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Monday, March 05, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

PANDYA INSCRIPTIONS

CHOLA-PANDYA VICEROYS

No. 176.

(A. R. No.  338 of 1929-30.)

Kundalakkuttu, Sattur Taluk, Ramanathapuram District.

On a rock to the North of the Perumal Temple.

This is an incomplete record belonging to the 23rd year of Jatavarman Solapandya, who was probably Sundara-Cholapandya himself.  As the record is damaged after the fifth line, no details as to its contents are available.  Madurantaka-valanadu, a division of Rajaraja-Pandinadu is mentioned.

No. 177.

(A. R. No.  114 of 1905.)

Mannarkoyil, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Gopalasvamin temple.

This record, which was incised in the reign of Jatavarman Sundara-Cholapandya, whose regnal year is, however, lost in a portion which is now missing, gives a catalogue of several persons who had received gifts of buffaloes and cows from the Chera king Rasingadevar-Bhandaram (i.e., Rajasimha), in return for which they had to supply specified quantities of ghee to the temple for burning therewith perpetual lamps.

No. 178.

(A. R. No.  410 of 1906.)

Sevilipem, Tirunelveli Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the central shrine in the Alagar temple.

This record, which belongs to the reign of Jatavarman Sundara-Cholapandya, is damaged at the date portion.  It registers a gift of fifty sheep by Ravinarayanan of Tiruvelur alias Tralokyamadevi-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya  in Karungudinadu, a subdivision of Rajedrasola-valanadu, a district of Rajaraja-pandinadu for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Ten Tirumalirunjolai-Emberuman at Tirumukkudal.

No. 179.

(A.R. No.  80 of 1997.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the mandapa  in the Tirumulanatha temple.

This is a fragmentary inscription of Jatavarman Sundara-Cholapandya of which is lost.  It mentions Mutturrukkurram and Tribhuvanamadevi-chaturvedimangalam, which was probably the full name of the village referred to in the wall.

No. 180.

(A. R. No.  85 of 1907.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the base of the ruined shrine in the Tirumulanatha temple.

This record, which is built in at its right end, belongs to the reign of Jatavarman Sundara-Cholapandya, the regnal year being lost.  It registers provision made for burning a lamp to god Karumanikkadeva at Tiruchchalaitturai, the gift having been made by some individual, name lost, belong to the nagaram (city) called Kshatriyasikhamanipuram in the same nadu.

No. 181.

(A. R. No.  88 of 1907.)

Ambasamudram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the base of a ruined shrine in the Tirumulanatha temple.

This epigraph is built in at its left end, and the portion that is visible registers, some endowment made by a vellala named Kurungudi-Solai, which was left in charge of a vaikhanasan doing worship in the temple.  This shrine contains an image of Vishnu, which was called Tiruchchalaitturai-ninrarulina-Emberuman in No. 81 above in the time of the Pandya king Vira Pandya and as Karumanikkadevar in No. 180 above in the time of this Chola-Pandya viceroy.

No. 182.

(A. R. No.  623 of 1916.)

Sermadevi, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the central shrine, Ammainatha temple.

This epigraph, which is fragmentary apparently, belongs to the time of Maravarman Vikrama-Cholapandya.  It mentions the gift of fifty cows made by Ulagudaiyar queen of the Chola king, who took Gangai, Kidaram and Purvadesam, i.e., Rajendra-Chola I, whose name is lost in this inscription, for maintaining two lamps in the temple of Kailasamudaiya-Mahadeva.  Maravarman Vikrama-Cholapandya must have succeeded Jatavarman Sundara-Cholapandya.  The queen Ulagudaiyar, wife of Rajendra-Chola, must have continued to live then.  It is not clear if Rajendra-Chola was dead at the time ; possibly he was.

No. 183.

(A. R. No.  434 of 1909.)

Adanur, Kovilpatti Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the Adilingesvara temple.

This Vatteluttu-record of Maravarman Vikrama-Cholapandyadeva is dated in his twentieth year and registers a gift of 25 sheep by a certain person whose name is obliterated for burning a lamp in the temple at Adanjur in Surangudi-nadu, a subdivision of Mudigondasola-valanadu.  The gift was left under the guardianship of Deyavira, i.e., Deyaviras, who were evidently a battalion of soldiers stationed in the locality.

No. 184.

(A. R. No.  628 of 1916.)

Sermadevi Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the central shrine, Ammainatha temple.

In the 21st year of Maravarman VikramaCholapandyadeva, a certain Brahmana lady of Ninrayil named Manikutti-nangai of the Kundina-gotra made a gift of 25 cows for burning a lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Nigarilisola-chaturvedimangalam.

No. 185.

(A. R. No.  620 of 1916.)

Sermadevi, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the west wall of the central shrine, Ammainatha temple.

Dated in the 22nd year of Maravarman Vikra-Cholapandya this inscription records a gift of 25 sheep made by Kuditangi Sengodi, a  velattal, i.e., a servant-maid of the household of Cheramanar, i.e., the Chera king.  The Chera king is in all probability the Travancore ruler Rajasimha, who has ready figures in the record of Jatavarman Sundara Cholapandya as having built a temple of Rajaendrasola-vinnagar-Alvar at Mannarkoyil (Ep.  Ind. Vol. XI, p. 295-97).

No. 186.

(A. R. No.  406 of 1929-30.)

Attur, Tiruchchendur Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the west wall of the central shrine in the Somanatha temple.

This record dated in the 22nd year of Maravarman Vikrama-Cholapandya registers a gift of paddy by a certain Manjan Sadaiyan of Karuppur in Marugal-nadu, a sub-division of  Kshatriyasikhamani-valanadu, a district of Solamandalam, for the maintenance of a perpetual lamp in the temple of the Somanathadeva at Arrur, and for the expenses of feeding some Srimahesvaras in the temple.  Arrur is stated to be a hamlet of Rajahhiraja-chaturvedimangalam, a bahmadeya in Kuda-nadu.

The fragmentary inscription also engraved on the same wall belongs to this viceroy; but his regnal year is obliterated.  It appears to relate to some unspecified gift made to the temple by a servant named Surri-Tali of Sattamangalam.

No. 187.

(A. R. No.  328 of 1916.)

Tiruvalisvaram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the west wall of the central shrine, Valisvara temple.

This inscription dated in the 25th year of Maravarman Vikra-Cholapandyadeva registers a gift of 13 cows by a certain individual, whose name is obliterated for maintaining half a lamp, apparently in this temple.

No. 188.

(A. R. No.  616 of 1916.)

Sermadevi, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the central shrine, Ammainatha temple.

This damaged inscription of the 25th year of Maravarman Vikrama-Cholapandyadeva registes a gift of 25 sheep, made by a shepherd of the village for burning half a lamp in the Kayilayamudaiya-Mahadeva temple at Nigrilisola-chaturvedimangalam.

No. 189.

(A. R. No.  627 of 1916.)

Sermadevi, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the central shrine, Ammainatha temple.

This record which is dated in the 25th year  of  Maravarman Vikrama-Cholapandya  registers a  gift of 25 cows made by Parakrama-narayana-Brahmasrirajan for a lamp in the temple of Kayilasamudaiya-Mahadeva at Nigarilisola-chaturvedimangalam.  This Parakrama-narayana, apparently a brahmana, is described as dandanayakam, i.e., a captain of a regiment of the Chola army, which must have been posted in this locality.  Parakrama-Narayana may have been a biruda of the viceroy himself, from which perhaps the captain had copied his own surname.

No. 190.

(A. R. No.  640 of 1916.)

Sermadevi, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the east wall of the Dakshinamurti shrine in the Ammainatha temple.

This record of the [25]th year of Maravarman Vikrama-Cholapandya relates to the gift of 12 kasu by Madevinangai-sani, the mother of a certain Karipurattu Nambi, a madhyastha of the village, and the agreement tendered by the Sivabrahmanas  of the two temples, Cholendrasimhesvara and Srikayilasam at Nigarilisola-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Mulli-nadu to burn a lamp in front of the god Dakshinamurtideva in the Srikailasa temple.  Mention is made of a portion of this temple called Rajadhirajan-tiruchchurralai, i.e, the circumambulatory corridor evidently named after Rajahiraja, the successor of Rajendra-Chola I on the Chola throne at this time.

No. 191.

(A. R. No.  393 of 1929-30.)

Attur, Tiruchchendur Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the central shrine in the Somanatha Temple.

This record is dated in the 25th year of the reign of Maravarman Vikrama-Cholapandyadeva and registers an agreement given by the aganaligai-sivabrahmanas, i.e., the priests in charge of the inner precincts of the temple to the temple authorities to the effect that they will conduct the items of charity, namely, the provision of milk-porridge to the god Somanathadeva at Arrur in Rajadhiraja-chaturvedimangalam and feeding fifteen Sivabrahmanas in the temple on each amavasya day every month for which a gift of money had been made by Kandan-Ayyanar of Mangalakkal.  This amount was invested on the purchase of some lands, land from the annual produce of these lands, the charity was to be conducted.

The donor Kandan-Ayyanar is also called Nripasikhamani-Muvendavelan, evidently after the biruda of some royal personage but whose surname Nripasikhamani is not ascertainable.

No. 192.

(A. R. No.  417 of 1929-30.)

Attur Tiruchchendur Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the central lshrine in the somanatha temple.

This record which is dated in the 25th year of Maravarman Vikra-Cholapandyadeva refers to the gift of paddy by a certain Udaiyadivakkaran Tirumurti of Madevimangalam in Panaiyur-nadu in Kshatriyasikhamani-valanadu, a district of Solamandalam for providing panchagavya on the days of amavaysa to the image of god Ten-Tiruppuvanam-udaiyar, in the temple of Somanathadeva at Arrur, and for feeding ten brahmanas on those days in the temple.  These brahmanas were required to be paradesis, i.e., those who did not belong to the village but had come thereafter a sacred bath in the sanghamukam and should be of good character (nallaray-iruppar).  The ingredients for the panchagavya (the five products of the cow) are enumerated as milk, curds, ghee, gomutra and gomaya.

No. 193.

(A. R. No.  113 of 1905.)

Mannarkoyil, Ammasamudram Taluk, Tiunelveli District.

On the south all of the Gopalasvamin temple.

This incomplete inscription probably belongs to Maravarman Vikrama Cholapandya whose name and date are lost in the portion built in the wall, at the right side.  Mention is made of Seramanar Rajarajadevar, and a certain Gandaradittan Pichchan.

No. 194.

(A. R. No.  642 of 1916.)

Sermadevi, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the west and north walls of the central shrine in the Ammainatha temple.

This inscription is dated in the 3rd  year but the king’s name is not specified at the beginning.  It states that when Jatavarman alias Udaiyar Solapandyadeva was seated in the bathing room (irumanjanasalai in the palace at Rajendrasolapuram, the royal order of his father (nam ayyar who has the historical introduction virametunaiyagavum (i.e., Virarajendradeva) was received that certain lands belonging to the temple of Kailasanatha at Nigarilisola-chaturvedimangalam may be exempted from the payment of taxes from the third year, apparently of the Cholapandya viceroy, the necessary revenue instructions were issued to that effect.  The document is worded in detail like the Chola records of this period, and is attested by a number of officials in conformity with the revenue procedure prevalent at that time.

This Cholapandya viceroy was evidently the son of Virarajendradeva named Gangaikondasolan on whom the title of Chola-pandya had been conferred by his father.  In a record from Attur in the same district there is reference to another son named Rajendra-Chola, who is said to have been granted the title of Cholapandya.

No. 195.

(A. R. No.  403 of 1906.)

Sevilaperi, Tirunelveli Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the central shrine in the Alagar Temple.

This record, which belongs to the same Jatavarman Cholapandya, is dated in his regnal year and registers a gift of twenty-five sheep by a certain Perrakkari Alallan, a shepherd of the temple of Tirunelveli-devar in Kil-Vemba-nadu for burning lamp in the temple of Ten-Tirumajrunjolai-Alvar on behalf of Vemban Kulavan Perrakari.

Alagarkoyil in the Madurai District is called Tirumalirunjolai and the god at iperi has been named Ten-Tirumalirunjolai in consideration of its position to the of its Madurai namesake.

No. 196.

(A. R. No.  329 of 1916.)

Tiruvalisvaram, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the west wall of the central shrine in the Valisvara temple.

This record belongs to Maravarman Parakrama-Cholapandyadeva and is dated in the 3rd regnal year.  As he bears the title Maravarman, there must have been a viceroy with the title Jatavarman between him and Maravarman Vikrama-Cholapandya.  This Parakrama must have been the last Cholapandya viceroy, and with him this administrative device of appointing viceroys to this outlying province was apparently given up.

This record registers a gift of sheep by a certain Raman-Keni alias Naduvirukkai Danmasetti for a lamp in the temple of Tiruvalsvaram-udaiyar.  The man with whom the sheep were left, namely, Nasakan Kuvanai also figures in No. 170 above.

No. 197.

(A. R. No.  613 of 1916.)

Sermadevi, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the north wall of the central shrine, Ammainatha Temple.

This record of Maravarman Parakrama-Cholapandyadeva  is dated in the 4th year and registers a gift of 12 kasu by Yogadeva and Somadevi from Kasairadesam for burning a lamp in the temple of Sri-Kayilayamudaiya-Mahadeva at Nigarilisola-chaturvedimangalam, a brahmadeya in Mulli-nadu.

It is of interest of notice that natives of Kasmiradesam sojourned in the south, either on pilgrimage or as a result of the patronage extended to Saivism by Chola and Pandya kings.  Several natives of Kasmiradesam and Aryadesam have figured in Chola and Pandya epigraphs.

MEDIAEVAL PANDYAS

(JATAVARMAN SRIVALLABHA.)

No. 198.

(A. R. No.  323 of 1908.)

Kuruvitturai, Nilakkottai Taluk, Madurai District.

On the west wall of the central shrine in the Chitrarathavallabha-Perumal Temple.

This record of the 2nd year of Jatavarman Srivallabha commences with the historical introduction, ‘Tirumadandaiyum,’ etc., and registers a gift o 100 diramam  by the two widows of a brahmana  named Turppil Sridhara-Bhatta of Cholantaka-chaturvedimangalam, and both of them sisters of a certain Sundarattol-udaiyan-Bhattan of Gomapuram, through whom the endowment is stated to have been made.  The interest collected on the investment amounted to 2 diramam per month, i.e., it worked to 24 per cent per annum

No. 199.

(A. R. No.  539  of 1911.)

Sermadevi, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District.

On the south wall of the first prakara in the Bhaktavatsala temple.

This record dated in the 2nd year of Srivallabha may be attributed to Jatavarman Srivallabha.  It registers a gift of sheep by Srivallabhan-Raman of Mulli-nadu for burning a lamp in the temple of god Emberuman who was pleased to be stationed at Bhaktapriyam.

No. 200.

(A. R. No.  507 of 1907.)

Madurai, Madurai Taluk, Madurai District.

On the Thirteenth stone in the Madanagopalasvamin temple.

This short inscription is engraved on a slab in the Madanagopalasvamin temple at Madurai and is dated in the 3rd year of Tribhuvanachakravartin Srivallabha and may be assigned to the Jatavarman of this name.  His queen Ulagamulududaiyal endowed some land for the maintenance of a matha.  Apparently this slab was brought from some Siva temple and is now found in the compound of the Vishnu temple.

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