The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Preface

Introduction

Table of Contents

Text of the Inscriptions 

1 to 25

51 to 75

76 to 100

101 to 125

126 to 150

151 to 175

176 to 200

201 to 225

226 to 250

251 to 260

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

Pallva Inscriptions

Nos.151 to 175

No. 151.

(A. R. No. 304 of 1913).

Chidambaram, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the third prakara in the Nataraja temple.

This inscription, dated in the 7th year, contains an order of the officer Solakon issued to the authorities of the temple at Chidabaram, to engrave on their temple walls, the gift of a flower garden made after purchase by a devaradiyar named Pillaiyar Sirridai Arivai and one Irangalmitta-pillaiyar, for providing flowers for the goddess Tirukkamakkottamudaiya-Periyanachchiyar and for the maintenance of two servants looking after the garden.

It may be mentioned that the officers Jayatunga-Pallavaraiyar, Tillaiambala-Pallavaraiyar and Tennavan-Brahmamarayan[1] mentioned here also figure in No. 124 of 1888, a record of the 28th year of Maravarman Kulasekharadeva (A.D. 1296) from the same temple.

No. 152.

(A. R. No. 305 of 1913).

On the same wall.

The subjoined inscription, dated in the 7th year, also registers an order of Solakon to engrave on the ‘Vikramasolan-tirumaligai’ the deed of a gift of land made as tirunamattukkani by a certain Tittikka Aduvan, after purchase from Tiruchchirrambala-Muvendavelan of Karikudi, for providing five offerings t the image of Dakshinamurti in addition to three already in vogue so as to correspond with the number of services offered to Mulasthanam-Udaiyar, the principal deity in the temple. The donor mentioned in this record made a further gift of land 10 years later (No. 201 below) for providing offerings to the same image.

No. 153.

(A. R. No. 545 of 1921).

Tirunaraiyur, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the Sundaresvara shrine in the Pollapillaiyar temple.

This inscription dated in the 7th year, registers a sale of 60 ma of land in Mugaiyur, hamlet of Viranarayana-chaturvedimangalam in Kulottungasola-chaturvedimangalam and in Virapperumalmangalam, to the temple of Mulattanam-Udaiyar in Tirunaraiyur, an independent village in Virudarajabhayankara-valanadu ‘on the northern bank,’ by the temple of Tiruppulisvaram-Udaiyar at Perumbarrappuliyur, an independent village in [Rajadhi]raja-valanadu, for one hundred and twenty thousand kasu.

It may be noted that the amount is specified in multiples of thousands and that for the denomination of a ‘lakh’ ‘one hundred thousand’ is used here. The sale price works at 2,000 kasu per ma of land.

The village Mugaiyur may be identified with the village of the same name in the Chidambaram taluk. The village Tirunaraiyur where this inscription is found is stated to have been a suburb of Viranarayana-chaturvedimangalam (A. R. No. 543 of 1921). Kulottungasola-chaturvedimangalam and Virapperumal-mangalam (A. R. No. 543 of 1921). Kulottungasola-chaturvedimangalam and Virapperumal-mangalam were probably other suburbs of Tirunaraiyur.

The details of date correspond to A.D. 1249, October 19, Tuesday.

No. 154.

(A. R. No. 308 of 1913).

Chidambaram, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the third prakara of the Nataraja temple.

This inscription registers the order of Solakon issued in the 8th year of the chief, granting 4 [veli] and 6 ma of land in Kadavaychcheri alias Tillainayakanallur, a hamlet of Perumbarrappuliyur, with the new name Tiruvambalapperumalpuram for settling on it the Saliyar (i.e.) the weaving class, stipulating that the latter should provide cloths for the parisattam of the god and goddess Tirukkamakkottamudaiya-Periyanachchiyar in the temple.

This inscription states that Solakon was also called Perumal-Pillai, that he belonged to Arasur and that he was one of the mudalis (officers) of the chief.

The streets named after Kulottunga-Chola, Kopperunjingadeva and Rajakkal-tambiran are also mentioned in the record.

No. 155.

(A. R. No. 511 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the west wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple.

This inscription, dated in the 8th year, states that the mandapa [in front of the central shrine in the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple in the village] was constructed by Arasalvar, the elder sister of Alappirandar Alagiyasiyar of Perugai, who was probably a member of a collateral branch of the Perunjinga family with headquarters at Perugai.

The village Perugai cannot be satisfactorily identified, but it is probably to be located in Peruganur-nadu in Tirumunaippadi.[2] Peruganur is probably the same as Periyanur in the Tirukkoyilur taluk.[3]

No. 156.

(A. R. No. 117 of 1904).

Tirttanagari, Cuddalore Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the central shrine in the Sivankuresvara temple.

This incomplete record, dated in the 9th year, registers a gift of 5¾ veli of land as tirunamattukkani to the god at Tiruttinainagar. The order making the gift was also directed to be communicated to the officials of the temple at Perumbarrappuliyur (i.e., Chidambaram). A portion of the land endowed was situated in the hamlet of Ponmeyndasolach-chaturvedimangalam, which, as pointed out above, was called so after the surname of Kulottunga-Chola II.[4]

No. 157.

(A. R. No. 318 of 1913).

Chidabaram, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the third prakara in the Nataraja temple.

This record, also dated in the 9th year of the chief, registers an order of Solakon makidng a gift of 27 and odd ma of land, by purchase from several individuals, for the maintenance of gardeners working in three different gardens, namely, one, in korrangudi alias Pavittiramanikkanallur, hamlet of Perumbarrappuliyur, and the others called ‘Avaniyalappirandan-tengu-tirunandavanam’ in the same village and ‘Adiravisiaduvan-tirunandavanam’ at Madandayarmanikkanallur. The gift is stated to have been made for the welfare of Kopperunjinga (devar tirumenikku nanraga). The lands purchased were situated in the devadana villages of (given by) Tamilnadu-katta-Pallavaraiyar.[5]

No. 158.

(A. R. No. 496 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the east and north walls of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the Vaikuntha-perumal temple.

This inscription takes stock of the cows and sheep presented by several persons for supplying ghee and milk to the temple of Vaikunthatt-Emberuman at Tiruvennainallur, from the 6th year of the chief. Of five such gifts noticed here, one was made during the time of the chief’s father, i.e., Alagiyasiyan Kopperunjingadeva, three in his 6th year and the other in his 9th year.

No. 159.

(A. R. No. 312 of 1913).

Chidambaram, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north wall of the third prakara in the Nataraja temple.

This inscription, dated in the 10th year, records an order issued by Solakon for the welfare of his master. It pertains to an exchange of 140 – 7/8 kuli of land in Pallippadai alias Vikramasolanallur in which was situated the temple of Pidari Tiruchchirrambala-Makali, for an equal extent of land (i.e., 141 kuli) purchased from the temple of Varanavasi-Mahadeva, according to the sadhana given by Parasavan Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyan alias Kanakasabhapati-panditan who had the kani-right of the former temple. This land was made tax-free by order of the officer Solakon, for the welfare of Kopperunjingadeva. The inscription reveals the existence of a committee called ‘Nilavaravu-kuttap-perumakkal’ which was probably in charge of land income. Some of the temple authorities mentioned here also figure in the time of Rajraja III and Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya in a few records of the village[6]. The documents connected with this transaction were ordered to be preserved in the temple treasury.

The Pidari temple is stated to have been situated on the southern side of the ‘Vikkiramasolan-tengu-tiruvidi’, along which the god (at Chidambaram) was taken in procession of the sea during festival days.

Vikkiramasolanallur is here called Pallippadai, but in No. 275 of 1913 belonging to Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya I dated in the 14th regnal year it bears the alternative name of Akkan-Pallippadai. From this it may perhaps be inferred that the remains of the elder sister (akkan) of Vikrama-Chola were interred here and that the village called after the king as ‘Vikkiramasolanallur’ was founded at this locality.

No. 160.

(A. R. No. 327 of 1913).

On the east wall of the Mahishasuramardani shrine in the same temple.

This inscription registers another order of Solakon issued to the authorities of the temple at Chidambaram, in the 10th year of Perunjinga to engrave on the walls of the temple the gifts of land made by four persons for offerings and a flower garden to the shrine of Andabaranadeva situated to the north of the entrance into the chamber o god Antappurap-Perumal, in the shrine of Tirukkamakottamudiaya-Periyanachchiyar in the temple. The lands presented were situated in Nallali alias Vikramasolanallur, hamlet of Perumbarrappuliyur, Koyilpundi alias Kshatriyasikhamaninallur, Vadakkilkulam and Alakkudi, hamlet of Jayangondasolapattinam.

The shrine on which this record is engraved now contains an image of Mahishasuramardani, but in the time of Kopperunjinga it must have contained an image of Anadabaranadeva.

No. 161.

(A. R. No. 85 of 1919).

Munnur, Tindivanam Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the west prakara in the Adavallesvara temple.

This inscription, dated in the 10th year, records that Alappirandan Tevaramalagiyan alias Vanarayan of Kudal enquired into the accounts of the temple of Adavalla-Nayanar at Munnur alias Rajanarayana-chaturvedimangalam in Oyma-nadu, a subdivision of Jayangondasola-mandalam in order to verify the amount due to the chief for the two previous years and that he gave 100,000 kasu to the temple, evidently with the consent of his master. This officer is kperhaps identical with the person of the same name figuring in a record from Tiruvadatturai (A.R. No. 228 of 1929), dated in the 10th year [of Rajaraja III].

No. 162.

(A. R. No. 459 of 1921).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the inner wall of the gopura (right of entrance) of the Kripapurisvara temple.

This incomplete inscription, dated in the 10th year, registers a gift of 32 cows by Tiruvannamalai-Bhattan of Mel-Amur, a member of the assembly of Tiruvennainallur, for supplying daily, by the standard measure ‘Arumolidevan-nali,’ two and six nail of milk respectively for offerings to land the sacred bath of the god Atkondadeva at Tiruvennainallur, a brahmadeya in Tirumunaippadi Tiruvennainallur-nadu, a subdivision of Rajaraja-valanadu.

In the concluding portion of the inscription mention is made of the image of Pillaiyar set up in the western corner of the temple.

Mel-Amur i.e., West Amur may be identified with the village Amur in the Tirukkoyilur taluk of the South Arcot district.

According to the details given, the date of the record corresponds to A.D. 1252, October 4, Friday.

No. 163.

(A. R. No. 214 of 1934-35).

Nerukunam, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the mandapa in front of the central shrine in the ruined Siva Temple.

This inscription which is dated in the 10th year records a gift of 6 ma of tax-free land by the chief, to the temple of Udaiyar Tiruppanichchaitturai-udaiya-Nayanar at Nerukunram alias Vayiramega-chaturvedimangalam ‘on the northern bank of the Pennai’ in Vanagoppadi Udaikkadu-nadu, a subdivision of Rajaraja-valanadu, for the Chittirai festival of the god, for a sacred perpetual lamp and for maintaining a garden called ‘Semburkilavan-tirunandavanam’. The wording in this inscription, introducing Kopperunjinga as donor, is noteworthy[7]

The village Aintai (the village of five shrines) where a plot of land was situated may be identified with the hamlet Andili in the Tirukkoyilur taluk.

No. 164.

(A. R. No. 122 of 1906).

Jambai, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the gopura (left of entrance) of the Jambunatha temple.

It is stated in this inscription dated in the 11th year, that Vanakovaraiyan Rajarajadevan Vannenjarayan[8] of Aragalur, probably a subordinate of Kopperunjingadeva, exempted, from the 7th year, the village Gunamangalam situated on the ‘southern bank of the Pennai’ and belonged to the god Tiruttantonri Avudaiya-Nayanar at Senbai alias Virarajendrasolapuram, from the payment of the taxes kasayam, ponvari, alamanji and antarayam, so that it might be brought under cultivation. The village Gunamangalam may be identified with the village of the same name in the Tirukkoyilur taluk.

It is learnt from this inscription that Vanagoppadi-nadu was on the north bank of the river Pennai.[9]

No. 165.

(A. R. No. 123 of 1906).

On the same gopura.

This is also a record dated in the 11th year and it registers the agreement made by the Sivabrahmanas to provide paddy for offerings to the god Tiruttantonrisuramudaiya-Nayanar at Sanbai on two festival days and also for feeding the mahesvaras with the offered food, for the interest of 60 kalam of paddy, measured by the temple measure ‘Tonri-marakkal’, received by them from Arasan Tiruttonda-Nambi, a devakanmi belonging to the temple of Udaiyar Tiruvannamalai-udaiya-Nayanar (i.e. the god at Tiruvannamalai).

No. 166.

(A. R. No. 261 of 1913).

Singarattoppu near Chidambaram, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the south wall of the Bhimesvara temple.

This inscription dated in the 11th year, records a sale of 9 ma of land called ‘Kollampallam’ in Ilanangur alias Sundarasolapandyanallur situated in Gangaikondasola-perilamainadu and forming the western hamlet of Chidabaram, for 5,000 kasu to the temple of Tirukkalanchedi-Udaiyar at Pannangudichcheri alias Parakesarinallur, a hamlet of the independent village Perumbarrappuliyur, by Alachchan Ponnambalakkuttan Nrittarajan of the village. It may be noted that the rights and privileges pertaining to these lands including facilities for irrigation were conveyed to the purchaser in carefully worded documentary language so as to avoid disputes later.

No. 167.

(A. R. No. 80 of 1918).

Vriddhachalam, Vriddhachalam taluk, South Arcot District.

On the second gopura (left of entrance) of the Vriddhagirisvara temple.

This inscription records the gift of a gold forehead-plate weighing 31 kalanju made to god Tirumudukunramudaiya-Nayanar, in the 11th year of the chief, by Perumal-Pillai alias Solakonar, one of his mudalis.

No. 168.

(A. R. No. 353 of 1919).

Little Conjeeveram, Conjeeveram Taluk, Chingleput district.

On the east side of the ‘rock’ in the Arulala-Perumal temple.

A gift of 44 cows is recorded in this inscription, dated in the 1[1]th year, by Chandira-Setti, a resident of Manda[ga]ttali in Nellur-nadu for providing 1 ulakku of ghee daily, measured by the standard measure [Aru]molinangai-nali, for burning a perpetual lamp to god Arulalap-Perumal.

The date of the record corresponds to A.D. 1253, May 16, Friday. The weekday cited in the inscription is probably a mistake for Friday.

No. 169.

(A. R. No. 450 of 1919).

On the north side of the same ‘rock’.

This epigraph dated in the same year, registers a gift of a lamp-stand and cows for burning a perpetual lamp before the god Arulalap-Perumal, ‘who was pleased to stand at Tiruvattiyur in Kanchipuram’ in Eyir-kottam, a district of Jayangondasolamandalam, by Narayanan Samkaran of Kodumundai, a nayaka of Malai-mandalam Malai-mandalam is the Chera country on the west coast and the people of this tract are frequently met with in inscriptions found outside their territory. They figure mostly as traders in which capacity they seem to have gone far into the interior of South India.

The astronomical citations in the record are regular for A.D. 1254, July 20, Monday.

No. 170.

(A. R. Nos. 486 and 487 of 1919).

Tiruvennainallur, Tirukkoyilur Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the north and south walls of the central shrine in the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple.

This inscription of the 11th year[10] records the re-engraving of two inscriptions of Tribhuvanachakravartin Rajarajadeva (II) and Tribhuvanachakravartin Tribhuvanaviradeva (i.e. Kulottunga-Chola III) dated in the 12th and 35th years respectively, necessitated by the demolition of the srivimana during the renovation of the temple of Vaikuntha-Perumal at Tiruvennainallur. A copy of another incomplete inscription without date and name of the king, is also added at the end.

The record of Rajarajadeva II dated in the 12th year, registers a tax-free gift of 20 ma of land as tiruvidaiyattam at Sirupakkanallur, a hamlet of Emapperuru alias Rajendrasolanallur, by Atkoli-Kadavarayar for worship and offerings to the images of Tiruvaykkulattalvar and his consort set up by him in the temple of Vaikuntha-Perumal, for being blessed with a son.

In continuation of this inscription is engraved the other record of Tribhuvanaviradeva dated in the 35th year registering a tax-free gift of land as tiruvidaiyattam at Senji, the southern hamlet of Rajaraja-chaturvedimangalam in Panaiyur-nadu and at Kannama[kkam], to the image of Periyapirattiyar set up in the name of the mother of Alagiyapallavan Kopperunjingadeva in the temple of Vaikunthatt-Emberumanar, by Mogandar alias Solingadevan and Alagiyasiyan Sambuvarayan respectively.

Since the repairs to the srivimana of the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple were started as early as the 29th year of Tribhuvanaviradeva[11], Rajarajadeva of the present inscription may be taken as Rajaraja II.

Atkoli-Kadavarayar may be identified with the person of the same name figuring as grandfather of Alappirandan Virasekharan alias Kadavarayar in two identical records[12] from Vriddhachalam and Tiruvennainallur.

Since in the present inscription dated in the 11th year Sakalabhuvanachakravartti Kopperunjingadeva, an earlier Alagiyapallavan Kopperunjingadeva is mentioned as having flourished in the 35th year of Tribhuvanaviradeva, the latter has to be identified with Kopperunjingadeva I.

No. 171.

(A. R. No. 106 of 1934-35).

Chidambaram, Chidambaram Taluk, South Arcot District.

On the west wall of the third prakara (right of entrance) of the Nataraja temple.

This inscription is dated in the 11th year and records an order of the officer Solakon issued to the authorities of the temple at Chidambaram to engrave on their temple walls a gift of land made, after purchase, by Iravalar Kayilayadevar residing in the matha called Vadakkil-madam at Tiruvannamalai as ‘Kayilayadevan-tiruppavadaippuram’ for flowers, and for providing offerings to the god on the asterism Pusam in the month of Tai. A portion of the land presented was situated in Erukkattichcheri alias Jayangondasolanallur in Kidarangondasla-Perilamainadu, the eastern hamlet of Perumbarrapuliyur and was purchased in the name of Kavuniyan Sivan Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyan from Madevan Satti, the wife of Ulaichchanan Kuttan Tiruchchirrambalakkuttan.

No. 172.

(A. R. No. 107 of 1934-35).

On the same wall (left of entrance).

This is a damaged inscription dated in the 11th year. It registers an order of Solakon exempting from taxes certain lands presented, after purchase, in Pirantakanallur, the southern hamlet of Perumbarrapuliyur as tiruppavadaippuram by two ladies, for providing offerings to the goddess Tirukkamakottamudaiya – Periyanachchiyar. The lands were left in charge of Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyan of Panaiyur who undertook to measure out annually 360 kalam of paddy to the people.

No. 173.

(A. R. No. 108 of 1934-35).

On the same wall.

This inscription, also of the 11th year, registers a gift of land in Mithunakkudi alias Danavinodanallur, after purchase, for a flower farden to the temple with provision for the maintenance of gardeners thereon, by Perumal-Pillai alias Solakon, an officer of Perunjinga, for the welfare of his master[13].

No. 174.

(A. R. No. 302 of 1913).

On the north wall of the third prakara in the same (Nataraja) temple.

This inscription records an order of the same officer issued in the 12th year, to the authorities of the temple at Chidambaram, to engrave on the walls of their temple a grant of land in Viranarayananallur, hamlet of Alampadi alias Kulottungasolanallur made for forming a flower garden called ‘Tudand-adimai-kondan’ for the welfare of his master. Additional lands were also provided at Ponmendaperumalmangalam in Kurunji-valanadu, a subdivision of Rajadhiraja-valanadu and a portion of the produce of these lands were given for the maintenance of two servants looking after the above garden.

Alampadi may be identified with the village of the same name in the Chidambaram taluk.

In 1. 20 the chief, evidently the elder Perunjinga, is referred to as Nayanar Alagiyasiyar alias Tamilnadu-kattan Pallavaraiyar (i.e., the Pallava who protected the Tamil country) which is also found in the Tiruvannamalai inscription (No. 480 of 1902).

No. 175.

(A. R. No. 326 of 1913).

In the same temple. On the east wall of the Mahishasuramardani shrine.

This inscription also registers an order of Solakon, issued in the 12th year of Kopperunjinga to the authorities of the temple at Chidambaram, regarding a gift of land in Kumaramangalam alias Tillaialaganallur situated in Kidarankondasola-perilamainaldu and forming the eastern hamlet of Chidambaram. The gift was made for maintaining a flower garden and supplying garlands to the god Andabaranadeva set up to the north of the entrance into the shrine of Antappura-Perumal in the shrine of Tirukkamakkottamudaiya-Periyanachchiyar, by Varakkiyan Devan Tiruchchirrambalamudaiyan Sarvesvaran Udaiyapillai of Perumbarrappuliyur.


[1] They also figure in the reign of Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya (A.R. Nos. 293 and 297 of 1913). It may be

 mentioned here that ‘Tennavan-Brahmarajan’ was a title conferred on Manikkavachakar by the Pandya king. It is also possible that the other two names are titles.

[2] A. R. No. 45 of 1903.

[3] [Perugai may be Peruganur itself Ed.]

[4] No. 149 above.

[5] A. R. No. 480 of 1902 and No. 174 below. Cf. the title ‘Tondaimandalam – katta – Perumal’ conferrd by the Chola king on Palaravayar, the brother of Sekkilar for averting the horrors of a famine by sacrificing all his wealth in support of the people.

[6] A.R. Nos. 283, 285 and 293 of 1913.

[7] Cf. No. 206 below and S.I.I. Vol. VIII Nos. 102 and 354.

[8] See Nos. 191 and 234 below.

[9] The original province of the Banas extended from Punganur in the west to Kalahasti in the east. The river

 Palar probably formed the southern boundar. But, after the transfer of their kingdom to the Ganga

 Prithvipati II by the Chola king Parantaka I, the Banas seem to have crossed the Palar and settled on the

 north bank of the river Pennar, forming a new division called Vanagoppadi-nadu. After the withdrawal of the

 Pandyas from Madura to the Tinnevelly district, members of this family even drifted further south and

 settled at Madura and the surrounding region wielding considerable influence in the Locality.

[10] Beginnings of lines 5 and 7 are built in.

[11] A. R. No. 320 of 1992 ; S.I.I. Vol. VII, No. 949.

[12] Nos. 263 and 264 below.

[13] See Nos. 159 and 167 above.

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