The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Text of the Inscriptions 

1 to 25

26 to 50

51 to 75

76 to 100

101 to 128

129 to 150

151 to 175

176 to 200

201 to 225

226 to 250

251 to 267

Appendix

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

PANDYA INSCRIPTIONS

INSCRIPTION OF THE EARLY PANDYAS

No. 76.

(A. R. No. 270 of 1928.)

Kottai-Karungulam, Nanguneri Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the Rajasimhesvara temple.

This damaged inscription in Vatteluttu characters belongs to the time of Sadaiya-Maran and is dated in some year opposite to the 2nd year of his reign. It refers to the stone temple of Rajasingechchuvaram at Karungulam and to the gift of something for a perpetual lamp to be burnt in it. The temple must have been built by Rajasimha, after whom the god appears to have been so named.

No. 77.

(A. R. No. 301 of 1916.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Erichchavudaiyar temple.

This incomplete inscription of Sadaiya-Maran, the date of which is lost, refers to a certain Manabharanan-Podiyil-Velan whose wife may have provided perhaps for the burning of a lamp in the temple of Tirupottudaiya-Bhatara at Ilangoykkudi. From the mention of Manabharana as the surname of the person, it may be inferred that it was probably a biruda of the king Sadaiya-Maran himself. It does not occur, however, in his copper plate grant from Sinnamanur.

No. 78.

(A. R. No. 440 of 1907.)

Sinnamanur, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District.

On the west wall of the Lakshminarayana-Perumal temple.

This Tamil inscription is dated in the 46th year of a Sadaiya-Maran, whose identity with the other king of the same name is not clear, in the absence of similar records bearing such high regnal years. It differs from the usual run of inscriptions of this period in its registering an order (kaichcham) of the sabha of Arikesarinallur, a brahmadeya in Ala-nadu, regulating the supply of water from the channel called Srikantha-vaykkal, apparently to temple lands.

No. 79.

(A. R. No. 420 of 1914.)

Pallimadam, Aruppukkottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the south base of the Kalanthasvamin temple.

This record is dated in the 3rd year opposite to the 4th year of the reign of Vira-Pandya who took the head of the Chola’ and registers a gift of sheep by Solantaka Pallavaraiayn alias Maran-Adichchan of Poliyur in Poliyur-nadu for burning a lamp in the temple of god Sundara-pandya-Isvarattu-Bhatara at Tiruchchuliyal a devadana in Paruttikkudi-nadu. Sundara-Pandya Isvaram must have been named after a king or prince of that name. The village is called Pallimadai or probably Pallipadai, in which latter case, the shrine may have been built in memory of a Sundara-Pandya.

A certain chieftain of Poliyur called Maran-Achchan alias Tennavan-Pallavaraipan figures in a record dated 4 + 1st year, 593rd day of a Maranjadaiyan from Tirupputtur, and he was probably an earlier member of the family to which the Maran-Achchan of this inscription belonged. Here he bears the title of Cholantaka-Pallavaraiyan from the biruda of the king Vira-Pandya namely Cholantaka, i.e., ‘god of death to the Chola’ which is equivalent to ‘Solanralaikonda’ which is found in all his records. From this fact it is clear that a Chola king had actually been kill by Vira-Pandya. From a record of this king from Ambasamudram it has been possible to fix his initial date as A.D. 946.

No. 80.

(A. R. No. 421 of 1914.)

Pallimadam, Aruppukkottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the south base of the Kalanathasvamin temple.

This inscription is dated in the 4th year opposite to the 4th year of the same king’s reign. It registers a gift of sheep by Arulali, the headman of a village in Venbu-nadu, for burning a lamp in the temple of god Sundara-Pandya-Isvarattu-Devar at Tiruchchuliyal, for the merit of his son Kandan-Devan.

No. 81.

(A. R. No. 87 of 1907.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk Tirunelveli District.

On the base of a ruined shrine in the tirumulanatha temple.

This record dated in the 4th year opposite to the 4th year of the king, records the gift of land in Kilur-kundukalam by a tinaikkalattan of Nakkur in Venbu-nadu, for providing for the expenses of feeding some brahmanas, who chanted some portions of the Vedas in the presence of god Tiruchchalaitturai-ninrarnlina-Emberuman of Ilangoykkudi, a brahmadeya of Mulli-nadu. A shrine or hall called Srikaranatiruchchittirakutam is also referred to in this record. The astronomical details of the day, namely, Dhanus month and Svati-nakshatra are of no use in determining the date of the record.

No. 82.

(A. R. No. 424 of 1914.)

Pallimadam, Aruppukkottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the south wall of the Kalanathasvamin temple.

This record dated in the 5th year opposite to the 4th year of the king’s reign relates to the assignment of the sheep belonging to the temple to several shepherds, for the supply of ghee for burning lamps therein.

No. 83.

(A. R. No. 429 of 1914.)

Pallimadam, Aruppukkottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the base of the west wall of the Kalanathasvamin temple.

This record of Vir-Pandya is dated in the 5th year opposite to the 4th year of his reign and is damaged and incomplete. It appears to enumerate the devaradiyur who were connected with the temple of Sundar-Pandya-Isvaram at Pallipadai in Tiruchchuliyal, a devadana in paruttikkudi-nadu.

No. 84 and 85.

(A. R. Nos. 627 and 627 of 1910.)

Kilmattur, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District.

On the north wall of the Manikanthesvara temple.

This inscription is dated in the 5th year opposite to the 4th year of the king’s reign. It states that the affairs of the stone temple named Srikanthesvaram erected by Tennavan Kandan Sattan for the god Bhatara at Tirumattur, were examined by this officer, and that the wet and dry lands belonging to the temple priests (aganaligaiyar) drummers, etc., situated in Birundaiyur, were also properly checked and regulated.

The fact that the old devadana lands were checked in the time of Vira-Pandya indicates that the temple had existed from earlier times, probably as a brick structure, and that it was now rebuilt of stone by this chieftain, with the new name of Srikanthesvaram, after his own name of Kandan, and the flower-garden called ‘Solantakan’ was endowed in the name of the king himself. This chieftain is called Tennavan-Tamilavel in another record.

No. 85 which is fragmentary, probably belonging to the same record, is engraved on several slabs in the same wall and relates to the apportionment of the taxes to be levied from the lands in Tirumattur belonging to the temple, among the aganaligaiyar, uvachhar and others.

No. 85.

Other fragmentary portions belonging to this record are :

(A. R. No. 627 of 1926.)

No. 86.

(A. R. No. 86 of 1926.)

Kilmattur, Madurai Taluk, Mdurai District.

On the west wall of the Manikanthesvara temple.

This record of Vira-Pandya is dated in the 5th year opposite to the 5th year instead of being dated opposite to the 4th year, as in the earlier records. The stones of this record are disarranged, and some portion of the document is lost. It mentions that some lands in the village called Parantakanallur alias Vamadevamangalam which was situated in the subdivision Madakkulakkil and which belonged to the temple were examined by some officer apparently the one figuring in another record in the same temple, and the paddy derivable from them were fixed for the requirements of worship and offerings to the god Bhatara at Tiruvamattur.

No. 87.

(A. R. No. 626 of 1926.)

Kilmattur, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District.

On the south wall of the Manikanthesvara temple.

The inscription in Tamil poetry is fragmentary ; but from the available portion, it can be inferred that it refers to the building of the temple at Tirumattur by a certain Tamilavel in about the 8th year of reign of Vira-Pandya. This record contains an eulogy of this chieftain. There is a reference to some who was well-versed in Sanskrit and Tamil works, such as the Vedas, the Puranas, Patanjala mudar-panuval, etc. As the name Tennavan is mentioned in another record, that word combined with Tamilavel seems to give the full title ‘Tennavan-Tamilavel’ of the chieftain, who erected the Srikanthesvaram temple in stone. This chief figures in a record dated in the 12th year of Vira-Pandya at Ambasamudram in the Tirunelveli district.

No. 88.

(A. R. No. 423 of 1914.)

Pallmadam, Aruppukkottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the west wall of the Kalanathasvamin temple.

To the same king Vira-Pandya belongs this record dated in the 7th year opposite to the 4th year of his reign. It registers a gift of sheep for burning a lamp in the matha of Mahavratigal attached to the temple of Sundarapandya-Isvaram at Pallipadai. The existence of a Mahavrati-matha at this place is of interest. The Muvarkoyi inscription of the Kodumbalur chieftain Bhuti-Vikramakesarin, who was probably a contemporary of this Pandya king, because he claims to have come into conflict with him, also refers to the fact that chief favoured the Saiva sect and that one of its teachers was a native of Madurai.

No. 89.

(A. R. No. 13 of 1927.)

Vijayanarayanam, Nanguneri Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Manonmanisvara temple.

This record is dated in the 12th year of the king and refers to a gift of sheep for burning a lamp in the temple, whose name is given, namely, Manomayanisvaram at Viayanarayana-chaturvedimangalam. It is not known whose title ‘Manomaya was ; but it already occurs in the time of Sadiaya-Maran. It may be remarked that the regnal year which had been cited as some year opposite to the 4th up till the 11th year is now quoted as only one year, as the 12th in this record. This practice was in vogue up till the 15th year, when with that year as constant, the further years are quoted as 15 + 4 and 15+5. No. 91 below however cites the year 13 + 1. The significance of this is not clear.

No. 90.

(A. R. No. 426 of 1914.)

Pallimadam, Aruppukkottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the north base of the Kalanathasvamin temple.

This record dated in the 13th year of the reign of Vira-Pandya registers a gift of 100 sheep by a certain Arangam-Pudi alias Poliyurnattur-Muvendavelan of Suduvuin Poliyur-nadu, for burning a lamp in the temple of Sundara-Pandya-Isvaram at Pallimadai. These sheep were left in charge of several individuals, who had to measure stimulated quantities of ghee to the temple.

No. 91.

(A. R. No. 548 of 1926.)

Srivilliputtur, Srivilliputtur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the south wall of the mandapa in the Perumal temple.

This record which belongs to Vira-Pandya is dated in the year opposite to the 13th year of his reign, different from the usual method in which the years quoted were opposite to the 4th year. It is stated that the sabha of Villipputtur, a brahmadeya in Malli-nadu, which had met in the temple of Tirukkarrali-Mahadeva, sold some lands newly constituted into a hamlet called Agara-dhanma-mangalam, to a certain official named Satrubhayakara-Muvendavelan alias Velan-Paranjoti of Perungulam in Tiruvaludi-valanadu, for instituting some charities in the two temples of Jalasayanattu-kkidandarulina-Paramasvamin and Tirukkarrali-Mahadevar in the village.

Among the boundaries of the village are mentioned the names of Marapputtur, Irambadu, and Srikantamangalam. Satrubhayankara was evidently a title borne by a Pandya king, possibly Vira-Pandya himself.

The penalty to be imposed on those who obstruct this charity is specified, namely, in the case of an individual, it was 50 pon but if the Sabha itself was at fault, the fine was 500 pon.

No. 92.

(A. R. No. 233 of 1932-33.)

Perungulam, Srivaikuntam Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Tiruvaludisvara temple.

This record, dated in the 15th year of the reign of Vira-Pandya, registers a gift of cows for maintaining a perpetual lamp in the temple of Tiruvaludivaram in Tiruvaludi-valanadu by a private person of the same village. The aganaligaiyar or the men in charge of the inner precincts of the temple undertook to burn the lamp.

No. 93.

(A. R. No. 238 of 1932-33.)

Perungulam, Srivaikuntam Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Tiruvaludisvara temple.

This incomplete inscription is dated in the 15th year of Vira-Pandya and relates to the gift of buffaloes by the wife of Pandimarttanda-Pallavaraiyan alias Sennappa of Kurungudi in Manavira-valanadu, a subdivision of Tiruvaludi-valanadu, to burn a lamp in the temple of Tiruvaludisvarattu-Alvar at Perungulam in Tiruvaludi-valanadu, for the merit of her husband and herself.

The titles Tiruvaludi, Manavira and Pandimarttanda are noteworthy. “Valudi,” though it is a general title of Pandya kings has perhaps special reference to the early Pandya king Palyagasalai Mudukudumi-Peruvaludi who is referred to in the Velvikkudi copper plate grant. ‘Manvira’ must have been a title assumed by a Pandya king, presumably earlier than Vira-Pandya. Pandimarttanda-valanadu occurs as the name of a district in the time of Rajasimha himself, and as such it must have been probably a title of Rajasimha.

No. 94.

(A. R. No. 474 of 1909.)

Edirkottai, Sattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On a rock close to the Sunaikanthesvara temple.

This inscription of the 15 + 14th year of the king relates to a gift of sheep by Achchan, a resident of the cloth merchants, quarters (aruvai-vaniya-chcheri) for burning a lamp in the temple of Sunaikkudi-Bhatara.

No. 95.

(A. R. No. 101 of 1905.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Erichchavudaiyar temple.

This record dated in the 5th year opposite to the 15th year of the king is the latest record found for him. It confirms a royal order made in the 12th year of the king, which was carried into effect now. It is important as mentioning the occurrence of a solar eclipse in the month of Mithuna in the 12th year of Vira-Pandya’s reign and helps to fix A.D. 946-47 as the date of his accession. It registers a gift of 10 veli of land by the king for providing worship and offerings to the deities in the temple of Tiruppottudaiya-Mahadeva at Ilangaykkudi, a brahmadeya in Mulli-nadu. An officer of the king named Cholantaka-Brahmamarayar and another named Tamilavelan figure in the record.

No. 96.

(A. R. No. 12 of 1927.)

Vijayanarayananm, Nanguneri Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Manonmanisvara temple.

This damaged record belongs to the reign of Vira-Pandya. The regnal year is first. It relates to a gift of sheep for a lamp to be burnt apparently in the temple of Vijayanarana-chaturvedimangalam a brahmadeya in Nattarruppokku by a certain Narayanapiran-Devan of Perumarudur in Salagramam.

MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS

No. 97.

(A. R. No. 294 of 1916.)

Singampatti, Ambasamudram taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a rock in a field in Melai-Singampatti.

This Vatteeluttu inscription of eight short lines is engraved in early characters but owing to the condition of the rock, as well as the peculiar nature of the script, its purport cannot be clearly made out. It is not dated in the reign of any Pandya king known to epigraphy, but appears, however, to refer to the death of some hero probably in one of the frontier skirmishes, which were frequent events in early, Pandya history.

The writing may be attributed to the 7th century A.D. and may be compared with the label inscription of two lines engraved in the rock-cut cave at Pillaiyarpatti, Ramanathapuram district and another label at Aivarmalai, Madurai district.

No. 98.

(A. R. No. 66 of 1905.)

Anaimalai, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District.

At the entrance into the mandapa of the cave near the Narasinga-Perumal temple.

This inscription is engraved in Vatteluttu characters of the early 9th century A.D. It states that a certain Nambiranbhatta-Somasi-Parivirajakar renovated (pudukku) something, which refers evidently to the mandapa, where it is found. Though no king’s name is mentioned, the record may be attributed to the early Pandya times.

No. 99-106.

(A. R. No. 67 to 74 of 1905.)

Anaimalai, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District.

On a rock with sculptures overhanging a natural cave.

The following lable inscriptions in Vatteluttu and Tamil characters are engraved below the images of the Jaina gods sculptured in half-relief on the rock near the cave at Anaimalai. They are attributable to about the beginning and end of the 9th century A.D., and as they must have been incised in Pandya times only, their texts are reproduced below.

No. 99.

(A. R. No. 67 of 1905.)

No. 100.

(A. R. No. 68 of 1905.) 

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