which fell on Thursday.  Subhakrit cited in the record seems to be a mistake for Subhakrit.  In that these the Saka year would be 1105.  The Christian equivalent would then be A.D. 1183 December 1, Thursday, lunar eclipse, Uttarayana-samkramana.  In Margasira of Subhakrit there was no lunar eclipse, but in Sobhakrit there was one which fell on Thursday. Subhakrit cited in the record seems to be a mistake for Sobhakrit In that case the Saka year would be 1105.  The Christian equivalent would then be A.D. 1183 December 1, Thursday.

It registers a gift of land in the village Bada daluru in Binavuru Twelve by Vasudeva-Dandanayaka,  a subordinate of Vikrmaditya II of the Gutta family, for the worship and offerings to god Mallikarjuna of that village, after effecting repairs, etc., to the temple.  The village was granted to him by Vikramaditya I and Joyideva II, the grand-father and uncle respectively, of Vikramaditya II,  who is here referred to as Kumara Vikramaditya.  He is also referred to as the son (putra) of Joyideva II, possibly because of the prevailing Indian practice of calling a nephew as son.


[1] An earlier reference to Bijjala has recently come to light.  It is contained in an inscription on a hero-stone from Tambur in Kalghatgi taluk of Dharwar District.  This inscription of A.D. 1136 mentions Bijjala as a subordinate of then ruling Chalukya king Somesvara III

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