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Saturday, March 03, 2007


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 

Pallva Inscriptions

Nos.51 to 75

No. 51.

(A. R. No. 349 of 1911).

Kalattur, Chingleput Taluk and District.

On a slab built into the floor of the Mukha-mandapa in the Mukudumisvara temple.

This inscription is worn out in the middle and it is dated in the 14th year of Nandivarmma-[Maharaja].  It seems to assign a third share of the income from the local lake to Paramesvara, by the assembly (Perumakkal) of Kalattur in Kalattur-Kottam.

No. 52.

(A. R. No. 49 of 1905).

Dalavanur, Gingee Taluk South Arcot District.

On a pillar at the entrance into the rock-cut cave.

This is a damaged record of Vajaya-Nandivikramavarman dated in his 15th year.  It seems to register some agreement given by a temple servant residing at Venbedu to a certain Modan, who had made an endowment of one kalanju of gold.  Venbedu may be identified with the village of the same name in the Chingleput taluk.

No. 53.

(A. R. No. 352 of 1908).

Mangadu, Sriperumbudur Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab built into the floor of the central shrine in the Vallisvara temple.

This damaged inscription is dated in the 17th year of Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman and it mentions the Seliya-Vaniyar of Kunrattur, who evidently made provision for offerings to the god on Tiruvadirai and amavasya days, through the sabha of Tiruvellikiludaiya (Mahadeva).  This is the earliest inscription in the temple and it probably belongs to Nandivarman III.  In a later inscription of the place the god is called Tiruvellikilmeya-Nayanar[1].  Chutavana mentioned in the Udayendiram plates of Nandivarman is probably identical with Mangadu[2].

No. 54.

(A. R. No. 8 of 1934-35).

Padur, Chingleput Taluk and District.

On a slab set up in the street called ‘Mettutteruvu’.

The beginning of this inscription is lost, but from palaeography and the letters Nan traceable in the first line, it may be assigned to Nandivarman III.   It is dated in the 18th year and registers the gift of 96 sheep by the shepherds (kottaanradis) of Amur-kottam for burning a perpetual lamp before the god Peruma[na*]digal ‘who was pleased’ to stand at Vilupperundaya-Visnugriham in Paduvur.

No. 55.

(A. R. No. 27 of 1930-31).

Tirukkodikkaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the south wall of the central shrine in the Tirukkodisvara temple.

This inscription of the 19th year of Nandippottaraiyar begins by stating that it is a copy of an old stone record found in the temple.  A later record in the same place mentions that Sembiyan-Madeviyar, the mother of the Chola king Uttama-Chola, repaired the temple at Tirukkodikka and that she then ordered the re-engraving of the old inscriptions found on the walls before renovation.  The Chola queen, by this policy, has preserved for posterity as many as 26 inscriptions in this temple, which would otherwise have been irretrievably lost.

The present inscription is a palimpsest and it registers a gift of 100 kalam of paddy by Alisiriyan for maintaining a sacred lamp in the temple of Sirunangai-Isvaragaram at Tirukkodika.  The priests of the temple agreed to maintain the lamp.

No. 56.

(A. R. No. 144 of 1928-29).

Sennvayakkal, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On a hero-stone near the ruined Gopura of the Siva temple.

This record is engraved on a hero-stone bearing the figure of a Brahman being pierced by an arrow near the neck.  It is dated in the 21st year of Nandippottaraiyar ‘who obtained the kingdom after defeating (his enemies at) Tellaru’.  The inscription is damaged and it refers to a certain Mavali (i.e., a Bana chieftain) and to a raid causing the destruction of a matha, in saving which a Brahman hero named Sattimurrattevan met with his death. The record mentions the temple of Arindigai-Isvaram built at Parantakapuram, which must have been respectively named after the Chola kings Parantakapuram, which must have been respectively named after the Chola kings Arinjaya and his father Parantaka I who flourished a century later.  From palaeography also the record may be assigned to the 10th century A.D.  It therefore appears to be a later copy of the original record.  The mention of a Bana chief outside the Bana territory is noteworthy.

No. 57.

(A. R. No. 180 of 1970).

Tiruppalatturai (Tiruppiraitturai), Trichinopoly Taluk, Trichinpoly District.

On a stone built into the north wall of the mandapa in the Adimulesvara temple.

This inscription is dated in the 22nd year of Nandippottaraiyar ‘who defeated (his enemies) at Tellaru’.    It records an agreement given by the assembly sabha  of  Tirupparrurai to burn two perpetual lamps (in the temple) Madadeva-Bhatara at Tirupparrurai for 60 kalanju of gold received by them from for the purpose.

No. 58.

(A. R. No. 48 of 1914).

Tiruvaigavur, Papanasam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the south wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Bilvanathesvara temple.

This inscription is dated in the 22nd year of Nandivarmaraja.   It registers a purchase of 1½ veli of land called  Vannakkavilagam from the assembly of Tribhuvanamadevi-chaturvedimangalam by Sandippeliyar (probably a person in charge of the conduct of ceremonies in the temple), for burning a lamp and for providing offerings to the god Tiruvaigavudaiya-Mahadeva.  The mention of Tribhuvanamahadevi-chaturvedimangalam as the surname of Tiruvaigavur, which is only found in later inscriptions clearly indicates that this is not an exact copy of the original record, though in the last line this epigraph is stated to be a copy of a stone inscription.  Judging from palaeography, the inscription may be assigned to the 11th century A.D.

No. 59.

(A. R. No. 199 of 1907).

Tiruvidaimarudur, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the north wall of the central shrine in the Mahalingasvamin temple[3]

This is said to be a copy of a record of Kaduvettigal Nandippottairaiyar re-engraved in the 4th year of a Chola king  named Parakesarivarman who may be identified with Uttama-Chola.  It records a gift of 60 kalanju of gold for the maintenance of a perpetual lamp called Kumaramarttanda[4] in the temple.  The title ‘Kumaramarttanda’ has been tentatively attributed to Pallavamalla, but it may, with greater probability, be applied to Nandivarman III.

Published in South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. III, No. 124.

No. 60.

(A. R. No. 120 of 1928-29).

Lalgudi, Lalgudi Taluk, Trichinopoly District.

On the north wall of the central shrine in the Saptarishisvara temple.

This inscription is dated in the year opposite to the 4th of some king whose name is, however, not mentioned.  It states that the sabha of Nallimangalam agreed to maintain a perpetual lamp in the temple of Mahadeva at Tiruttavatturai in Idaiayarrunadu, from a gift of 60 kasu made by Nandippottarayar ‘who fought the battle of Tellaru and gained victory (in it).’  Judging from Palaeography, the record may be assigned to the 10th century A.D. Consequently this inscription has to be treated as a later copy of the original record which probably belonged to the time of Maranjadaiyan alias Varaguna-Pandya I.  The donor may easily be identified with Nandivarman III from the reference to Tellalru.

Published in Epigraphia Indica, Vol.  XX, p. 52.

NARIPATUNGAVARMAN

No. 61.

(A. R. No. 122 of 1928-29).

On the same wall.

This inscription states that in the 2nd year of Vijaya-Nripatungavikramavaraman, the assembly of Muttaiyil in Idaiyarru-nadu received of gift of 10 ½ kalanju of gold made by Pudi Kandan of Kavirapporkattiyur, on behalf of his mother, to provide rice, by the measure called Naraya-nali during the seven days of the Chittirai-Vishu festival in the temple of Tiruttavatturai-Mahadeva.  It has been suggested that some of the inscriptions in this temple are later copies[5], though it is not stated so in the present epigraph.  From the provenance of the record, it will be evident that Nripatunga’s territory extended as far as the Trichnopoly district.

Tiruttavatturai may be identified with Lalgudi itself where this inscription is found and the village Muttaiyil with Muttayyampalaiyam in the Musiri taluk of the Trichinopoly district.  The donor of the inscription also figures in another record of the same place[6], dated in the 23rd year of Nripatunga.

No. 62.

(A. R. No. 68 of 1908).

Valuvur, Wandiwash taluk, North Arcot District.

On a slab set up near the sluice of the tank.

This is dated in the 6th year of Nripatungappottaraiyar and records the construction of a sluice at Valagur by Aramilipparulan Valagur of Mannarmangalam in Alundur-nadu.  The inscription is engraved carelessly.

No. 63.

(A.R. No. 365 of 1904).

Narttamalai, Pudukkottai State.

On the north base of the ruined mandapa in front of the rock-cut Siva temple.

This inscription is dated in the 7th year of Nripatungavikramavarman.  It states that Sattam Paliyili, son of Videlvidugu-Muttaraiyan, excavated the (rock-cut) temple and that his daughter Paliyili Siriya-Nangai, the wife of Minavan Tamiladiyaraiyan alias  Pallan Anantan enlarged it by adding a mukha-mandapa, bali-pitha etc., and also made provision for worship and offerings to the god therein.

No. 64.

(A. R. No. 460 of 1905).

Tiruvalangadu, Tiruttani Talu, Chittoor District.

On the east wall of the first prakara of the Nataraja shrine in the Vataranyesvara temple.

This inscription states that in the 11th year of Nripatungadeva, the assembly of Perumulai-ur, a brahmadeya in Kakkalur-nadu which was a subdivision of Ikkattukkottam, agreed to measure out a stipulated quantity of paddy and ghee for offerings to the god at Tiruvalangadu in Palaiyanur-nadu, in lieu of the interest on 108 kalanju of gold received by them from the queen Kadavan-Madeviyar.  Kakkalur and Ikkadu after which the territorial divisions were named are found in the Tiruvallur taluk of the Chingleput district.

The record is engraved in characters of a later period after an inscription of Tribhuvanachakravartin Konerinmaikondan who, from the royal secretary Minavan uvendavelan mentioned in it, may be identified with Kulottunga-Chola III, and has therefore to be presumed to be a copy.

Palaiyanur in Palaiyanur-nadu is identical with the village of the same name close to Tiruvalangadu in the Tiruttani division of the Chittoor district.  The Tiruvalangadu plats of the Chola king Rajendra-Chola I record the grant of this village to the Siva temple at Tiruvalangadu.  In the Tevaram hymns this latter place is called Palaiyanur-Alangadu (i.e., Alangadu near Palaiyanur.

No. 65.

(A. R. No. 417 of 1912).

Marudadu, Wandiwash Taluk, North Arcot District

On a slab lying near the big irrigation tank.

This record states that in the 12th year of Vijaya-Nripatungavarman, Kongaraiyar Ninrapuerman constructed a weir to the tank at Marudadu and renovated the sluice.

No. 66.

(A. R. No. 461 of 1905).

Tiruvalangadu, Tiruttani Taluk, Chittoor District.

On the east wall of the first prakara of the Nataraja shrine in the Vataranyesvara temple.

This inscription is engraved below No. 64 and therefore, may also be likewise taken to be a later copy.  It is dated in the 15th year of Nripatungadeva, and it states that the assembly of Pulvelur in Eyir-kottam agreed to supply one uri of oil daily, by the measure Pirudimanikkam for burning two perpetual lamps in the temple of Tiruvalangadu-Udaiyar for the amount of 30 kalanju of gold received by them from one Ariganda-Perumal.  This person may be identified with the donor of the same name mentioned as the son of Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar in a record of the 24th year of Nripatunga from Tirumukkudal[7].    It may be mentioned that Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar figures in a record from Pillaipalaiyam[8] near Conjeeveram in the reign of Dantivarman.

Nripatunga’s queen, according to No. 64 above from the same place, was Kadavan-Madeviyar, also known as Prithivimanikkam[9], and the liquid measure of the temple was called Pirudimanikkam evidently after her name.  It was probably after this queen that the Vishnu temple at Ukkal in the North Arcot district was called Bhuvanimanikka-Vishnugriham[10].

No. 67.

(A. R. No. 404 of 1905).

Kaverippakkam, Arkonam Taluk, North Arcot District.

At the entrance into the Amman shrine in the Konkanisvara temple.

This inscription states that in the 15th year of Nripatungavarman, the assembly of Kavidipakkam [alias] Avaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam agreed to measure one ulakku of oil daily by the liquid measure Manaya-nali, for lighting the central shrine of the temple of Tirumerrali-Adigal, with the interest on 17 kalanju of gold received by them from Sadankaviyar of Kanvilchchil in Odappurai.  The name Avaninarayana-chaturvedimangalam must have been given to Kavidipakkam after the surname ‘Avaninarayana’[11] borne by Nandivarman III.

The record is left incomplete and it is engraved in characters of the 11th century A.D.  The stone bearing this record must have belonged originally to a temple of Vishnu (Tirumerrali-Adigal) In the village and was probably shifted here at some later time.

No. 68.

(A. R. No. 258 of 1912).

Paramsvaramangalam, Madurantakam Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a  slab near the Ganesa image outside the Kailasanatha temple.

This inscription records that a Brahman lady Devachchani, wife of Dandiyankilar Pandiya-Kramavittar set up the image of Ganapati-Bhatara in the temple of Sailesvaram at Paramesvaraman[ga]lam, constructed a shrine for it and endowed 40 kadi of paddy for twilight lamps and worship to the deity.

The record is dated simply in the 15th year, but the king’s name is not mentioned.  Since the other face of the slab contains an inscription of Nripatunga, dated in his 16th year[12] which closely resembles the present inscription in it’s writing, this epigraph also may be assigned to the reign of the same king.

No. 69.

(A. R. No. 257 of 1912).

On the backside of the same wall.

This record states that, in the 16th year of Nripatungavarman, the committee (ganapperumakkal) of the temple called Sailesvaram agreed to provide offerings during the mid-day service of the god Mahadeva at Sailesvaram in Paramesvaramangalam in lieu of the interest of 11 kalanju of gold received by them from Nandi-Niraimati, son of  Maramadakki-Vilupperaraiyar of Mannaikudi.

Udayachandra, the general of the Pallava king Nandivarman Pallavamalla claims to have defeated a Pandya king at Mannaikkudi[13] and if ‘Mannaikudi Maramadakki’ is taken as an epithet of Viupperaraiyar in the sense of ‘he who humbled the pride (of the enemy) at Mannaikkudi’, it may be presumed that one of the ancestors of Vilupperaraiyar had taken some part in the Pallava campaigns.  But as there are villages actually known by the names of Mannakkudi and Maramadakki in the Arantangi taluk of the Tanjore district, it is also possible that the native village and hamlet of this Vilupperaraiyar are simply mentioned in this inscription (i.e.,) Vilupperaraiyar of Maramadakki near Mannaikkudi.

No. 70.

(A. R. No. 162 of 1912).

Tiruvorriyur, Saidapet Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab in the verandah round the central shrine of the Adhipurisvara temple.

This record is dated in the 18th year of Vijaya-Nripatungavarman.  It states that the assembly of Manali near Tiruvorriyur agreed to provide offerings on the day of sankranti of gold received by them from Paliyan Pilli, wife of Videlvidugu – Pallavaraiyar was probably a local chief in charge of Umbala-nadu (see plate VI).

No. 71.

(A. R. No. 360 of 1921).

Tiruvadi, Cuddalore taluk, South Arcot District.

On a pillar in the Ardha-mandapa of the Tiruvirattanesvara temple.

This record of Nripatungavarman is dated in his 18th year and registers a gift of 570 kalanju of gold to the Nagarattar  of Adiyaraiyamangalam by the Pandya king Varaguna-Maharaja, for providing, with the interest on the amount, certain specified offerings to the god Tiruvirattanattu-Mahadeva of that village.

The importance of the present inscription lies in the fact that the Pandya king Varagunavarman figures as a contemporary of and probably a subordinate under the Pallava king Nripatungavarman[14].

No. 72.

(A. R. No. 175 of 1930).

Pillaipakkam Sriperumbudur Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab built into the steps of the Kali temple.

This is a curious inscription dated in the 20th year of Nripatunga containing an imprecation on people who stored paddy on the talam of the village.

No. 73.

(A. R. No. 367 of 1921).

Tiruvadi, Cuddalore Taluk, South Arcot District.

On a pillar in the Ardha-mandapa of the Tiruvirattanesvara temple.

This is a damaged record of Nripatungapottaraiyar dated in his 22nd year and it registers a grant of 50 kalanju  of gold to the temple of Tiruvirattanattur-Mahadeva, by (queen ?) Vira-Madeviyar.

No. 74.

(A.R. No. 38 of 1930-31).

Tirukkodikkaval, Kumbakonam Taluk, Tanjore District.

On the South wall of the central shrine in the Tirukkodisvara temple.

This record of the 22nd year, like No. 55 above, is prefaced by the remark that ‘this is also a copy of an old stone inscription’.  It is preceded by a record of the Pandya king Maran Sadaiyan (A. R. No. 37 of 1930-31) and followed by an epigraph of the Muttaraiyar chief Ilango-Muttaraiyar (A.R.  No. 39 of 1903-31), all of which are engraved in continuation of one another.  It has been pointed out above (No. 55) that the temple at Tirukkodikkaval was renovated by Sembiyan-Madeviyar, the mother of the Chola king Uttama-Chola and that she took care to re-engrave on the new walls of the old inscriptions found in the temple.

The present record does not give the king’s name, but from the mention therein of Vira-Mahadeviyar, the queen of Nripatunga-Maharaja, it may be ascribed to Nripatunga himself.  It gives the interesting information that this queen performed the hiranyagarbha and tulabhara ceremonies, evidently at Tirukkodikka and presented 50 kalanju of gold from the wealth so weighted, to the temple of Mahadeva in the village for offerings and lamp.  The assembly of Tirukkodikkavu alias Kannamangalam received the money and undertook to conduct the endowment.  Queen Vira-Mahadeviyar is known to epigraphy for the first time only from this record.

No. 75.

(A. R. No. 179 of 1915).

Tirumukkudal, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput District.

On a slab supporting a beam set up in the inner enclosure of the Venkatesa-Perumal temple.

This record states that, in the 24th year of Vijaya-Nripatungavikramavarman, the assembly of Siyapuram in Urrukkattuk-kottam agreed to maintain a perpetual lamp in the temple of Vishnu-Bhatara at Tirumukkudal for the interest on 30 kalanju of gold received by them from Ariganda-Perumanar[15], son of Kadupatti-Muttaraiyar.  The interest on 30 kalanju came to 4½ kalanju, calculating at the rate of 3 manjadi per kalanju.  For this 4½ kalanju, the assembly of Siyapuram agreed to supply oil at a uniform rate of 40 nali per kalanju for maintaining the lamp.  Palaiyasivaram near Tirumukkudal is called Siyapuram in inscriptions.


[1]  A.R. No. 349 of 1908.

[2]  S.I.I.  Vol. II, p. 372.

[3] The renevation  of this temple has been so ruthlessly carried out that all the inscriptions copied in 1895 and 1907 (viz.  Nos. 130 – 159 of 1895 and 193 – 313 of 1907) are now completely missing.

[4]  The name Kumaramarttanda is also associated with Miladudaiyarpalli, a suburb of Tirunagesvaram (Tanjore district ) (A. R. No. 222 of 1911).  See also No. 177 of 1930 – 31.

[5]  Ep. Ind.  Vol. XX, p. 447.

[6]  S.I.I.  Vol. IV, No. 531.

[7]  No. 75 below.

[8]  No. 44 above.

[9]  Sewell’s ‘Lists  Vol.  II, p. 30, No. 209.

[10]  S.I.I.  Vol. III, p. 1.

[11]  Nandikkalambagam, vv. 18, 44, 46.

[12]  No. 69 following.

[13]  S.I.I.  Vol. II, p. 364.

[14]  See also No. 60 above.

[15] See No.66 above.

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