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Saturday, March 03, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Pallva Inscriptions

Nos.76 to 100

No. 76.

(A. R. No. 60 of 1923).

Puduppakkam, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab built into the floor of the Mandapa in

front of the Saptamatri shrine in the Selliyamman temple.

This fragmentary record is dated in the 24th year of a king whose name is partially lost and registers a gift of land as bhattavritti by Sivanandi . . . . . . . . . . of Sunrur and another, whose name is lost, both members of the alum-gana of Nal[lil]-mangalam in Merpalugur-nadu, a subdivision of [Mana]yir-kottam.

From its paleography the record may be attributed to the 9th century A.D. and considering the high regnal year, it can be taken as belonging to Nripatungappottaraiyar.

No. 77.

(A. R. No. 414 of 1923).

Peranakkavur, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

This is a damaged record of the same king dated in his 24th year.

No. 78.

(A. R. No. 22 of 1930-31).

Tirukkodikaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the west wall of the central shrine in the Tirukkodisvara temple.

This record of the 24 year of Vijaya-Nripatungavikramavarman, like No. 74 above, is stated to be a copy of an old stone inscription.  It is engraved in continuation of a record of the Pandya king Maranjadaiyan (A. R. No. 21 of 1930-31) and followed by an inscription of the Chola king Rajakesarivarman (A.R. No. 23 of 1930-31).  It registers an agreement made by the assembly of Naranakka-chaturvedimangalam to burn a perpetual lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tirukkodikavu for the interest on 15 kalanju of gold received by them from
Vettuvadi-Araiyan alias Mallan Vengadavan of Konda-nadu.

No. 79.

(A. R. No. 397 of 1905).

Kaverippakkam, Arkonam Taluk, North Arcot District.

On a stone built into the ceiling of the mandapa in

front of the central shrine in the Varadaraja-perumal temple.

This is a damaged record of Vijaya-Nripatungavikrama[varman] dated in the 25th year recording an agreement made by the assembly of Avaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam to supply one ulakku  of oil daily to a matha.

No. 80.

(A. R. No. 172 of 1930).

Pillaippakkam, Sriperumbudur Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the base of the central shrine of the ruined Siva temple.

This is a damaged record of Nripatungavikramavarman dated is his 2 * year and it registers a gift o 6 ma of land for providing offerings to the god Mahadeva at Pillaippakkam by a certain Ayyakkuttiyar for the merit of his elder brother Pillaipakkilar of Pillaippa[kk*]m.

No. 81.

(A. R. No. 172-A of 1929-30).

On the same base.

This fragmentary inscription of the same king is engraved in continuation of the above record and it registers a gift of 7 ma of land to the temple by a certain [Pa]dirikilar Singan.  The regnal year of the king is lost.

No. 82.

(A. R. No. 394 of 1905).

Kaverippakkam, Arkonam Taluk, North Arcot District.

On a sab in the verandah round the central shrine of the Adhipurisvara temple.

This date of this fragmentary inscription of Nripatungavarman is partly lost.  It mentions the assembly o Kavidippa[kkam] alias  Amaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam and Videlvidugu . . . . . in Mangadu-nadu, a subdivision of Paduvur-kottam.

No. 83.

(A. R. No. 108 of 1933-34).

Achcharavakkam, Chingleput Taluk and District.

On a slab lying near the Agastisvara temple.

This is an incomplete record of Nripatungavarman, the date of which is, however, lost.  It records a gift of 800 kuli of land as archchanabhoga to provide for worship to the god Agattisrittevar (Agastisvara) by a certain Sankan.

APARAJITAVARMAN

No. 84.

(A. R. No. 62 of 1923).

Puduppakkam, Conjeeveram Tauk, Chingleput District.

On a slab lying in the compound of the Selliyamman temple.

This is a fragmentary inscription of Apara[jitavarman] dated in his 3rd year.  It seems to register a remission of taxes by the assembly of Nalli[mangalam], which is also mentioned in a record of [Raja]kesarivarman from the same village (No. 61 of 1923).  Nallilmangaam is probably identical with the modern Puduppakkam itself.

No. 85.

(A. R. No. 351 of 1908).

Mangadu, Sriperumbudur Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab built into the floor of the central shrine in the Vallisvara temple.

This is a mutilated inscription, also dated in the 3rd year of Vijaya-Aparajitavarman.  It registers a gift of gold for a lamp and offerings to the god Tiruvellikil-Mahadeva at Mangadu by the mother of . . . . . . . .  kka-Mahadeviyar, who was related to . . . . . . . . pidugu Talittevanar of Kachchippedu.

The pulli  is invariably marked in this record.

No. 86.

(A. R. No. 31 of 1912).

Satyavedu, Ponneri Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a stone lying in the courtyard of the Matangesvara temple.

This inscription, dated in the 4th year of Aparajitavarman, registers a gift of the village Turaiyur including its income in gold and puravu for conducting worship in the temple of Mahadeva at Tirumatanganpalli[1] in Tekkur-nadu, a subdivision of Paiyyur-Ilankottam, by Kumarandai Kurumbaradittan[2] alias Kadupattipperaraiyan who is stated to have belonged to Sera-nadu.

The term puravu[3] may be explained as a tax on land, which was collected either kin kind or coin (cf. puravu-pon :  S.I.I. Vol. II, p. 512).  A special department called puravuvari-tinaikkalam  seems to have managed its collection.  Turaiyur which is said to have been situated in Tekkur-nadu may be identified with the village of same name in the Madurantakam taluk of the Chingleput district.

No. 87.

(A. R. No. 158 of 1912).

Tiruvorriyur, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput  District.

On a slab built into the floor of the verandah round the central shrine in the Adhipurisvara temple.

This record of Vijaya-Aparajitavarman, dated in his 4th year, registers an agreement made by the sabha and the amrita-gana of Adambakkam, a suburb of Tiruvorriyur to burn a perpetual lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tiruvorriyur in lieu of the interest on 30 kalanju of gold received by them from Amatti alias Kurumbakolali, the mistress of Vayiramegan alias Vanakovarayar, who laws probably a local chieftain, seems to have extended as far as Manampundi in the South Arcot district (A. R. No. 233 of l1934-35).

The interest on 30 kalanju was calculated at 3 manjadi per kalanju (i.e., at 15 per cent).

The pullis are invariably marked in the record.

No. 88.

(A. R. No. 161 of 1912).

On another slab in the same place.

This is also dated in the 4th year of Vijaya-Aparajitavarman and it registers a similar agreement made by the sabha and the amrita-gana of Adambakkam to maintain a perpetual lamp in the same temple for the interest on 30 kalanju of gold received by them from Sappkkan alias Patradani, the mistress of Vayiramegan alias Vanakovaraiyar, son of Sami-Akkan.  As Vanakovaraiyar is called the son of Perunangai in the previous inscription, it is possible that the latter and Sami-Akkan were identical.  From the way in which this lady is introduced in the record, it is surmised that she should have been a mistress of the king (Ep.  Rep. For 1913, p. 30)

The term amrita-gana is mentioned only in the inscriptions of Aparajita at Tiruvorriyur. It represents a committee which was probably connected with the alumganattar who were the direct managing members of a village, and distinct from the general members of the village assembly[4].  [It was perhaps mainly connected with the management of the offerings and lamps of the god-Ed].

The pullis are marked in this record also (See Plate VI).

No. 89.

(A. R. No. 32 of 1912).

Satyavedu, Ponneri Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a stone in the Ardha-mandapa of the Matangesvara temple.

This inscription is dated in the 5th year of Aparajitavarman.  It registers a gift of 100 sheep for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Madeva (i.e., Mahadeva) at Tirumatanganpalli by Porrinangai, wife of Kumarandai Kurumbaradittan alias Kadupattipperaraiyan mentioned in No. 86 above.  The liquid measure Videlvidugu mentioned in the inscription was probably named after the surname either f Nandivarman III or Nripatungavarman[5].

No. 90.

(A. R. No. 190 of 1912).

Tiruvorriyur, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab built into the floor of the mandapa in

 front of the central shrine in the Adhipurisvara temple.

On this slab of stone, three records are engraved one in continuation of another in the same hand.  The name of the king in the first record is damaged; the second is dated in the 7th year of Kampavarman[6] while the third belongs to the 6th year of Aparajita.  They appear, therefore, to have been engraved on the slab in the same time; but what necessitated the procedure is not clear.  The last record registers an agreement made in the 6th year of Vijaya-Aparajitavikrama-Pottaraiyar, by the assembly of Manali, hamlet of Tiruvorriyur, to burn two perpetual lamps before the god Mahadeva at Tiruvorriyur, in lieu of the interest on 60 kalanju  of gold received by them from the community of Mahesvaras.

The endowed amount was invested with the assembly as fixed deposit bearing interest at the usual rate of 3 manjadi per kalanju.  The assembly promised also to give two meals daily to the person who came to collect the interest and if they failed in their duty, they agreed to pay a fine of 8½ kanam per day to the court of justice.

No. 91.

(A. R. No. 163 of 1912).

On another slab in the same place.

This is a document similar to the above, dated in the 7th year of Vijaya-Aparajitavarman.  It registers the agreement made by the sabha and the amrita-gana  of Adambakkam to burn a perpetual lamp in the same temple for the interest on 30 kalanju of gold received by them from Madevi-Adiga, queen of Aparajita.

The pupllis are marked in this inscription.

No. 92.

(A. R. No. 159 of 1912).

On another slab in the same place.

This inscription records an endowment of 60 kalanju of gold, made in the 8th year of Vijaya-Aparajitavarma-Pottaraiyar, by Paiytangi Kandan, chief of Kattur in Vadakarai Innambar-nadu, a subdivision of Sola-nadu, for providing on the day of his natal star Svati, offerings to the deity and for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tiruvorriyur.  The money was deposited with the Karmakkilvar of Tiruvorriyur and the offerings included rice, ghee, plantains, sugar, vegetables, areca nuts, betel-leaves, tender cocoanuts, panchagavya, sandal paste and camphor.

No. 93.

(A. R. No. 180 of 1912).

On another slab in the same place.

This is a verse inscription of Aparajitavikramavarman dated in his 12th year.  It refers to a gift of land, after purchase from a resident of Iganaimudur, for offerings, perfume and incense and for a perpetual lamp to the god Cholamalyisvara at Orrimudur (i.e.,) Tiruvorriyur.  The name Orriyur with its Sanskrit equivalent Adhipuri meaning a ‘mortgaged city’ is explained by a local tradition of the place.

No. 94.

(A. R. No. 433 of 1905).

Tiruttani, Tiruttank Division, Chittoor District.

On the south wall of the central shrine in the Virattanesvara temple.

This inscription in Tamil verse Composed by a king, whose name is, however, not revealed, states that the temple at Tiruttaniyal was constructed of black granite by Nambi Appi.  This person figures as donor in the next inscription belonging to Aparajita.  The composer of the present record may, therefore, be taken as Aparajita himself.  The structure of the Virattanesvara temple where the present inscription is found, therefore, affords a definite landmark for studying the evolution of Pallava temple architecture.

No. 95.

(A. R. No. 435 of 1905).

On the same wall.

This inscription refers to a remission of taxes made by the assembly of Tiruttaniyal in the 18th year of Vijaya-Aparajitavikramavarman, on 1000 kuli of land situated to the north of the temple, purchased by Nambi Appi from the cultivators of the village and given over to the dharmigal of the village for providing offerings to and burning two twilight lamps in the temple of Tiruvirattanattudeva in the same village.  The donor is evidently identical with the builder of the temple mentioned in the above inscription.

The dharmigal were perhaps a body that managed the charitable endowments and trust property in the village.

No. 96.

(A. R. No. 396 of 1923).

Tiruppulivanam, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the west wall of the kitchen in the Vyaghrapurisvara temple.

This record of Tribhuvanachakravartin Tribhuvanaviradeva (i.e. Kulottungachola III), dated in his 37th year (corresponding to A.D. 1215, June 7, Sunday), is included here because it notices an inscription of Aparajita engraved on the walls of the temple of Tiruppulivanam-Udaiyar.  A copy of this record is also found at Uttaramallur (A. R. No. 67 of 1898).  The assembly of Uttaramelur alias Rajendrasola-chaturvedimangalam, an independent village in Kaliyur-kottam, a subdivision, of Jayangondasla-mandalam, agreed to maintain before the god Tiruppulivanamudaiya-Nayanar, all the perpetual lamps for which inscriptions were found in the temple.  One such record belongs to Aparajitavikramavarman dated in the 14th year and it gives Rajamattandan as the surname of Aparajita. This epigraph stats that on the day of solar eclipse, the king made a gift of 100 kalanju of gold for burning four lamps in the temple.  The solar eclipse cited in the record is, however, not helpful in fixing the initial date of Aparajita.

KAMPAVARMAN.

No. 97.

(A. R. No. 402 of 1923).

Porpandai, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On the Durgi-stone fixed in the village.

This inscription, dated in the 2nd year of the reign of Kampavarman, registers the sale, to a certain Valiyanai, of the right of collecting the kadi of paddy per crop, by the assembly of Porpondai in Kurumpurai-nadu, a subdivision of Kalattur-kottam for the upkeep of the tank Malaivellapperunkulam.  Kurumpurai-nadu must have comprised the territory round about Porpandal near Chingleput town.  The god Kurumpirai-Nayinar is also referred to in an inscription[7] from Salavakkam, a village close to Porpandal.

The special imprecation attached to the inscription viz. ‘that the defaulter will incur the sin of having destroyed Kachchippedu’, indicates the great reverence with which the town of Kanchipuram was regarded at this period.

No. 98.

(A. R. No. 398 of 1905).

Kaveripakkam, Arkonam Taluk, North Arcot District.

On a stone built into the ceiling of the Varadaraja-Perumal Temple.

This is a fragmentary record of Vijaya-Kampavarman datd in the 6th year.  It seems to register a gift of gold by a certain Kumara-Kra[mavittan].

No. 99.

(A. R. No. 189 of 1905).

Tiruvorriyur, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab built into the floor of the mandapa in

front of the central shrine in the Adhipurisvara temple.

It is stated in this record of Kampavarman, dated in the 7th year, that the assembly of Manali, hamlet of Tiruvorriyur, agreed to burn a lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tiruvorriyur for the interest on 15 kalanju of gold received by them kfrom Vemban Kununganamman of Iraiyancheri in Mayilarppu.

This inscription must be a copy since, as stated already (No. 90 above), it is engraved in continuation of an inscription where the king’s name is lost and followed by a record of Aprajitta the first line of which is engraved in continuation of the present inscription.

No. 100.

(A. R. No. 188 of 1912).

On another slab in the same place.

This is a highly damaged record of Vijaya-Kampavikramavarman dated in his 9th year.  It registers a gift of 30 kalanju of gold by Amarnidi alias Pallavadiyaraiyar of Kanjanur in Indalur-nadu, which was a subdivision of Sola-nadu and another gift of similar amount by a person whose name is lost, for burning two perpetual lamps in the temple at Tiruvorriyur.  It may be noted that Kanjanur which may be identified with the village of the same name in the Kumbakonam taluk of the Tanjore district is not herein called Simhavishnu-chaturvedimangalam, as is done in a record from Tiruvidaimarudur[8].


[1] For place names ending with palli, having Jaina associations, of Tiruchchinappalli, Tirukkattampalli etc.  Probably Tirumatanganpalli also was once a Jaina centre.

[2]  The titles Kurumbaradittan ‘the Sun among the Kurumbas’ and Kadupattipperaiyan given to the chief show that he had some connection with the Pallavas.

[3]  With Puravu compare the term Iravu ;  S. I. I., Vol.III., P. 291, II. 130-31.

[4]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. XI, p. 224.

[5]  S.I.I.  Vol. III., p. 93.

[6]  Next few lines are mutilated.

[7]  A.R. No. 400 of 1923.

[8]  A.R. No. 265 of 1907.

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