The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Text of the Inscriptions 

1 to 25

26 to 50

51 to 75

76 to 100

101 to 128

129 to 150

151 to 175

176 to 200

201 to 225

226 to 250

251 to 267

Appendix

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

PANDYA INSCRIPTIONS

INSCRIPTION OF THE EARLY PANDYAS

Nos. 1 and 2.

(A. R. Nos. 453 and 454 of 1906)

Anaimalai, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District.

On the walls of the verandah in the rock-cut cave-temple of

Narasimha-Perumal on the hill.

These two records engraved in early Grantha and Vatteluttu characters belong to Maranjadalyan who is also called Parantaka. They are important because the Kali year 3871 is also quoted for this king, thus furnishing a valuable chronological landmark for early Pandya history. The rock-cut temple of Narasimha was begun by Maran-Kari alias Muvendamangalapperaraiyan, a vaidya of Karavandapura alias Kalakkudi and an Uttaramantrin (minister) of the Pandya king, but as he died subsequently, the work was completed by his brother Maran-Eyinan alias Pandimangala-Visaiyaraiyan who succeeded him in the office of minister, who added the mukha-mandapa and had the consecration ceremony performed. As the person first mentioned had also the title Madurakavi, it has been tentatively assumed that he had some connection with the Vaishnava Alvar named Kari Maran alias Nammavar, the author of the Tiruvaymoli. Karavandapuram has been identified with Ukkirankottai in the Tirunelveli taluk of the district of the same name, in the inscriptions copied from which, the village is called Kalakkudi and Ka andai.

No. 3

(A. R. No. 373 and 454 of 1908)

Tirupparankunram, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District.

On one of the pillars in the rock-cut cave.

This Vatteuttu inscription dated in the 6th year of Maranjadaiyan which is engraved in arachaic letters, has been attributed to Jatila Parantaka of the Anaimalai inscription noted above. It records the construction of the Tirukkoyil (shrine) and of the Sir-tatakam (tank) by Sattan-Ganapati, a resident of Karavandapura, who is called Pandi-Amritamangalavaraiyan, and is stated to have belonged to the Vaidya caste and to have been the mahasamanta of the king. The shrines of Durgadevi and Jyeshthadevi were constructed by Nakkan-Korri, who is described as the Dharmapatn probably of this mahasamanta. On account of the interest of this record, the text is reproduced here.

No. 4

(A. R. No. 480 and 454 of 1917)

Kuttalam, Tenkasi Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a pillar in the north-side of the Kurralanatha temple.

This incomplete record is dated in the 4th year and 360th day of the Pandya king Maranjadaiyan and mentions the gift of some donation by Maran-Achchan, probably a petty chieftain of Poliyur, for a lamp in the temple of Tirukurralattu-Bharata. This person also figures in a record from Tiruppattur in the Ramanathapuram district, where he is mentioned with the other title of Tennavan Pallavaraiyan.

No. 5

(A. R. No. 90 and 454 of 1908)

Tiruppattiru, Tiruppattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District

On the north wall of the Thiruttalisvara temple.

This bilingual inscription consists of a portion in Sanskrit and a portion in Tamil. The Sanskrit portion states that Tennavan-Pallavadhipa alias Maran-Aditya born at Polivur in Poliyur-nadu made a gift of 40 Krishna-kacha for burning a lamp in the temple of Sulapani at Sristhali. The Tamil portion, dated the in the 4th + 1st year and 593rd day of the reign of Maranjadaiyan states that Maran-Achchan of Poliyur in Poliyur-nadu gave a donation of 40 kalanju to the Sabha of Manarkudi for a lamp to be burnt in the temple of Tirukkarrali-Bhatara at Tirupputtur, a brahmadeya in Mikundaru in Koluvur-kurram and another gift of kalanju to the vannar of the place. This chieftain Maran-Achchan has figured in another record from Kuttalam in the Tirunelveli District.

No. 6

(A. R. No. 364 of 1907)

Aduturai, Papanasam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the north wall of the Apatsahayesvara temple

This inscription of Maranjadaiyan of the year opposite to the year which was itself opposite to the fourth year of the king comes from Aduturai. From a record of the Chola king Uttama-Chola it is learnt that this temple was rebuilt during his reign by his pious mother Sembiyan-Mahadeviyar, and so the characters in which this record is engraved are later that the time of Varaguna to whom this and the next record can be attributed. This epigraph registers some provision made for the supply of one uri of oil daily to the temple of Mahadeva at Tirukkurangadutura
in Tiraimur-nadu. Kurangaduturai has been curtailed into the modern name of Aduturai.

No. 7

(A. R. No. 358 of 1907)

Aduturai, Papanasam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the south wall of the Apatsahayesvara temple

This inscription also from Aduturai is peculiarly dated as 4 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1st year of the Pandya king Maranjadaiyan and relates to some provision for the supply of oil to the temple of Tirukkurangaduturai-Mahadeva by the sabha of Maruttuvakkudi in Tiraimur-nadu. The significance of the regnal year, as cited here, instead of as 4 apposite to the year, is not clear.

No. 8

(A. R. No. 13 of 1907)

Kumbakonam, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the west wall of the shrine of the goddess in the Nagesvara Temple.

This Tamil record dated in the 4 + 4th year of Maranjadaiyan registers a gift of 138 cows and 100 kasu by the king for the supply of milk and ghee and for maintaining two perpetual lamps in the temple of Bhatara of Tirukkilkottam in Tirukkudammukkur, i.e., Kumbakonam. The regnal year of this inscription corresponds apparently to the year 4 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1, quoted in the Aduturai records (No. 7 above)

No. 9

(A. R. No. 136 of 1908)

Tiruppattur, Tiruppattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On a slab in the first prakara of the Tiruttalisvara temple.

This inscription of Maranjadaiyan is dated in the 4th year opposite to the 6th, which apparently is a wrong citation for 4 + 6th year. The Sanskrit sloka at the beginning states that Patta, the daughter of Maran and the wife of Sankara donated 10 dinara for a lamp to the god Sristhalisa. The Tamil portion records the same fact in greater detail. The brahmana Mosi Kandan Sankaran is stated to be the son of the kilar of Arukandur and the amount of gift is specified as 10 kasu. The endowment was left under the protection of Ayirattelunurruvar. What exactly is meant by this name is not clear.

No. 10

(A. R. No. 414 of 1904)

Tiruchichirappalli, Tiruchchirappalli Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District.

On the wall of the rock-cut cave

This interesting inscription engraved in the Pallava rock-cut cave-temple on the hill at Tiruchichirappalli is dated in the 4th year and 2,501st day of the reign of king Maranjadaiyan, who is also called Pandyadhiraja Varaguna[varman]. Having destroyed the fort at Vembil (i.e., Vembarrur near Kumbakonam), the king was staying at Niyamam at the time of the issue of this record. He is described as an ornament of both the solar and lunar dynasties, probably because of an earlier marital alliance between the Chola (solar) and the Pandya (lunar) ruling families. The king is stated to have made a gift of 125 kalanju of gold to the temple of Tirumalai-Bhatara, by which the linga in the rock-cut cave is evidently meant. From the fact that provision was made for burning five lamps in this temple on the day of Ardra every month, it is probable that Ardra was the natal star of this king.

No. 11

(A. R. No. 413 of 1904.)

Tiruchichirappalli, Tiruchchirappalli Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District.

On a pillar in the upper rock-cut cave on the hill.

This record engraved in archaic Tamil characters with pullis marked for basic consonants, is dated in the 9th year opposite to the 4th year of the reign of Maranjadaiyan, who is referred to also as Pandyadhipati-Varaguna. The king is stated to have given 537 kalanju of gold to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . nattu-velan, out of which four gold pattams and a gold flower were made for decorating the God Tirumalai-Perumanadigal. The astronomical details contained in the record are unfortunately mutilated.

No. 12

(A. R. No. 84 of 1910.)

Tiruvellarai, Lalgudi Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District.

On the rock in front of the Jambunathasvami temple

This record dated in the 9th year opposite to the 4th year of king Maranjadaiyan is important in that it contains a few astronomical details of its date, which are capable of verification, namely, Vrischika, Monday, Asvati. These have been calculated to yield the English equivalent – A.D. 824, November 7, Monday, thus giving A.D. 811, as the initial date of this Pandya king. This king is referred to as Pandi-Maharaja in line 5 and he has been identified with varaguna I. This inscription registers a gift of 120 kalanju of gold by the king left in the hands of Andanattu-velan, for burning two perpetual lamps in the temple of Tiruvanaikkar-Perumanadigal.

The rock-out cave at Tiruvellarai contains a Svia-linga in the main cell, herein called Tiruvanaikkar-Perumanadigal, and an image of Vishnu in an adjoining cell. The rock-cut cave-temple may date from the time of the late Pallavas, as records of Dantivarman and Nandivarman are found engraved on the rock in front of the cave and in the village.

No. 12-A

(A. R. No. 120 of 1928-29.)

Lalgudi, Lalgudi Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District.

On the north wall of the Saptarishisvara temple

This inscription is dated in the year opposite to the fourth of some king whose name is not given in it. It registers a gift of money made by the Pallava king Nandippottaraiyar who fought and won the battle of Tellaru, for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tiruttavatturai in Idaiyarru-nadu. The amount was received by the members of the assembly of Nallimangalam who bound themselves to bring to the temple and measure out daily (one) nail of ghee.

As the other record (No. 12-B) engraved to close to this and dated in a similar way belongs to Maranjadaiyan alias Varaguna-maharaja, this may be also assigned to the same king.

(Published in Epigraphia Indica, Indica, Vol. XX, pp. 46 ff.)

No. 12-B

(A. R. No. 121 of 1928-29.)

Lalgudi, Lalgudi Taluk, Tiruchirappalli District.

On the north wall of the Saptarishisvara temple

This record of Maranjadaiyan, alias Pandyakulapati Varaguna Maharaja registers the gift of l120 kasu by the king for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tiruttavatturai Idaiyarru-nadu. The king is stated to have transmitted the gift through a certain Andanattu-velan and the money was received by the assembly of Ilamperunkayirukkai in Idaiyarru-nadu who agreed to supply one nail of ghee for burning the lamp.

The inscription is dated in the year 4 + 9 of the king’s reign and the details of date, viz., Dhanus, Sadaiyam (Satabhishaj), and Tuesday have been equated with 824 A.D. November 29, and the king is identified with Varaguna I

(Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XX, pp. 46 ff.)

No. 13

(A.R. No. 105 of 1905.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a slab built into the floor of the Erichchavudaiyar Temple. (The slab is now in the Madras Museum.)

This record dated in the 4 + 12th year of the reign of Varaguna-Maharaja registers the gift of 290 kasu to the sabhi of Ilangoykkudi in Mulli-nadu for worship and offerings to the God Bhatara in the Srikoyil of Tiruppottudaiyar. The gift was made when Varaguna was stationed at Araisur on the bank of the Pennai river in Tondai-nadu.

No. 14

(A. R. No. 185 of 1926.)

Tiruchchirraambalam, Pattukkottai Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the door-jamb of the Ardhamandapa of the Puratanavanesvara temple.

This record is very much damaged and only certain portions containing the name of the king, Varaguna-Maharaja and the name of the village, Tiruchchirremam are preserved. The regnal year of the king namely, the 12th, opposite to the 4th, is also legible.

No. 15

(A.R. No. 137 of 1908.)

Tiruppattur, Tiruppattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On a slab in the prakara of the Tiruttalisvara temple.

This record belongs to the reign of the Pandya king Varaguna-Maharaja and is dated in the 4th year and 4635th day of his reign. The pulli is marked in many consonants which fact proves its early date.

The Sanskrit verse at the beginning states that a certain Kadambavelan donated 15 kasu and that from its interest a lamp was to be maintained in the temple of Siva of Nutangrama.

The Tamil portion records that Maravan Anukkapperaraiyan alias Kadambanvelan of Perumattur in Mutturru-kurram made a gift of 15 palangasu and a lamp stand for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple and another similar amount for the supply of garlands to the deity. Tiruppattur (Nulanagrama) is said to be a brahmadeya in Koluvur-kurram.

No. 16

(A. R. No. 138 of 1908.)

Tiruppattur, Tiruppattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On a slab lying in the Angalamman temple.

This record also comes from Tiruppattur and is dated in some year, which was probably [4], and 4985th day of king Maranjadaiyan’s reign. It registers that Manomayan-Maran, the kavadi of Ilavenbaikkalattirukkai, presented 150 sheep for the maintenance of a perpetual lamp to the god Jalasayanattu-Bhatarar at Tirupputtur, a brahmadeya in Koluvur-kurram. This image must have been one of Vishnu in his recumbent form, but no traces of it are seen now. The term Kavadi signifies a ‘revenue officer’ and is found applied to even petty officials in the Chola country at this period. As in No. 9 above, the corporate body called the ‘Ayirattelunurruvar’ were to be in charge of this charity also.

No. 16-A

(A.R. No. 26 of 1912.)

Tiruchchendur, Tiruchchendur Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On two slabs setup in the Subrahmanyasvamin temple.

This inscription of Varaguna-Maharaja registers the gift by the king, of 1,400 kasu for meeting the various annual requirements of the temple of Subrahmany-bhatarar. The money was invested by the king’s three officers Iruppaikkudikilavan, Sattamperuman and Alarrurnattukkon with the administrative bodies of various villages which were required to pay annually interest in grain to the temple at two kalam per kasu per year.

The record is dated in the year 13 opposite to a certain year (lost), of the king’s reign. The amount of 1,400 kasu is stated to have been made over on the 5001st day (line 7).

Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XXI, pp. 101 ff.

No. 17

(A. R. No. 10 of 1927.)

Vijayanarayanam, Nanguneri Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Manonmanisvara temple.

The subjoined inscription is dated in the 2nd year of Maranjadaiyan and registers that Panchavan-Pallavaraiyan alias Vel-Sendil of Korrampullankudi in Mudukudi-nadu purchased some lands from the sabha of Vijayanarayna-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Nattarruppokku and gave them to the temples of Raghva-Perumal-nadigal and Manomayanlchchurattur-Perumanadigal. The names of another god Tantonripperumanadigal and of a channel Paramechchuvara-vaykkal are mentioned.  While describing the boundaries of the land in question.

No. 18

(A. R. No. 85 of 1927.)

Tirunelveli, Tirunelveli Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the Narasimha-Perumal temple.

This Vatteluttu record is dated in the 2nd year of the reign of Maranjadaiyan and registers a gift of cows made by Sattanammai, for burning a lamp in the temple of Brahmapurittevar at Tirunelveli, on behalf of Sattan-Deyam, a devaradiya of Tirunelvel in Kil-Vemba-nadu. Etti-Jatavedan, a vettikkudi agreed to burn the lamp and Mananadai-Madevan, another vettikkudi stood security (punai) for the former.

It is possible that the temple was originally one of Siva called Brahmapurittevar. A record of rajaraja I dated in the 12th year of his reign also refers to the god by this name only (No. 84 of 1927) ; and it is only in a record of Jatavarman Kulasekhara (No. 83 of 1927) that the Narasimha-Perumal is referred to as Vikrama-Pandya-vinnagar-Alvar.

No. 19

(A. R. No. 128 of 1905.)

Tirukkurungudi, Nanguneri Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a stone belonging to the Nambi temple (now in the Madras Museum).

This Vatteluttu inscription of Maranjadaiyan is dated in the 4th year and registers a sale by the mahasabhaiyar of Vaikuntha-valanadu in Nattarruppokku to Panchavan Brahmadhirajan alias Sendan-Sattan of Nellittola in Malai-nadu, who made it over to the temple of god Emberuman, who was pleased to be stationed at Tirukkurungudi, for providing offerings, etc., therein. This record may, for paleographical considerations be assigned to Varaguna-Maharaja I.

There is a shrine of the god Sasta in the Vishnu temple at this place. This is peculiar, and its existence has to be accounted for by the vicinity of Tirukkurungudi to Travancore, were worship of Sasta is popular. Sendan-Sattan of Malai-nadu was evidently a Malayala brahmana and he appears to have been a person of some note, as indicated by the title Panchavan-Brahmadhiraja born by him, apparently as a Pandya official.

No. 20

(A. R. No. 21 of 1930-31.)

Trukkodikaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the west wall of the Tirukkotisvara Temple.

This record is stated to be a copy of an earlier inscription dated in the 4th year of the reign of Maranjadaiyan and relates to the gift of 15 kalanju for burning a lamp in the temple of Tirukkodika-Mahadeva, by Araiyan-Kalvan of Panaiyur in Peraiyur-nadu. The money was left in the custody of the sabha of Naranakka-chaturvedimangalam.

The original stray stones on which the record had been engraved having become useless, it is said that they were replaced and the old record re-engraved on the new stones.

No. 21

(A. R. No. 37 of 1930-31.)

Tirukkodikaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the south wall of the Tirukkotisvara temple.

The record stated to be a copy of another inscription made during some repairs in the temple states that Varaguna-Maharajar endowed 180 kalanju of gold for burning from the interest thereon three perpetual lamps before the images of Sri Sarasvati and Ganapati in the temple at Tirukkodika alias Kannamangalam. The existence of an auxiliary shrine for the goddess Sarasvati at this early period is of interest. The regnal year in this inscription appears to be some numeral, of which the first digit is 1, but there appears to be some mistake in the copy.

No. 22

(A. R. No. 705 of 1905.)

Ayyampalaiyam, Palani Taluk, Madurai District.

Above the natural cave on the hill called Aivarmalai.

This Vatteluttu record which couples the 8th regnal year of king Varaguna with Saka 792 and the Anaimalai inscription of Jatila-Parantaka which is dated in the Kali era form the two important landmarks in early Pandya chronology. The present epigraph yields A.D. 862-3 as the date of accession of Varaguna. It registers a gift of 505 kanam of gold by Santivirakkuravar of Kalam, the disciple lof Gunavirakkuravadigal for offerings to the images of Parisva-Bhatara, i.e., Parsvanatha and of the attendant yeakshis which he had renovated and for the feeding of one ascetic.

The images sculptured on the brow of the cavern on this hill, as well as the references in this record indicate that a Jaina colony flourished on this hill in the 9th century A.D. It may be noted that the hill is called Tiruvayirai, which is the name by which it is referred to in early Tamil literature.

No. 23

(A. R. No. 295 of 1916.)

Singampatti, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On a rock in a field at Melai-Singampatti.

This highly damaged Vatteluttu record belongs to the 8th year of the king Maranjadaiyan, but nothing more than his name can be traced in this inscription.

No. 24.

(A. R. No. 17 of 1907.)

Tiruvisalur, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the south wall of the Sivayoganatha temple.

This record which is built in at the right end is dated in the year opposite to the [13]th year of the reign of [Vara]guna-maharaja and appears to refer to some gift, the details of which are not available, to the god Tiruvisalur of Avaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam.

No. 25

(A. R. No. 311 of 1904.)

Tirugokarnam, Alangudi Taluk, Pudukkottai State (now Tiruchchirappalli District).

On the south wall of the Gokaranesvara temple.

This record dated in the 17th year of the reign of Maranjadaiyan registers a gift of gold by Varagunavadiyaraiyan alias Nakkan-Setti of Kalkurichchi in Kaviappal, a village in Valla-nadu. The record may be assigned to Varagunavarman as the name Varaguna-vadiyaraiyan is borne by the donor in it. The characters of such this inscription is engraved are some what peculiar as their top-strokes have curve.

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