The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Text of the Inscriptions 

1 to 25

26 to 50

51 to 75

76 to 100

101 to 128

129 to 150

151 to 175

176 to 200

201 to 225

226 to 250

251 to 267

Appendix

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

PANDYA INSCRIPTIONS

INSCRIPTION OF THE EARLY PANDYAS

No. 26.

(A. R. No. 690 of 1905.)

Ramanathapuram, Dindigal Taluk, Madurai District.

On a rock in the village.

This Tamil inscription, which does not quote the regnal year of the king, states that Nakkan-pullan who had the other name of Parantaka-ppallivelan had accompanied king Maranjadaiyan in his campaign (yattirai) against Idavai in Sola-nadu. This Pullan had begun the excavation of an irrigation tank in his name, called it Pullaneri, strengthened the banks with stone revetment and fixed the sluice therefore; but he died before the project could be completed. The work is then stated to have been completed by Pulan-Nakkan, evidently his son, with the help of the mason named Vadugan-kurran and his son; and to the two latter a gift of land in the two kurus of Palli-nadu was made.

No. 27.

(A. R. No. 89 of 1907.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a slab set up in front of the Tirumulanatha temple.

This damaged Vatteluttu record of Maranjadaiyan is defaced at the placed where the regnal year is cited; but it appears probable that only one year and not a double year has been mentioned. The record may perhaps belong to Varagunavarman. It registers a gift of money made by Kavadiyar of Ilavenbaikkadattirukkai for two lamps to be burnt in the temple before the images of god Tiruchchalaitturai-Tirumulatanattur-Bhatarar and Perumanadigal ‘who was pleased to stand at Tiruchchalaiturai’ in Ilangoykkudi in Mulli-nadu.

No. 28.

(A. R. No. 160 of 1930-31.)

Tiruchchatturai, Tanjore Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the west wall of the Odanavanesvara temple.

This damaged inscription registers a gift of 300 kasu by Pandi-Marajar Vraguna-Marajar for burning a sacred lamp in the tempe of Tiruchchorrutturai-Mahadeva.

No. 29.

(A. R. No. 215 of 1932-33.)

Perungulam, Srivaikuntam Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south side of the Ardhamandapa in the Tiruvaludisvara temple.

This damaged record, probably of [Maranjadi]yan, who is apparently the king mentioned in the first line, appears to register a gift of sheep by some one of Elur, whose name is lost, for a lamp in the temple.

No. 30.

(A. R. No. 313 of 1904.)

Kudumiyamalai, Kulattur Taluk, (Pudukkottai State), Tiruchirappalli District.

On a pillar in the Melaikoyil temple.

This record of Maranjadaiyan is dated in the 23rd year of his reign. Owing to the damaged condition of the letters, it is not possible to make out the contents of the record. Tirunilakkunram, the name of the hill and Tirumulattanam, that of the shrine, are traceable, and the record probably refers to a gift for a lamp to this temple.

No. 31.

(A. R. No. 43 of 1908.)

Kalgumalai, Melur Taluk, Madurai District.

On a slab in the Kosakkudi street.

This record dated in the 23rd year of the reign of Maranjadaiyan from Kalugumalai is of interest as it mentions an expedition of the Pandya army against Sadaiyan-Karunandan of Malai-nadu, in which the fort of Ariviyur was destroyed. This Sadaiyan-Karunandan is identical with the Ay chieftain whose records are found in the northern part of the Travancore State. He may have originally been a Pandya vassal as indicated by the surname Sadaiyan and may have subsequently rebelled against the Pandya, in conjunction perhaps with the Venadu ruler of the period, which action was probably the case of the expedition referred to in this inscription. Two soldiers of the battalion commanded by the Pandya subordinate Etti-Mannan alias Mangala-Enadi of Perunechchuram, named Vinaiyantolu-Suran of Pundanamali in Tondai-nadu and Sattanakkan of Pereyirkudi lost their lives in this skirmish, and in commemoration of their services, some land valued at 20 kalanu of gold was given apparently by this Enadi. This endowment may have been in the nature of an udirappatti, but it is not clearly specified as such.

No. 32.

(A. R. No. 430 of 1914.)

Pallimadam, Aruppukkottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the wing-stone at the entrance of the Kalanathasvamin temple.

This Vatteluttu inscription dated in the 26th year of the reign of Maranjadaiyan appears to register a gift of 100 sheep by Sa[tta]n-Gunattan of Kunnur in [Karu]-nilakkudi-nadu for supplying ghee to a deity in the temple of Tirukkattamballi at Kurandi. From other records it is known that a Kurandi thee flourished in the olden days an important Jainta temple named Tirukkattamballi,. This stone may have belonged originally to that temple and removed thence and place in this temple. Kurandi may be identified with the village of the same name in the Aruppukkottai taluk. Kunnur where Srimara-Srivallabha fought one of his battles, was situated in Karunilakkudi-nadu in the same subdivision.

No. 33.

(A. R. No. 422 of 1914.)

Pallimadam, Aruppukottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the north base of the Kalanathasvamin temple.

This Vatteluttu record, which is dated in the 26th regnal year of an unspecified king, may be assigned to Maranjadaiyan whose inscription dated in the same regnal year is found in this temple. It is damaged and incomplete, but probably enumerates some of the devaradiyar of the temple.

No. 34 and 35.

(A. R. No. 428-A and 428-B of 1914.)

Pallimadam, Aruppukkottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On stones in the northern wall of the mandapa in the Kalanathasvamin temple.

This inscriptions are engraved on slabs now found embedded in the north wall of the mandapa in the Siva temple. The slabs appear to have originally belonged to the Jaina temple named Tirukkattamballi at Kurandi nearby, and to have been removed thence along with the wing-stones noted above. They register the usual gifts to sheep for lamps to be burnt in the temple of Tirukkattamballi-Devar at Kurandi in Venbu-nadu.

Though the king’s name is not specified, these records may be attributed to the time of Maranjadaiyan.

No. 36.

(A. R. No. 298 of 1916.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the door-jambs of the Erichchavudaiyar temple.

This inscription in Vatteluttu characters is dated in the 35th year of the reign of a king whose name is not mentioned; but he may be assumed to be identical with the Maranjadaiyan of whom high regnal years have been found. It records the gift of sheep by a certain Paradayan Senda[nagan] of Pappar-irukkai in Vela-nadu for a lamp to be burnt in the temple of Tiruppottudaiyalvar at Ilangoykkudi, a brahmadeya in Mulli-nadu.

No. 37.

(A. R. No. 423 of 1906.)

Manur, Tirunelveli Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On one of the pillars in The Ambalavana temple.

This inscription dated in the 35th year and 469th day of the reign of Maranjadaiyan is of interest as giving the rules land qualifications which governed the admission of members to the assembly of Mananilainallur, a brahmadeya in Kalakkudi-nadu, and the penalty imposed on those who transgressed these regulations. This is the only stone inscription, which gives some insight into the administrative life of a Pandya village.

No. 38.

(A. R. No. 104 of 1903.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a slab in the Prakara of the erichchavudaiyar temple.

This inscription is dated in the 39th year of the reign of an unspecified king and may be attributed to king Maranjadaiyan, whose record (No. 36) dated in the 35th year has been published above.

No. 39.

(A. R. No. 431 of 1914.)

Pallimadam, Aruppukottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the stone at the entrance to the Kalanathasvamin temple.

This inscription is dated in the 6th year opposite to the 35th year of Maranjadaiyan and refers to the gift of sheep to Tirukkattamballi at Kurandi in Venbunadu. The wing-stone on which this record is engraved must have been brought from Tirukkattamballi and inserted in the temple here at some later date, along with the other stone on which No. 32 above is engraved.

No. 40.

(A. R. No. 12 of 1929.)

Dalapatisamudram, Nanguneri Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a slab lying in a field in the Parachcheri of the village.

This long inscription in Vatteluttu characters is dated in the 6th year opposite to the 35th year of the reign of king Maranjadaiyan who appears to be identical with the king figuring in No. 37 above from Manur, dated in the 35th year and 469th day. The record consists of two separate endowments made by a certain Velan of Irambadu in Karaikana-nadu. One of them was a gift of 50 sheep to maintain a lamp in the rest house called Rajakka ttannir pperumbandal erected by him at Perumbalanji in Nattarruppokku while a gift of land and a well were also made for it. The other gift of sheep was for maintaining a lamp in another rest-house named Munnurruvapperumbandal instituted by him in the same village; and a gift of land for the care-taker who supplied water to this water-shed was also made.

The two rest-houses were apparently erected, one in the name of ‘Rajakkar’ of Tirukkottaru and the other in the name of the Koyirpillaigal Munnurruvar whose constitution is not clear. These charities were left under the protection of the Nayakanmar ruling the district.

No. 41.

(A. R. No. 605 of 1915.)

Eruvadi, Nanguneri Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a Boulder in the Irattaippottai rock.

This record dated in the 43rd year of the reign of Maranjadaiyan comes from Eruvadi. This is the highest regnal year found for Maranjadaiyan for whom records in the 35th and 39th years have been found elsewhere. The rock on which this epigraph is engraved is very much weatherworn and the record is therefore defaced. It appears to register a gift of land by Irambattu-velan Sattan as pallichchandam to the Bhatara of Tiruviruttalai-Aruvalam in Nattarrupokku, and a gift of sheep for a lamp. A Tamil verse at the end of the record, stated to have been composed by the donor himself contains an exhortation to all to offer worship to Aruhan on the hill. The donor Irambattu-velan has figured in another record from Dalapatisamudram dated in the 35 + 6th regnal year of this king.

No. 42.

(A. R. No. 863 of 1917.)

Kalugumalai, Koilpatti Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the rock within the Ayyanar temple on the hill.

This record dated in the 7th year opposite to the 35th year of the reign of Maranjadaiyan registers a gift of gold by a brahmana named Mani Sankaranarayanan, a nagarattan of Tiruchuriyal for burning a lamp during the three services in the shrine of the Devar which he had made. This amount was left in the charge of the Perurar of Tirunechchuram and the charity was left under the protection of the Tirumalaivirar and Parantakavirar who were evidently the military guardians of the temple, the latter owing their name to the Pandya king Parantaka, the second of that name, to whose time the characters of the present inscription can reasonably be attributed.

No. 43.

(A. R. No. 335 of 1929-30.)

Erukkangudi, Sattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On a rock in a field to the south of the tank in the village.

This Vatteluttu inscription of the 16th regnal year of Sadaiya-Maran states that Iruppaikkudi-Kilavan dismantled the old bund of the tank, strengthened it with stone and renovated a specified length of the bund. The tank was called kilavaneri after the name of the benefactor. A verse at the end of the record is in praise of this Kilavan of Iruppaikkudi in Irunjola-nadu. This chieftain figures in another record dated in the 18th year of the reign of the same king from this same village. (No. 44 below), and in the Tiruchchendur inscription of Varaguna-Maraya (No. 16-A above).

No. 44.

(A. R. No. 334 of 1929-30.)

Erukkangudi, Sattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On a slab on the bund of the tank in the village.

This long Vatteluttu inscription in Tamil verse is stated to have been engraved in the 18th year of the reign of the Pandya king Sadaiya-Maran who has been called also Srivallabhan. It records that this king who had conquered his enemies from Kunnur to Simhalam bestowed the title of Iruppaikkudi-Kilavan on a certain Etti-Sattan and that the latter repaired several tanks in Irunjola-nadu and built some temples and ambalams. The tank near which the slab is set up was one of the many water reservoirs, which benefited by this chief’s philanthropic projects. He dismantled the old earthen bund, and built in its stead a stone-faced few embankment, so that this tank was now called Kilavaneri, after his title of ‘Kilavan.’ These activities of this chieftain have been reviewed in the Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy for the year 1929-30, part ii, paragraph 2.

No. 45.

(A. R. No. 368 of 1904.)

Sittannavasal, Kulattur Taluk, (Pudukkottai State), Tiruchirappalli District.

On the rock south of the rock-cut Jaina temple.

This inscription in Tamil verse, which is engraved in early characters with the pulli marked for the basic consonants, refers to the Pandya king Srivalluvan (i.e., Srivallabha), who had the title Avanipasekharan. On his behalf a certain Ilan-Gautaman who is described as an asiriyan of Madurai repaired the agamandapa of the temple at Annalvayil and built the mukha-mandapa in front of it. The record being damaged, the details are lost but from the existing portion it is inferred that some gifts of land were also made to the priests of the temple.

No. 46.

(A. R. No. 425 of 1914.)

Pallimadam, Aruppukottai Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On the north wall of the Kalanathasvamin temple.

This record of the 2nd year of Sadaiya-Maran is slightly damaged in the middle and appears to register a gift of 25 sheep for the maintenance of a lamp in the temple of Sundarapandya-Isvara-Devar at Tiruchchuriyal, a devadana in Parttikkudi-nadu by a carpenter of Kalisalmangalam, a brahmadeya in Alarru-nadu. Vanavanmadevi(mangalam) a brahmadeya in Venbu-nadu is also mentioned. This record may be assigned to the reign of rajasimha, who was a contemporary of the Chola king Parantaka I and who was defeated by him as stated in the Udayendiram plates.

No. 47.

(A. R. No. 216 of 1932-33.)

Perungulam, Srivaikuntam Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south side of the entrance into the Ardhamandapa of the

Tiruvaludisvara temple.

This damaged record of the 2nd year of Sadaiya-Maran refers to a gift of a perpetual lamp by the son-in-la o Tayanjattan, a Vellala of Pallip-Perumbulingavu in Tinaikkalamangalam, a village in Kuda-nadu to the god Tiruvaludisvarattu-Alvar at Perungulam in Tiruvaludi-valanadu.

No. 48.

(A. R. No. 503 of 1907.)

Madurai, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District.

On two slabs in the Madanagopalasvamin temple.

This Vatteluttu inscription was found engraved on two slabs in the compound of the Madangopala temple at Madurai. They apparently belonged to a temple of Siva named Tirutturutti-Bhatara from were they appear to have been brought to this temple. It is dated in the 2 + 1st year of Sadaiya-Maran and probably belongs to the time of Rajasimha. It registers the usual gift of sheep for a lamp to be maintained in that temple.

No. 49.

(A. R. No. 287 of 1923.)

Tirukkottiyur, Tiruppattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On a slab in the store-room of the Samyanarayana-Perumal temple

This Vatteluttu record which is let into the wall of the store-room and is kept bottom up, is dated in the 2 + 1st year of Sadiya-Maran. The secondary loop is attached to the top of the respective consonants and not to the side. The record, which may be assigned to the time of Rajasimha, must have belonged to Siva temple at the village, though it is now found embedded in the wall of the Vishnu temple. It registers a gift of a perpetual lamp by a certain Anukki Sundaravalli of Kannikudi in Kil-Iraniyamuttam to the god Periya-Srikoyil-Bhatara of Tirukkottiyur.

Above this record is another short one registering a gift of cows and sheep for a lamp by a merchant named Kandan-Sankaranaranan, and belonging to about the same period. The damaged portion consisting of a few Sanskrit verses is not decipherable, and as only a few words are legible here and there, such as Srigoshthinatha in line 6, no continuous sense can be made out.

No. 50.

(A. R. No. 323 of 1904.)

Kudimiyamalai, Kulattur Taluk, (Pudukkottai State), Tiruchirappalli District.

On a pillar in the rock-cut cave temple.

This record (same as A.R. No. 238 of 1911), dated in the 2 + 1 + 1st year of the reign of Sadaiya-Maran registers a gift of gold by Parantaka-Adalaiyur-nadalvan alias Kadamban-Etti for burning a lamp in the temple of Tirumulattanattu-Mahadeva at Tirunilakkunram, a devadana in Kunriyur-nadu. After line 10, there is another inscription, which is dated in the 10th year of an unspecified Pandya king and registers another gift of gold by two persons of Nenmali-nadu to the same temple for the expenses of conducting a festival therein.

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