present volume comprises 265 inscriptions of the Pallava dynasty copied by the
Epigraphical Department from 1904 to 1935.
As the records secured prior to 1904 are published in the Epigraphia
India and the South Indian Inscriptions, the whole material pertaining
to this dynasty collected by the Department may now be said to be completely
available to scholars. In the
preparation of this volume, all the transcripts were carefully checked with
their estampages, fresh ones prepared where the old were defective and the
originals themselves were examined on the spot in several cases so as to ensure
accuracy in the readings of the texts.
In this task, I received constant encouragement and guidance from Rao
Bahadur C. R. Krishnamacharlu, Government Epigraphist for India, who, besides
placing all the materials concerned at my disposal, assisted me in checking the
proof in its several stages and examining in situ some of the more
important records. I am also indebted
to my colleague Mr. G. V. Srinivasa Rao for valuable suggestions offered by him
while reading through the proofs with me and for revising the introduction.
volume is divided, for the sake of convenience, into two sections, the first
comprising the inscriptions of the Pallavas up to the 9th century
A.D. and the second, those of two prominent chiefs of the 13th
century A.D. who claim to belong to this dynasty.
Pallava history has attracted and engaged the attention of scholars for over
quarter of a century, there are still many problems awaiting solution. This is especially the case with the first
period of Pallava history, viz., the period of copper-plate charters ranging
from the middle of the 3rd to the end of the 6th century
A.D. The sources for the history of
this period being limited, very little is known about its rulers beyond their
names. The genealogy of these Pallava
sovereigns and the actual duration of their reigns are still unsettled. Whether all the members mentioned in the
charters actually ruled as kings is itself doubtful. We, however, get a clearer view of the dynasty during the second
period, i.e., the period of stone records extending from the 7th to
the 9th century A.D., as the epigraphs are distributed over a wide
region with the advantage of some sidelights being thrown from the records of
the pioneer scholars like Dr. Hultzsch and Rai Bahadur Venkayya, the history of
the Pallavas practically stopped with Nandivarman II Pallavamalla, but later
researches have helped to trace its continuity till the absorption of the
Pallava kingdom by the Cholas in the 9th century A.D. The inscriptions published in this volume
contain valuable information for the pursuit of this subject and of the Tamil
literature of the period. In the
following pages attention is drawn only to the salient features of the reigns
of Pallava sovereigns mentioned in these inscriptions.
one of the explanatory labels appended to the sculptures in the
Vaikuntha-Perumal temple at Conjeeveram, Tarandikondaposar,
pointing to an object, is said to have assured Hiranyavarmma-Maharaja, that it
is not ‘the had of an elephant,’
but the crown intended for his son.
This passage clearly suggests that the crown offered to the Pallava king
was shaped like an elephant’s scalp.
Such a headdress has not so
far been met with in Indian sculptures, but strangely enough one with an
elephant’s head complete with proboscis and tusks is found worn by the Bactrian
ruler Demetrius on his coins, who probably copied it from Alexander the Great. The close resemblance
of the crown offered to Nandivarman Pallavamalla on the occasion of his
coronation ceremony to that found for the Bactrian king cannot be a mere
accident, but seems to be connected intimately with the question of the foreign
origin of the Pallavas.
or Avanisimha, the son of Simhavarman
and thefather of Mahendravarman I, was the first Pallava monarch who extended
his dominions beyond Kanchi in the South.
He has not left any stone or copper-plate inscriptions, but is known only
through the records of his successors.
His territory may be said to have extended as far south as the river
Kaveri, which is referred to in a record of Mahendravarman I at Trichinopoly as
‘the beloved of the Pallava’. Simhavishnu must have bequeathed this
extensive dominion intact to his son and successor as evidenced by the latter’s
inscriptions at Trichinopoly (Nos. 8 and 9) and in the Pudukkottai State (Nos.
7 and 7-a). In the Udayendiram plates
of Nandivarman II, Simhavishnu is said to have been a devout worshipper of
Vishnu, and this is noteworthy in view of the tradition that his son
Mahendravarman I who was at first a Jaina an hostile to the worship of the
was later converted to Saivism
through the influence of Saint Appar.
stone inscriptions date only from the time of Mahendravarman I, the
originator of rock-cut shrines in South India (No. 12). The majority of his records consist only of
his birudas, most of which like Vichitrachitta, Sankiranajati, Mattavilasa,
Cheththakari and Satrumalla explain his character, tastes and
achievements. His connection with the
telugu country is indicated by such titles as Nilvuleneyambu, Pasarambu,
Bujjanakanthu, Pisugu, Ventulavittu, etc., which are given in his
inscriptions at Trichinopoly (Nos. 8), Pallavaram (Nos. 13) and Conjeeveram
(No. 14). From No. 9 it is known that
the upper rock-cut cave at Trichinopoly was called
‘Lalitankura-Pallavesvara-griham’ and that it was constructed by a Pallava king
Lalitankura, who from the Vallam,
records may be identified with Mahendravarman I himself. His statue
said to have been placed in this cave is not, however, traceable now.
the many rock-cut temples that came into existence in the time of
Mahendravarman, the one at Vallam near Chingleput deserves mention. This temple (devakulam) is said to
have been built by Kandasenan (Skandasena), the son of Vayantappiriarasar
(Vasantapriyaraja), who was a vassal of Mahendravarman. The names Skandasena and Skandasishya convey
the same meaning, as sena means ‘one having a lord or master.’ An inscription from Tirukkalukkunram
refers to an original grant made to the temple of ulasthanattu-Perumanadigal in
the village by Skandasishya and confirmed by Vatapikonda Narasingappottaraiyar,
which was afterwards renewed in the 27th year of
Skandasishya had hitherto been
identified with Skandasishya, son of Virakurcha of the Sanskrit grants. The temple of Mulasthanattu-Perumanadigal
may be identified with the Orukal-mandapa in the place from a reference made to
the former in No. 16 belonging to Vatapikonda Narasimhavarman, and may, from
its style, be definitely attributed to the time of Mahendravarman I. Thus it seems more probable that
Skandasishya mentioned in the Tirukkalukkunram inscription is identical with
the chief Skandasena who excavated the cave at Vallam.
17 and 18, which are label inscriptions found over the sculptures of two royal
personages at Mahabalipuram, had been considered to belong to Simhavishnu and
his son Mahendravarman I. But the late
Mr. Krishna Sastri identified these statues as representations of
Narasimhavishnu (Narasimhavarman I) and his father Mahendravarman I. Since the Adi-Varaha rock-cut temple,
wherein these sculptures are found, is known in a latter inscription
as ‘Paramesvara-Mahavaraha-Vishnugriha,’ it may be presumed that
Paramesvaravarman after whom the cave was called must have completed the work
started by his immediate predecessors.
Hence it is reasonable to take one of these statues as a representation
of Narasimhavishnu as supposed by Mr. Sastri, and the other as that of
his son Mahendravarman II, the grandfather and father
respectively of Paramesvaravarman I.
the inscriptions of Paramesvaravarman (Nos. 19 – 22) included in the present
volume come from Mahabalipuram. The
monuments of his period are not many and this may be accounted for by the fact
that his reign was mostly occupied by wars with the Chlukyas. The Ganesa temple and the Ramanuja-mandapa at
Mahabalipuram and the Siva-temple at Kuram are the chief edifices of his
reign. Besides the Varaha cave
mentioned above, the Dharmaraja-mandapa at Mahabalipuram was also, probably,
completed by him, as can be judged from the name ‘Atyantakama-Pallavesvaragraiham’
given to it after his surname (No. 21)
the reign, however, of his son Narasimhavarman II Rajasimha, which was
comparatively free from any political disturbance, great progress was made in
the direction of temple building. Among
the monuments that owe their origin to him may be mentioned the Kailasanatha
and the Airavatesvara temples at Kanchi, the ‘Shore Temple’ at Mahabalipuram
and the Talapurisvara temple at Panamalai (No. 29). An interesting tradition connected with the construction of the
Kailasantha temple is contained in an inscription
found therein, which refers to a celestial voice heard by the king. This is evidently an allusion to the story
in the Periyapuranam
wherein it is stated that the Pallava king was directed to postpone the
consecration of this temple, so that the Lord might be present elsewhere at a
similar ceremony conducted in the mental plane by Saint Pusalar. Narasimha’s queen, Rangapataka also, raised
a small shrine in the same temple.
In the Kasakudi plates of Nandivarman Pallavamalla,
Rajasimha is said to have bestowed his wealth on temples and Brahmanas. He is further credited with the construction
of the Buddhist Vihara at Negapatam, which is commonly known as
‘China-pagoda.’ The Tirupporur inscription of the king (No.
27) enumerates his birudas among which may be mentioned Jnanasagara,
Atiranachanda, Atyantakama, etc., He was also known as Narasimhavishnu,
Kshatrachulamani. Some of his other epithets such as Vadyavidyadhara,
are indicative of his proficiency in music, while the epithets Sivachudamani
explain his devotion to the Saiva faith and doctrine. The exact period of Narasimha’s region is not known, but from the
reference to the king in the Chinese accounts
as Che-li-Na-lo-seng-k’ia-pao-to-pa-mo, i.e., Sri Narasimhapotavarman in A.D.
720, his rule may be supposed to have extended to least up to this year.
important event of his reign is the dispatch of an embassy
from the Pallava court of China apprising the Chinese emperor of the intention
of the Pallava monarch to go to war with the Arabs and the Tibetans; Narasimha,
further, sent word that he had constructed a temple in honour of the emperor
and that he wanted him to give it a name.
The reference may be to the Buddhist Vihara
at Negapatam mentioned above. In
deference to the wishes of the Pallava monarch a Chinese embassy was sent to
South India. The prestige of the
Pallavas may be said to have reached its peak in the reign of this king.
is only a singe record of Mahedravarman III in the volume, which is
found on a slab set up in a street at Conjeeveram (No. 31), while his successor
Paramesvaravarman II is not represented at all. On the latter’s demise without any heir to succeed him, a
deputation of his ministers waited on king Hiranyavarman of the collateral family
and represented to him the need for a sovereign to rule their country. Hiranyavarman’s son Nandivarman
Pallavamalla who was then a young prince was thereupon chosen to assume the
sovereignty. The whole of the previous
Pallava history concluding with the coronation of this prince is depicted in
sculptures elaborately carved on the walls of the verandah round the garbhagriha
of the Vaikuntha-perumal temple at Conjeeveram.
records of Pallavamalla in the volume range from the 10th (No. 32)
to the 65th year of his reign (No. 38). One of the chief events during this period was the destruction of
Penkulikottai mentioned in No. 35, which deserves close study.
also called Kshatriyamalla and Sridhara, revived the practice of quoting regnal
years in inscriptions, which had been apparently given up by his immediate
predecessors. This practice has been
greatly helpful in the study of later Pallava chronology. Like his forefathers, he also added the
titles ‘Vijaya’ and ‘Vikrama’ to his name.
From his time onwards Tamil came to be the main language used by the
Pallavas in their inscriptions, though a few records continued to be in
Sanskrit. This language was first
adopted by Mahendravarman I himself in a few records of his (No. 16, fn. 2);
but from the time of Paramesvaravarman I, the practice came into vogue of
inscribing a part of the record in Sanskrit and the rest in Tamil.
Dantivarman, like his father Nandivarman, had a long rule of
over 50 years, but very little is known about his reign. His chief queen was the Kadamba princess
Agaalanimmatti. Inscription No. 43, dated in the 51st
year, mentions his Chola subordinate named Ulagaperumanar. Chief among his other suboridinates were
Vinnakovaraiyar (No. 42), Kaduvetti Muttaraiyan (No. 44) and the Bana chief
next king represented in the volume is Nandivarman III whose
relationship to Dantivarman as son is indicated in the name Danti-Nandivarman
given to him in No. 48. Records of
Nandivarman II and III are not easily distinguishable one from the other. The title ‘Tellarrerinda’ (Nos. 56 and 57)
known to have been assumed by Nandivarman III from his 12th year
is helpful in this identification.
Since the latest regnal year of the king with this title is the 22nd
(No. 58), other records with higher regnal years may have to be assigned to Nandivarman
II. Inscriptions of Nandivarman III are
found in the region between Tiruvellarai (No. 48: Trichinopoly district) and
Kunnandarkoyil (No. 46 : Pudukkottai State) in the south and Kalattur (No. 51 :
Chingleput district) and Gudimallam
(Chittoor district) in the north. Some
of his subordinates were the Ganga Nergutti,
the Bana Vikramaditya Mavalivanaraya
and the chief Chola-Maharaja Kumarankusa (No. 49). The muka-mandapa of the Siva temple at Pallikonda in the
North Arcot district (No. 45) and the Vishnu temple at Kiliyanur in the South
Arcot district (No. 47) were constructed during his reign. No. 59 gives him the surname
Kumaramarttanda. He seems to have been
on terms of friendship with the contemporary Pandya king Varaguna, in one of
whose inscriptions he figures as donor (No. 60). This friendship was evidently continued in the time of his
successor Nripatungavarman also, as can be seen from an inscription of the
latter at Tiruvadi (No. 71).
was the last great monarch of the family,
who ruled over the Pallava dominion extending from Trichinopoly in the south to
Conjeeveram in the north. He is said to
have assisted a Pandya king with an army and defeated his enemies on the banks
of the river Arichit, i.e., Arasalar flowing near Kumbhakonam. The Sinnamanur plates
refer to the victory of king Sri-Mara Srivallabha over the Pallavas among
others, at Kudamukkil and to his conquest of a certain Maya-Pandya. It is possible that the Pallava referred to
in these plates was Nripatunga who should have espoused the case of the
defeated Maya-Pandya in an internecine battle for the Pandya throne. The Cholas had not yet by this time risen to
the status of an independent power. The
matrimonial relationship, which existed at this period between the Rashtrakutas
and the Pallavas, secured the latter against any trouble from the former. The Mutaraiyans under Sattam-Paliyili,
the Gangas under Prithivipati I
and the Banas under Mahabali-Banavidyadhara
acknowledged the overlordship of Nripatunga.
Towards the close of his reign, however, the Nolambas from the Mysore
border made incursions into the Pallava territory, but they seem to have been
promptly checked by the Banas who were the guardians of this region. Soon after his demise, these vassal chiefs
threw off the Pallava yoke and asserted their independence. Pallava supremacy in South India may be said
to have come to an end with Nripatunga, though Pallava rule lingered on for two
more decades under Aparajita till it finally disappeared with the rise of the
queen of Nripatunga was Kadavan-Madeviyar mentioned in No. 64. She was probably different from
Vira-Mahadeviyar who performed the hiranyagrabha and tulabhara
ceremonies (No. 74). The latest regnal
year of the king is the 26th. The practice of excavating rock-cut temples
seems to have been continued even in the time of Dantivarman and of Nripatunga,
since we find such temples at Malaiyadipatti
and Narttamalai (No. 63), which are stated in their inscriptions to have come
into existence in the reigns of these kings.
seals of the Pallava copper plate grants, of which the latest is the
Bahur plates of Nripatunga, offer an interesting study of the royal emblems of
the dynasty. Most of them, on account
of their great age, are defaced and worn out.
The bull which is known to have been adopted as their lanchhana
is represented prominently on them in relief either in standing or recumbent
posture, sometimes accompanied by such auspicious symbols as lamps, chauris,
parasols, etc., Along the margin of the seals is generally found a legend
giving the name of the ruler who issued the particular grant. The seals of the Mayidavolu and the
Hirahadagalli plates give the label ‘Sivaskandavarmmanah.’ Those of Tandantottam and the Velurpalaiyam
plates are well preserved and may be taken as good examples of later Pallava
seals (Plate VII).
the evidence of the names Nandi-Kampesvara
found in two records from the North Arcot district, it has been surmised that Kampavarman
was the son of Nandivarman III. About
35 inscriptions of this king, ranging in date from the 2nd year of
his reign (No. 97) to the 32nd (No. III) have so far been secured ;
they are found mostly in the Chingleput and North Arcot districts and at Mallam
in the Nellore district. The extent of
his territory is thus indicated by the provenance of these records.
the time of Kampavarman, the Banas the chiefs of Pangala-nadu continued to be
the feudatories of the Pallavas. The Kodumbalur chiefs of Ko-nadu were also
friendly, if not subordinate, of them. An important event of his reign was the
battle between the army of Pirudigangaraiyar (Prithvipati 1) and that of the
Banas headed by a certain Perunagarkkonda Kavidi (No. 101). This chief has been identified by me with
Akalankattuvarayar figuring in a record
of the 26th year of Nripatungavarman from Ambur in the North Arcot
district. Another event of this period
was the destruction of Olakkur mentioned in No. 112. As suggested by a record from Uttaramallur,
Kampa seems to have been born in the asterism Svati in the month of Avani. His inscription at Mallam (No. 106) records
an act of head offering by a warrior as sacrifice to the goddess Durga. Some of the shrines that were constructed in
his reign are found in the temples at Solapuram,
next king represented in the volume is Ap arajitavarman who bore the
surname Rajamarttanda (No. 96).
During his reign the Pallava dominion was considerably reduced in extent
and covered only portions of the present Saidapet, Ponneri and Conjeeveram
taluks of the Chingle put district and the Tiruttani taluk of Chittor. His queen Madevi-Adigal is mentioned in No.
91. His latest regnal year is the 18th
(No. 95). The temple at Tiruttani,
which was constructed during his time (No. 94) affords a definite landmark in
the evolution of Pallava temple architecture.
With the death of Aparajita in the battle of Sripurambiyam about A.D.
880, the Pallava power may be said to have come to an end, and after its
disappearance, the Pallava vassals like the Banas, the Muttaraiyans and the
chiefs of Kodumbalur rose to power.
A few other members of
the Pallava family also figure at different periods in inscriptions, such as
Vayirameghavarman (Nos. 113 and 114), Chandraditya (No. 115), Satti,
their relationship to the main Pallava line is not known. Besides these, there were other chiefs
claiming Pallava descent and ruling over diffene parts of the South India. A few inscriptions of about the 10th
century A.D. in the Punganur taluk of the Chittoor district mention two such
chiefs named Pallava-Dhavala and Pallava-Arasa as ruling over Puli-nadu at this
period. Pallava-Dhavala was a subordinate
under Prithvipati II Sembiayn Mahabali-Vanarayar
who was himself a vassal of the Chola king Parantaka I. Another important Pallava chief of about the
same period in this locality was a certain Paramesvara Pallavamalla,
who, like Nandivarman Pallavamalla of the regular line, bore the titles Samudraghoshana,
Paramesvara, Kadivaya, etc., He was probably a later member of the family
which had settled in this region in the time of Nandivarman II. Another branch of the Pallava family called
the Nolamba-Pallavas settled in the province called Nolambavadi-32,000,
wielding power till about the middle of the 11th century over areas
comprising the present Bellary district and portions of Anantapur with the
adjoining region in the Mysore
State. Inscriptions of the 11th
– 13th centuries found in the Telugu districts mention some chiefs
claiming descent from a certain Trilochana-Pallava, Mukkanti-Pallava or
Mukkanti-Kaduvetti. Among the chiefs of the same period in the
Tamil country tracing their ancestry to the Pallavas is Tripurantakadevan
Madhusudanadevarasan, son of Mahamandalesvara Tripurantakadeva,
a minister of Telugu Choda chief Tikka. This Madhusudanadeva who was a subordinate
of Nellore belonged to the Bharadvaja-gotra and bore the titles Khatvangadhvaja,
Katuvaya-paraghoshana, Vrishabha-lanchhana, Kanchipuravaradhisvara,
Pallavakula-tilaka, etc., Another chief with identical titles is Tipparasar
who was also a subordinate of Vijaya-Gandagopala.
Probably distinct from this Vijaya-Gandagopala are two other chiefs (or a
chief) of the same name claiming Pallava lineage and mentioned in a record from
the Kurnool district and in an inscription from Atmakur in the Nellore district.
As suggested by Rao Bahadur Krishnamacharlu,
this Tarandikondaposar (i.e.,) Trandikonda-Bhoja may, from his name, be
taken as hailing from the village Tanrikonra mentioned in the early
copper-plate grant of Damodaravarloan (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 328)
where it is identified with Tadikonda near Guntur. It also figures as a gift-village in a copper-plate grant of
Ammaraja II in S. 880 (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIII, p. 163).
S.I.I. (Texts), Vol. IV, p. 11,
section f. The wording in the
text is : -
‘idu kalirinralay = anru nun-maganudaya
makutangal = ivay enru Tarandikondaposar
I am indebted to my late colleague Mr. A. S.
Ramanatha Ayyar for first suggesting the resemblance. This subject is discussed at length in a paper entitled ‘A New
Link between the Indi-Parthians and the Pallavas of Kanchi’ contributed by the
me to the Eleventh All-India Oriental Conference, Hyderabad (1941).
S.I.I., Vol. II, p. 370 ff.
Though Mahendravarman professed his devotion
to Siva, he also excavated in rock a Vishnu temple called Mahendravishnugriha
at Mahendravadi (Ep. Ind. Vol.
IV, p. 152 ff.)
A.R. No. 67 of 1900 ; Ep. Ind.,
Vol. VI. P. 320.
S.I.I., Vol. I, pp. 29 – 30.
Ind., Vol. III, p. 270.
This identification is not quite
In the Udayendiram plates (S.I.I.,
Vol. II, p. 370) and the Kuram grant (S.I.I., Vol. I, p. 152), Paramsvaravarman
is stated to be the son of Mahendravarman II.
Yule : Marco Polo, Vol.
Bk. III, p. 336. A cave containing the image of Buddha in
this place is said to have been constructed at he desire of the Maharaja
of Chinadesa (Ind. Ant.,
Vol. XXII, p. 45)
Ep. Rep. For 1909, part II, para. 17.
Ibid, p. 14, v. 12. It may also be noted that Ukkal in the
Chingleput district was known as Sivachudamanimangalam (S.I.I., Vol.
III, p. 2)
Foreign Notices of South India : K.
A. N. Sastri, pp. 17 and 117. Mr.
Sastri has also pointed out that the Pallavas had nothing to do with the Arabs
and Tibetans and that the Chinese emperor being impressed with the power of
Narasimha, was anxious to enlist his support against the enemies of China.
According to tradition the Vaishnava saint
Tirumangai Alvar is said to have enriched the Ranganatha temple at Srirangam
with the booty obtained by looting this Buddhist sanctuary.
The historical sculptures in his temple form
the subject of a Memoir issued by the Arch. Sur. Of India – No.
Almost all the copper plate records, viz.,
Kasakudi, Tandantottam, Pattattalmangalm, Udayendiram and Velurpalaiyam are
composed both in Sanskrit and Tamil.
A village founded in her name in the South
Arcot district existed in the time of the Chola king Vikrama-Chola (S.I.I.,
Vol. VII, No. 304). See also A.R. No. 38 of 1900 and S.I.I.,
Vol. II, p. 505.
A.R. No. 226 of 1903 ; Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 225.
A.R. Nos. 52 of 1895 and 11 of 1899,
dated simply in the 10th and 12th regnal years
respectively and mentioning ‘Tellarrerinda’ Nandi, do not belong to this king.
Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 224.
Ep. Rep. For 1900, para. 84 and for
1912, p. 60.
A.R. No. 229 of 1903 ; Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 224.
Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, p. 5 ff.
S.I.I., Vol. III, p. 449.
Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 182.
Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 227.
Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 182.
Pud. State, No. 18.
Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 196.
A.R. No. 469 of 1925 ; Ep. Ind.,
Vol. XXIII, p. 144, fn. 8.
Ep. Ind. Vol. XXIII, p. 145.
S.I.I., Vol. VI, NO. 371.
Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 193.
S.I.I., Vol. VII, Nos. 420 and 421.
Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 25.
Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p. 49 ff.
Ep. Ind., Vol. XXI, p. 173 ff.
An. Rep. On Epy. For 1931-32, p. 47.
An. Rep. On Epy. For 1933-34, p. 31.
[A Telugu epigraph in characters of about
the 10th century A.D. at Kotappakonda in the Guntur district mentions
a Pallavamalla : S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 925.- Ed.]
[A Mukkanti Kaduvetti is referred to in Saka
year 723 and his predecessor was Trinetra Ep. Rep. For 1916, p. 138,
para. 56 – Ed.]
A.R. Nos. 264 and 267 of 1921.
A.R. Nos. 39 to 1893, 228 of 1910 and
568 of 1919.
A.R. Nos. 39 of 1893 and 228 of 1910
; also of Ep. Rep. For 1920, para. 57.
Nellore Inscriptions, A. 25.