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Monday, March 05, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

PANDYA INSCRIPTIONS

INSCRIPTION OF THE EARLY PANDYAS

No. 51.

(A. R. No.  604 of 1926.)

Tenur, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District.

On a pillar lying in a ruined site.

This record of the 2 + 6th year  of the reign of Sadaiya-Maran registers a gift of 50 sheep by Velan-araiyan of the village for burning a lamp to god Tirumerrali-Bhatara at Peruntenur in Paganur-kurram.  The pillar must have belonged to the temple, ruins of which are found in the site.  Though Tirumerrali may signify a temple of Vishnu, for Vishnu temples are generally located in the west of the village and are called as such, a neglected linga found in the locality indicates that the original temple may have belonged to god Siva.  In some places Siva temples have also been called ‘Tirumerrali.’

No. 52.

(A. R. No.  447 of 1907.)

Sinnamanur, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District.

On the north wall of the Lakshminarayana temple.

This inscription is dated in the 2 + 7th of Sadaiy-Marana who is identical with Rajasimha, and registers a gift of sheep by a certain Nagan-Vikkiramadittan for a perpetual lamp to the god Tiru. . . . . surattevar of Arikesarinallur, a brahmadeya in Ala-nadu.  As Sinnamanur was known as Arikesarinallur, it may have been founded by the early Pandya king called Arikesarin.  In another record of this king from the same place, the god is called Tirunaduvu-Bhatara, probably because of the location of the temple with reference to the village.

No. 53.

(A. R. No.  416 of 1917.)

Kuttalam, Tenkasi Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a pillar in the east verandah of the Kuttalanatha temple.

This vatteluttu record dated in the 2 + 7th year  of the reign of Sadaiya-Maran is incomplete and stops with the mention of Tirukkurralam in Tenvara-nadu.

No. 54.

(A. R. No.  441 of 1907.)

Sinnamanur, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District.

On the west wall of the Lakshminarayana temple.

The stone on which this inscription of the 2 + 8th year  of the reign of Sadaiya-Maran had been originally engraved, has been redressed, and the record has suffered damage.  It registers a gift of 10 kalanju  by a brahmana named Nakkan Duvedi (Dvivedi) of Avichchanur, a brahmadeya of Anmaga-Nadu (the Anma-nadu of other records), for a perpetual lamp to be burnt in the temple of god Tirunaduvupattara at Arikesarinallur, a brahmadeya in Ala-nadu.  Arkesarinallur was the ancient name of Sinnamnur, and Tirunaduvu-Bhatara, the god of the ‘central’ temple has, as noted above, reference to the location of the temple in the center of the village.

No. 55.

(A. R. No.  605 of 1926.)

Tenur, Madurai Taluk, Madurai district.

On a pillar lying in a ruined site.

This inscription of the 2 + 8th year of Sadaiya-Maran records a gift of sheep by a certain Araiyan-Tiruvarangi for a lamp in the temple of Tirumerrali-Bhatara of Peruntenur in Paganur-kurram.

No. 56.

(A.R. No.  86 of 1907.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the base of a ruined shrine in the Tirumulanatha temple.

The subjoined record of the 2 + 9th year of king Sadaiya-Maran relates to the purchase of a block of waste land lying fallow as purru and Terri  to the west of the village, from the sabha of Ilangoykkudi, and to its being made fit for cultivation by the provision of irrigation facilities by Puvan-Paraiyan, who is described as one of the ‘Araiyan-anukkar’, belonging apparently to the king’s bodyguard.  The land which was renamed s ‘Paraiyan-vasakkal’ was endowed t the temple as kidaippuram.

No. 57.

(A. R. No.  417 of 1917.)

Kuttalam, Tenkasi Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a pillar in the east Verandah of the Kuttalanatha temple

This record, dated in the 2 + 9th year of Sadaiya-Maran, registers a gift of 3 buffaloes by Ayyankuttan, a merchant  of Idavai in Manninadu, for maintaining half a lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tirukkurralam in Tenvara-nadu.  This Idavai is identical with Idavai in Sola-nadu, in a campaign against which a Pandya general had accompanied king Maranjadaiyan of No. 26 above.

No. 58.

(A. R. No.  418 of 1917.)

Kuttalam, Tenkasi Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a pillar in the east verandah in the Kuttalanathan temple.

This Vatteluttu record of the 2 + 9th year  of Sadaiya-Maran also comes from Kurralam in Tenvara-nadu, and registers a gift of six buffaloes by Vandalai Konan of Nallurpandikkudi in Tenvara-nadu, for burning a lamp in the temple of Tirukurrala-Mahadeva.

No. 59.

(A. R. No.  220 of 1932-33.)

Perungulam, Srivaikuntam Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the Tiruvaludisvara temple.

This inscription dated in the 2 + 9th year of  Sadaiya-Maran  registers a gift of 50 sheep by Kudiyan Atulagunattan of Nalkur in Venbu-nadu for burning a lamp to god Jatamakutap-Perumal of the temple called Tiruvaludisvaram at Perungulam in Tiruvaludi-valanadu, on behalf of his mother Suvaran-Achchi.  The aganaligaiyar of the temple agreed to burn the lamp.

No. 60.

(A. R. No.  227 of 1932-33.)

Perungulam, Srivaikuntam Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the Tiruvaludisvara temple.

This Vatteluttu inscription dated in the 2 + 9th year  of Sadaiya-Maran registers a gift of 13 kasu by a certain Mukkan, for burning a lamp in the temple of Tiruvaludisvarattu-Alvar at Perungulam in Tiruvaludi-valanadu, on behalf of his mother Narasingam.

No. 61.

(A. R. No.  453 of 1929-30.)

Attur, Tiruchchendur Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the door-jamb of the Perumal shrine in the Somanathesvara temple.

This record dated in some year (of a single digit) opposite to the 2nd year of the reign of Sadaiya-Maran is damaged at the end.  It appears to relate to a gift of land made by a certain Vikkiramakamuka-Pallavaraiyan alias Devan-Solai of Kulattur in Alarru-nadu, who had purchased some fallow land from sabha of Shadangavi-kurichchi, a brahmadeya in Kuda-nadu and had endowed it, after making it fit for cultivation, to the temple of Tirunarayana-vinnagar-Devar, situated in the north of the village.

Shadangavikurichchi is the name of the village which had been granted to brahmanas well-versed in the Shadangas or the six components of Vedic learning.  Kurichchi is the special name for a hilly village.

No. 62.

(A. R. No.  219 of 1932-33.)

Perungulam, Srivaikuntam Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the Tiruvaludisvara temple.

This record dated in the 2 + 10th regnal year  of king Sadaiya-Maran registers a gift of a Sekandikai (gong) by the person mentioned in No. 59 above, on behalf of his father Maran-Kudiyan.

No. 63.

(A. R. No.  299 of 1916.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the left door-jamb of the Frichchavudaiyar temple.

This incomplete inscription of Sadaiya-Maran is dated in the 2 + 11th year of his reign and stops with the mention of Bangovkkudi in Mulli-nadu.

No. 64.

(A. R. No.  118 of 1910.)

Solavandan, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District.

On a slab set up in the platform of the railway station.

This Vatteluttu record dated in 2 + 12th year of Sadaiya-Maran registers a gift of 25 cows by Velan-Padari, wife of Tennavan Anukkapperaraiyan alias Panayan Manikkan of Perumbaganur in Paganur-kurrm, for a lamp to the temple of Perumtirukkoyil-Devar of Tirumanam, a brahmadeya in Paganur-kurram.  The cows were left in the charge of two priests of the temple (aganaligaiyar) named Naranan-Madevan and Munnurruvan-Tiruvaru[ra]n.  The slab on which the inscription is engraved must have originally belonged to some Siva temple in he vicinity and been removed to the station site later on.

No. 65.

(A. R. No.  475 of 1909.)

Edirkottai, Sattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On a rock close to the Sunai-Kanthesvara temple.

This record is dated in the 14th year opposite to the 2nd year of Sadaiya-Maran ; but as it is damaged and incomplete, its purport cannot be made out.  It mentions a kulichchevagan named Maram-Bhattan and some donation, the nature of which is not clear, to the god Bhatara of Sunaikkudi, a hamlet of Kuttankudi in Venbaikudi-nadu.

No. 66.

(A. R. No.  440 of 1917.)

Kuttalam, Tenkasi Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the east wall of the prakara  in the Kuttalanatha temple.

This fragmentary inscription belongs to the 2 + 15th year of the reign of Sadaiya-Maran.  It mentions Kurralam in Tenvara-nadu and Pasupatapperumakkal.  Owing to the damaged condition of the record, it is not possible to ascertain the functions and constitution of the Pasupatapperumakka, who, however, appear to have been managing the affairs of the temple.  They may have belonged to the Pasupata  sect.

No. 67.

(A. R. No.  11 of 1927.)

Vijayanarayanam, Nanguneri Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Manomanisvara temple.

This record dated in the 2 + 17th year of the reign of Sadaiya-Maran is built in at the end and its purport is not therefore clear.  It appears to relate to a gift of money made to the god Karrali-Perumanadigal of the Manomaya-Isvaram temple by a certain Tiruvengada Erichchi. . . . . . . . . . . in the name of Puvanavan Tirumaladhikarigal of Valainjiya-Kurichchi.  The Perunguri-sabha of the village which met in the temple on a day of the solar eclipse  in that year invested this amount in the purchase of land 6 ma in extent.  As the month in which the solar eclipse occurred has not been specified, the year cannot be calculated.

No. 68.

(A. R. No.  122 of 1905.)

Tiruppudaimarudur, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the east wall of the Chandesvara shrine in the Putarjunesvara temple.

Dated in the 2 + 18th year  of Sadaiya-Maran, this Vatteluttu record from Tiruppudaimarudur or Tiruppadumarudil as it was called in the old days, mentions a servant of Vira-Pandyadeva, who was a native of Malayamadevipuram in Pandimattanda-valanadu and refers to some donation made by him, the details of which are lost.  Though this Vira-Pandya is not specifically styled a Pillaiyar, to denote his relationship to the reigning king, it is possible that he was identical with Vira-Pandya, who figures in inscriptions with the title of ‘Solanralaikonda’.  As this Vira-Pandya’s date of accession has been calculated to be about 946 A.D. the Sadaiya-Maran of this record may, as otherwise indicated also, be identical with Rajasimha, the contemporary of Parantaka, and the immediate predecessor of Vira-Pandya.

No. 69.

(A. R. No.  722 of 1905.)

Uttamapalaiyam, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District.

Above the images n the Karuppannasvamin rock.

This Vatteluttu record, dated in the 2 + 18th year of the reign of Sadaiya-Maran is much damaged and refers to some Tirthappalli, the Jaina temple, and to Korkai in Kuda-nadu.

No. 70.

(A. R. No.  550 of 1911.)

Kovilkulam, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Tennalagar temple.

This incomplete inscription dated in the 2 + 19th year of Sadaiya-Maran refers to the temple of god Vinnagar Devar of Tiruppodiyil and to some donation, the details of which are not preserved in the inscription, made on behalf of a certain Kadan-Seynokki.

No. 71.

(A. R. No.  421 of 1906.)

Seviliperi, Tirunelveli Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Alagar temple.

This inscription dated in the 2 + 19th year  of Sadaiya-Maran registers a gift of 25 sheep for a lamp to be burnt in the temple of Karumanikkadeva of Ten-Tirumalirunjolai in Kilkalakkurram, by Appinangai, the wife of Satrubhayankara-Muttaraiyan of Alangudi, a village in Irunjola-nadu.  From the fact that the donatrix is styled an arasiyar,  her husband Satrubhayankara-Muttaraiyan was probably a Pandya feudatory of some note in this region.  Anukkan is mentioned as the title of Appinangai’s father.  Probably he belonged to the Anukkuppadai or the king’s bodyguard.  This title appears to have been used for such personal service to the king, as in Tennavan-Anukkapperaraiyan in No. 64 above.

No. 72.

(A. R. No.  409 of 1906.)

Seviliperi, Tirunelveli Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the central shrine in the Alagar temple.

This record is dated in the 19th year  to the 2nd year of Sadaiya-Maran and registers a gift of 50 sheep made by Karambichchettu Parpanabban Tiruvengadam residing in Nandivarma-chaturvedimangalam, a village in Uraiyur-kurram on the southern bank (of the Kaveri) in Sonadu, for a perpetual lamp to be burnt in the temple of god Karumanikkadeva, who was pleased to be manifest at Ten-Tirumalirunjolai, which was the ancient name of this temple.  Seviliperi appears to have got this name to distinguish it from Alagarkoyil, apparently the Vada-Tirumalirunjolai in the Madurai district.

No. 73.

(A. R. No.  551 of 1911.)

Kovilkulam, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Tennalagar temple.

This mutilated record of the time of Sadaiya-Maran is dated in the 2 + 19th year of his reign, and appears to register a gift of sheep made by a certain Adigal . . . . . . . . . . . evidently for burning a almp in the temple of god Tiruppodiyil-Vinnagar-Devar in Vitankanallur.

No. 74.

(A. R. No.  228 of 1932-33.)

Perungulam, Srivaikuntam Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the Tiruvaludisvara temple.

This inscription is dated in the 2 + 22nd year of the reign of Sadaiya-Maran and is the highest regnal year so far found for him.  It registers a gift of 2 shares of land to Pudangudiyan of Nattamangalam made by the Sattapperumakkal, aganaligaiyar, patiyar and panchacharyas of the temple of Tiruvaludisvaram at Perungulam in recognition of the service rendered by him in redeeming the lands in Kuranguni to the temple, and in having secured the remission of taxes on them.

No. 75.

(A. R. No.  552 of 1911.)

Kovilkulam, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli  District.

On the south wall of the Tennalagar temple.

This undated record from Kovilkulam belongs to the same period, as the donor named Kadan and his wife Narseynokki figure in No. 70 of the 2 + 19th year of Sadaiya-Maran.  A gift of 25 sheep evidently for a lamp to be burnt in the temple is registered in this inscription.

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