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South Indian Inscriptions


 

PALLAVA INSCRIPTIONS

INTRODUCTION

The present volume comprises 265 inscriptions of the Pallava dynasty copied by the Epigraphical Department from 1904 to 1935.  As the records secured prior to 1904 are published in the Epigraphia India and the South Indian Inscriptions, the whole material pertaining to this dynasty collected by the Department may now be said to be completely available to scholars.  In the preparation of this volume, all the transcripts were carefully checked with their estampages, fresh ones prepared where the old were defective and the originals themselves were examined on the spot in several cases so as to ensure accuracy in the readings of the texts.  In this task, I received constant encouragement and guidance from Rao Bahadur C. R. Krishnamacharlu, Government Epigraphist for India, who, besides placing all the materials concerned at my disposal, assisted me in checking the proof in its several stages and examining in situ some of the more important records.  I am also indebted to my colleague Mr. G. V. Srinivasa Rao for valuable suggestions offered by him while reading through the proofs with me and for revising the introduction.

This volume is divided, for the sake of convenience, into two sections, the first comprising the inscriptions of the Pallavas up to the 9th century A.D. and the second, those of two prominent chiefs of the 13th century A.D. who claim to belong to this dynasty.

Though Pallava history has attracted and engaged the attention of scholars for over quarter of a century, there are still many problems awaiting solution.  This is especially the case with the first period of Pallava history, viz., the period of copper-plate charters ranging from the middle of the 3rd to the end of the 6th century A.D.  The sources for the history of this period being limited, very little is known about its rulers beyond their names.  The genealogy of these Pallava sovereigns and the actual duration of their reigns are still unsettled.  Whether all the members mentioned in the charters actually ruled as kings is itself doubtful.  We, however, get a clearer view of the dynasty during the second period, i.e., the period of stone records extending from the 7th to the 9th century A.D., as the epigraphs are distributed over a wide region with the advantage of some sidelights being thrown from the records of other dynasties.

To the pioneer scholars like Dr. Hultzsch and Rai Bahadur Venkayya, the history of the Pallavas practically stopped with Nandivarman II Pallavamalla, but later researches have helped to trace its continuity till the absorption of the Pallava kingdom by the Cholas in the 9th century A.D.  The inscriptions published in this volume contain valuable information for the pursuit of this subject and of the Tamil literature of the period.  In the following pages attention is drawn only to the salient features of the reigns of Pallava sovereigns mentioned in these inscriptions.

In one of the explanatory labels appended to the sculptures in the Vaikuntha-Perumal temple at Conjeeveram, Tarandikondaposar[1], pointing to an object, is said to have assured Hiranyavarmma-Maharaja, that it is not ‘the had of an elephant,’[2] but the crown intended for his son.  This passage clearly suggests that the crown offered to the Pallava king was shaped like an elephant’s scalp.   Such a headdress has not so far been met with in Indian sculptures, but strangely enough one with an elephant’s head complete with proboscis and tusks is found worn by the Bactrian ruler Demetrius on his coins, who probably copied it from Alexander the Great.  The close resemblance[3] of the crown offered to Nandivarman Pallavamalla on the occasion of his coronation ceremony to that found for the Bactrian king cannot be a mere accident, but seems to be connected intimately with the question of the foreign origin of the Pallavas.

Simhavishnu or Avanisimha, the son of Simhavarman and thefather of Mahendravarman I, was the first Pallava monarch who extended his dominions beyond Kanchi in the South.  He has not left any stone or copper-plate inscriptions, but is known only through the records of his successors.  His territory may be said to have extended as far south as the river Kaveri, which is referred to in a record of Mahendravarman I at Trichinopoly as ‘the beloved of the Pallava’.[4]  Simhavishnu must have bequeathed this extensive dominion intact to his son and successor as evidenced by the latter’s inscriptions at Trichinopoly (Nos. 8 and 9) and in the Pudukkottai State (Nos. 7 and 7-a).  In the Udayendiram plates[5] of Nandivarman II, Simhavishnu is said to have been a devout worshipper of Vishnu, and this is noteworthy in view of the tradition that his son Mahendravarman I who was at first a Jaina an hostile to the worship of the linga[6] was later converted to Saivism[7] through the influence of Saint Appar.

Pallava stone inscriptions date only from the time of Mahendravarman I, the originator of rock-cut shrines in South India (No. 12).  The majority of his records consist only of his birudas, most of which like Vichitrachitta, Sankiranajati, Mattavilasa, Cheththakari and Satrumalla explain his character, tastes and achievements.  His connection with the telugu country is indicated by such titles as Nilvuleneyambu, Pasarambu, Bujjanakanthu, Pisugu, Ventulavittu, etc., which are given in his inscriptions at Trichinopoly (Nos. 8), Pallavaram (Nos. 13) and Conjeeveram (No. 14).  From No. 9 it is known that the upper rock-cut cave at Trichinopoly was called ‘Lalitankura-Pallavesvara-griham’ and that it was constructed by a Pallava king Lalitankura, who from the Vallam[8], Pallavaram[9], and Siyamangalam[10] records may be identified with Mahendravarman I himself.  His statue[11] said to have been placed in this cave is not, however, traceable now.

Among the many rock-cut temples that came into existence in the time of Mahendravarman, the one at Vallam near Chingleput deserves mention.  This temple (devakulam) is said to have been built by Kandasenan (Skandasena), the son of Vayantappiriarasar (Vasantapriyaraja), who was a vassal of Mahendravarman.  The names Skandasena and Skandasishya convey the same meaning, as sena means ‘one having a lord or master.’  An inscription from Tirukkalukkunram[12] refers to an original grant made to the temple of ulasthanattu-Perumanadigal in the village by Skandasishya and confirmed by Vatapikonda Narasingappottaraiyar, which was afterwards renewed in the 27th year of Rajakesarivarman.  This Skandasishya  had hitherto been identified with Skandasishya, son of Virakurcha of the Sanskrit grants.  The temple of Mulasthanattu-Perumanadigal may be identified with the Orukal-mandapa in the place from a reference made to the former in No. 16 belonging to Vatapikonda Narasimhavarman, and may, from its style, be definitely attributed to the time of Mahendravarman I.  Thus it seems more probable that Skandasishya mentioned in the Tirukkalukkunram inscription is identical with the chief Skandasena who excavated the cave at Vallam.[13]

Numbers 17 and 18, which are label inscriptions found over the sculptures of two royal personages at Mahabalipuram, had been considered to belong to Simhavishnu and his son Mahendravarman I.  But the late Mr. Krishna Sastri identified these statues as representations of Narasimhavishnu (Narasimhavarman I) and his father Mahendravarman I.  Since the Adi-Varaha rock-cut temple, wherein these sculptures are found, is known in a latter inscription[14] as ‘Paramesvara-Mahavaraha-Vishnugriha,’ it may be presumed that Paramesvaravarman after whom the cave was called must have completed the work started by his immediate predecessors.  Hence it is reasonable to take one of these statues as a representation of Narasimhavishnu as supposed by Mr. Sastri, and the other as that of his son Mahendravarman II, the grandfather and father[15] respectively of Paramesvaravarman I.

All the inscriptions of Paramesvaravarman (Nos. 19 – 22) included in the present volume come from Mahabalipuram.  The monuments of his period are not many and this may be accounted for by the fact that his reign was mostly occupied by wars with the Chlukyas.  The Ganesa temple and the Ramanuja-mandapa at Mahabalipuram and the Siva-temple at Kuram are the chief edifices of his reign.  Besides the Varaha cave mentioned above, the Dharmaraja-mandapa at Mahabalipuram was also, probably, completed by him, as can be judged from the name ‘Atyantakama-Pallavesvaragraiham’ given to it after his surname (No. 21)

During the reign, however, of his son Narasimhavarman II Rajasimha, which was comparatively free from any political disturbance, great progress was made in the direction of temple building.  Among the monuments that owe their origin to him may be mentioned the Kailasanatha and the Airavatesvara temples at Kanchi, the ‘Shore Temple’ at Mahabalipuram and the Talapurisvara temple at Panamalai (No. 29).  An interesting tradition connected with the construction of the Kailasantha temple is contained in an inscription[16] found therein, which refers to a celestial voice heard by the king.  This is evidently an allusion to the story in the Periyapuranam[17] wherein it is stated that the Pallava king was directed to postpone the consecration of this temple, so that the Lord might be present elsewhere at a similar ceremony conducted in the mental plane by Saint Pusalar.  Narasimha’s queen, Rangapataka also, raised a small shrine in the same temple.[18] In the Kasakudi plates of Nandivarman Pallavamalla,[19] Rajasimha is said to have bestowed his wealth on temples and Brahmanas.  He is further credited with the construction of the Buddhist Vihara at Negapatam, which is commonly known as ‘China-pagoda.[20]  The Tirupporur inscription of the king (No. 27) enumerates his birudas among which may be mentioned Jnanasagara, Atiranachanda, Atyantakama, etc., He was also known as Narasimhavishnu,[21] Kshtriyasimha[22] and Kshatrachulamani[23].  Some of his other epithets such as Vadyavidyadhara,[24] Atodya-Tumburu[25] and Vina-Narada,[26] are indicative of his proficiency in music, while the epithets Sivachudamani[27] and Agamanusari[28] explain his devotion to the Saiva faith and doctrine.  The exact period of Narasimha’s region is not known, but from the reference to the king in the Chinese accounts[29] as Che-li-Na-lo-seng-k’ia-pao-to-pa-mo, i.e., Sri Narasimhapotavarman in A.D. 720, his rule may be supposed to have extended to least up to this year.

An important event of his reign is the dispatch of an embassy[30] from the Pallava court of China apprising the Chinese emperor of the intention of the Pallava monarch to go to war with the Arabs and the Tibetans; Narasimha, further, sent word that he had constructed a temple in honour of the emperor and that he wanted him to give it a name.  The reference may be to the Buddhist Vihara[31] at Negapatam mentioned above.  In deference to the wishes of the Pallava monarch a Chinese embassy was sent to South India.  The prestige of the Pallavas may be said to have reached its peak in the reign of this king.

There is only a singe record of Mahedravarman III in the volume, which is found on a slab set up in a street at Conjeeveram (No. 31), while his successor Paramesvaravarman II is not represented at all.   On the latter’s demise without any heir to succeed him, a deputation of his ministers waited on king Hiranyavarman of the collateral family and represented to him the need for a sovereign to rule their country.  Hiranyavarman’s son Nandivarman Pallavamalla who was then a young prince was thereupon chosen to assume the sovereignty.  The whole of the previous Pallava history concluding with the coronation of this prince is depicted in sculptures elaborately carved on the walls of the verandah round the garbhagriha of the Vaikuntha-perumal temple at Conjeeveram.[32]

The records of Pallavamalla in the volume range from the 10th (No. 32) to the 65th year of his reign (No. 38).  One of the chief events during this period was the destruction of Penkulikottai mentioned in No. 35, which deserves close study.

Pallavamalla, also called Kshatriyamalla and Sridhara, revived the practice of quoting regnal years in inscriptions, which had been apparently given up by his immediate predecessors.  This practice has been greatly helpful in the study of later Pallava chronology.  Like his forefathers, he also added the titles ‘Vijaya’ and ‘Vikrama’ to his name.  From his time onwards Tamil came to be the main language used by the Pallavas in their inscriptions, though a few records continued to be in Sanskrit.  This language was first adopted by Mahendravarman I himself in a few records of his (No. 16, fn. 2); but from the time of Paramesvaravarman I, the practice came into vogue of inscribing a part of the record in Sanskrit and the rest in Tamil.[33]

Dantivarman, like his father Nandivarman, had a long rule of over 50 years, but very little is known about his reign.  His chief queen was the Kadamba princess Agaalanimmatti.[34]  Inscription No. 43, dated in the 51st year, mentions his Chola subordinate named Ulagaperumanar.  Chief among his other suboridinates were Vinnakovaraiyar (No. 42), Kaduvetti Muttaraiyan (No. 44) and the Bana chief Vijayaditya Mavalivanarayar.[35]

The next king represented in the volume is Nandivarman III whose relationship to Dantivarman as son is indicated in the name Danti-Nandivarman given to him in No. 48.  Records of Nandivarman II and III are not easily distinguishable one from the other.  The title ‘Tellarrerinda’ (Nos. 56 and 57) known to have been assumed by Nandivarman III from his 12th year[36] is helpful in this identification.  Since the latest regnal year of the king with this title is the 22nd (No. 58), other records with higher regnal years may have to be assigned to Nandivarman II.  Inscriptions of Nandivarman III are found in the region between Tiruvellarai (No. 48: Trichinopoly district) and Kunnandarkoyil (No. 46 : Pudukkottai State) in the south and Kalattur (No. 51 : Chingleput district) and Gudimallam[37] (Chittoor district) in the north.  Some of his subordinates were the Ganga Nergutti,[38] the Bana Vikramaditya Mavalivanaraya[39] and the chief Chola-Maharaja Kumarankusa (No. 49).  The muka-mandapa of the Siva temple at Pallikonda in the North Arcot district (No. 45) and the Vishnu temple at Kiliyanur in the South Arcot district (No. 47) were constructed during his reign.  No. 59 gives him the surname Kumaramarttanda.  He seems to have been on terms of friendship with the contemporary Pandya king Varaguna, in one of whose inscriptions he figures as donor (No. 60).  This friendship was evidently continued in the time of his successor Nripatungavarman also, as can be seen from an inscription of the latter at Tiruvadi (No. 71).

Nripatunga was the last great monarch of the family, who ruled over the Pallava dominion extending from Trichinopoly in the south to Conjeeveram in the north.  He is said to have assisted a Pandya king with an army and defeated his enemies on the banks of the river Arichit, i.e., Arasalar flowing near Kumbhakonam.[40]  The Sinnamanur plates[41] refer to the victory of king Sri-Mara Srivallabha over the Pallavas among others, at Kudamukkil and to his conquest of a certain Maya-Pandya.  It is possible that the Pallava referred to in these plates was Nripatunga who should have espoused the case of the defeated Maya-Pandya in an internecine battle for the Pandya throne.  The Cholas had not yet by this time risen to the status of an independent power.  The matrimonial relationship, which existed at this period between the Rashtrakutas and the Pallavas, secured the latter against any trouble from the former.  The Mutaraiyans under Sattam-Paliyili[42], the Gangas under Prithivipati I[43] and the Banas under Mahabali-Banavidyadhara[44] acknowledged the overlordship of Nripatunga.  Towards the close of his reign, however, the Nolambas from the Mysore border made incursions into the Pallava territory, but they seem to have been promptly checked by the Banas who were the guardians of this region.  Soon after his demise, these vassal chiefs threw off the Pallava yoke and asserted their independence.  Pallava supremacy in South India may be said to have come to an end with Nripatunga, though Pallava rule lingered on for two more decades under Aparajita till it finally disappeared with the rise of the Cholas.

A queen of Nripatunga was Kadavan-Madeviyar mentioned in No. 64.  She was probably different from Vira-Mahadeviyar who performed the hiranyagrabha and tulabhara ceremonies (No. 74).  The latest regnal year of the king is the 26th.[45]  The practice of excavating rock-cut temples seems to have been continued even in the time of Dantivarman and of Nripatunga, since we find such temples at Malaiyadipatti[46] and Narttamalai (No. 63), which are stated in their inscriptions to have come into existence in the reigns of these kings.

The seals of the Pallava copper plate grants, of which the latest is the Bahur plates of Nripatunga, offer an interesting study of the royal emblems of the dynasty.  Most of them, on account of their great age, are defaced and worn out.  The bull which is known to have been adopted as their lanchhana is represented prominently on them in relief either in standing or recumbent posture, sometimes accompanied by such auspicious symbols as lamps, chauris, parasols, etc., Along the margin of the seals is generally found a legend giving the name of the ruler who issued the particular grant.  The seals of the Mayidavolu and the Hirahadagalli plates give the label ‘Sivaskandavarmmanah.’  Those of Tandantottam and the Velurpalaiyam plates are well preserved and may be taken as good examples of later Pallava seals (Plate VII).

On the evidence of the names Nandi-Kampesvara[47] and Nandi-Kampa-chaturvedimangalam[48] found in two records from the North Arcot district, it has been surmised that Kampavarman was the son of Nandivarman III.  About 35 inscriptions of this king, ranging in date from the 2nd year of his reign (No. 97) to the 32nd (No. III) have so far been secured ; they are found mostly in the Chingleput and North Arcot districts and at Mallam in the Nellore district.  The extent of his territory is thus indicated by the provenance of these records.

In the time of Kampavarman, the Banas the chiefs of Pangala-nadu continued to be the feudatories of the Pallavas.[49]  The Kodumbalur chiefs of Ko-nadu were also friendly, if not subordinate, of them.[50]  An important event of his reign was the battle between the army of Pirudigangaraiyar (Prithvipati 1) and that of the Banas headed by a certain Perunagarkkonda Kavidi (No. 101).  This chief has been identified by me with Akalankattuvarayar figuring in a record[51] of the 26th year of Nripatungavarman from Ambur in the North Arcot district.  Another event of this period was the destruction of Olakkur mentioned in No. 112.  As suggested by a record from Uttaramallur,[52] Kampa seems to have been born in the asterism Svati in the month of Avani.  His inscription at Mallam (No. 106) records an act of head offering by a warrior as sacrifice to the goddess Durga.  Some of the shrines that were constructed in his reign are found in the temples at Solapuram,[53] Tiruvorriyur[54] and Kavantandalam.[55]

The next king represented in the volume is Ap arajitavarman who bore the surname Rajamarttanda (No. 96).  During his reign the Pallava dominion was considerably reduced in extent and covered only portions of the present Saidapet, Ponneri and Conjeeveram taluks of the Chingle put district and the Tiruttani taluk of Chittor.  His queen Madevi-Adigal is mentioned in No. 91.  His latest regnal year is the 18th (No. 95).  The temple at Tiruttani, which was constructed during his time (No. 94) affords a definite landmark in the evolution of Pallava temple architecture.  With the death of Aparajita in the battle of Sripurambiyam about A.D. 880, the Pallava power may be said to have come to an end, and after its disappearance, the Pallava vassals like the Banas, the Muttaraiyans and the chiefs of Kodumbalur rose to power.

A few other members of the Pallava family also figure at different periods in inscriptions, such as Vayirameghavarman (Nos. 113 and 114), Chandraditya (No. 115), Satti,[56] Skandasishya[57] and Gopaladeva[58] but their relationship to the main Pallava line is not known.  Besides these, there were other chiefs claiming Pallava descent and ruling over diffene parts of the South India.  A few inscriptions of about the 10th century A.D. in the Punganur taluk of the Chittoor district mention two such chiefs named Pallava-Dhavala and Pallava-Arasa as ruling over Puli-nadu at this period.  Pallava-Dhavala was a subordinate under Prithvipati II Sembiayn Mahabali-Vanarayar[59] who was himself a vassal of the Chola king Parantaka I.  Another important Pallava chief of about the same period in this locality was a certain Paramesvara Pallavamalla,[60] who, like Nandivarman Pallavamalla of the regular line, bore the titles Samudraghoshana, Paramesvara, Kadivaya, etc., He was probably a later member of the family which had settled in this region in the time of Nandivarman II.[61]  Another branch of the Pallava family called the Nolamba-Pallavas settled in the province called Nolambavadi-32,000, wielding power till about the middle of the 11th century over areas comprising the present Bellary district and portions of Anantapur with the adjoining  region in the Mysore State.  Inscriptions of the 11th – 13th centuries found in the Telugu districts mention some chiefs claiming descent from a certain Trilochana-Pallava, Mukkanti-Pallava or Mukkanti-Kaduvetti.[62]  Among the chiefs of the same period in the Tamil country tracing their ancestry to the Pallavas is Tripurantakadevan Madhusudanadevarasan, son of Mahamandalesvara Tripurantakadeva,[63] a minister of Telugu Choda chief Tikka.[64]  This Madhusudanadeva who was a subordinate of Vijaya-Gandagopala[65] of Nellore belonged to the Bharadvaja-gotra and bore the titles Khatvangadhvaja, Katuvaya-paraghoshana, Vrishabha-lanchhana, Kanchipuravaradhisvara, Pallavakula-tilaka, etc., Another chief with identical titles is Tipparasar Rahuttaraya Nallasiddharasar[66] who was also a subordinate of Vijaya-Gandagopala.[67] Probably distinct from this Vijaya-Gandagopala are two other chiefs (or a chief) of the same name claiming Pallava lineage and mentioned in a record from Tirupurantakam[68] in the Kurnool district and in an inscription from Atmakur in the Nellore district.[69]

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[1]  As suggested by Rao Bahadur Krishnamacharlu, this Tarandikondaposar (i.e.,) Trandikonda-Bhoja may, from his name, be taken as hailing from the village Tanrikonra mentioned in the early copper-plate grant of Damodaravarloan (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 328) where it is identified with Tadikonda near Guntur.  It also figures as a gift-village in a copper-plate grant of Ammaraja II in S. 880 (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIII, p. 163).

[2]  S.I.I. (Texts), Vol. IV, p. 11, section f.  The wording in the text is : -

‘idu kalirinralay = anru nun-maganudaya

makutangal = ivay enru Tarandikondaposar

Hiranyavarmma-Maharajarkkuch-cholla.’

[3]  I am indebted to my late colleague Mr. A. S. Ramanatha Ayyar for first suggesting the resemblance.  This subject is discussed at length in a paper entitled ‘A New Link between the Indi-Parthians and the Pallavas of Kanchi’ contributed by the me to the Eleventh All-India Oriental Conference, Hyderabad (1941).

[4]  S.I.I., Vol. I, p. 29.

[5]  S.I.I., Vol. II, p. 370 ff.

[6]  S.I.I., Vol. I, p. 29.

[7]  Though Mahendravarman professed his devotion to Siva, he also excavated in rock a Vishnu temple called Mahendravishnugriha at Mahendravadi (Ep.  Ind.  Vol.  IV, p. 152 ff.)

[8]  S.I.I.,  Vol. II, p. 341

[9]  No. 13.

[10]  A.R. No. 67 of 1900 ; Ep. Ind., Vol. VI. P. 320.

[11]  S.I.I., Vol. I, pp. 29 – 30.

[12]  Ep.  Ind., Vol. III, p. 270.

[13]  This identification is not quite convincing.- Ed.

[14]  S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 377

[15]  In the Udayendiram plates (S.I.I., Vol. II, p. 370) and the Kuram grant (S.I.I., Vol. I, p. 152), Paramsvaravarman is stated to be the son of Mahendravarman II.

[16]  S.I.I.,  Vol. I, p. 14.

[17]  Pusalar Nayanar Pranam

[18]  S.I.I., Vol. I, p. 10.

[19]  S.I.I., Vol. II, p. 357

[20]  Yule : Marco Polo, Vol. Bk.  III, p. 336.  A cave containing the image of Buddha in this place is said to have been constructed at he desire of the Maharaja of Chinadesa (Ind.  Ant., Vol. XXII, p. 45)

[21]  S.I.I.,  Vol. I, No. 29.

[22]  Ep. Rep. For 1909, part II, para. 17.

[23]  S.I.I.,  Vol. I, p. 15.

[24]  Ibid.

[25]  Ibid, p. 17

[26]  Ibid, p. 18.

[27]  Ibid, p. 14, v. 12.  It may also be noted that Ukkal in the Chingleput district was known as Sivachudamanimangalam (S.I.I., Vol. III, p. 2)

[28]  Ibid., p. 17.

[29]  Foreign Notices of South India : K. A. N. Sastri, pp. 17 and 117.  Mr. Sastri has also pointed out that the Pallavas had nothing to do with the Arabs and Tibetans and that the Chinese emperor being impressed with the power of Narasimha, was anxious to enlist his support against the enemies of China.

[30]  Ibid.

[31]  According to tradition the Vaishnava saint Tirumangai Alvar is said to have enriched the Ranganatha temple at Srirangam with the booty obtained by looting this Buddhist sanctuary.

[32]  The historical sculptures in his temple form the subject of a Memoir issued by the Arch. Sur. Of India – No. 63

[33]  Almost all the copper plate records, viz., Kasakudi, Tandantottam, Pattattalmangalm, Udayendiram and Velurpalaiyam are composed both in Sanskrit and Tamil.

[34]  A village founded in her name in the South Arcot district existed in the time of the Chola king Vikrama-Chola (S.I.I., Vol. VII, No. 304).  See also  A.R. No. 38 of 1900 and S.I.I., Vol. II, p. 505.

[35]  A.R. No. 226 of 1903 ;  Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 225.

[36]  A.R. Nos. 52 of 1895 and 11 of 1899, dated simply in the 10th and 12th regnal years respectively and mentioning ‘Tellarrerinda’ Nandi, do not belong to this king.

[37]  Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 224.

[38]  Ep. Rep. For 1900, para. 84 and for 1912, p. 60.

[39]  A.R. No. 229 of 1903 ;  Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p. 224.

[40]  Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII,  p. 5 ff.

[41]  S.I.I., Vol. III, p. 449.

[42]  No. 63.

[43]  Ep. Ind.,  Vol. IV, p. 182.

[44]  Ep. Ind.,  Vol. XI, p. 227.

[45]  Ep. Ind.,  Vol. IV, p. 182.

[46]  Inss.  Pud.  State, No. 18.

[47]  Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 196.

[48]  A.R. No. 469 of 1925 ; Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIII, p. 144, fn. 8.

[49]  Nos. 101 and 102.

[50]  No. 103.

[51]  Ep. Ind. Vol. XXIII, p. 145.

[52]  S.I.I., Vol. VI, NO. 371.

[53]  Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 193.

[54]  No. 105.

[55]  S.I.I., Vol. VII, Nos. 420 and 421.

[56]  Ep. Ind., Vol. VII, p. 25.

[57]  Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p. 49 ff.

[58]  Ep. Ind., Vol. XXI, p. 173 ff.

[59]  An. Rep. On Epy. For 1931-32, p. 47.

[60]  An. Rep. On Epy. For 1933-34, p. 31.

[61]  [A Telugu epigraph in characters of about the 10th century A.D. at Kotappakonda in the Guntur district mentions a Pallavamalla : S.I.I., Vol. IV, No. 925.- Ed.]

[62]  [A Mukkanti Kaduvetti is referred to in Saka year 723 and his predecessor was Trinetra Ep. Rep. For 1916, p. 138, para. 56 – Ed.]

[63]  A.R. No. 267 of 1921.

[64]  A.R. No. 34 of 1893.

[65]  A.R. Nos. 264 and 267 of 1921.

[66]  A.R. Nos. 39 to 1893, 228 of 1910 and 568 of 1919.

[67]  A.R. Nos. 39 of 1893 and 228 of 1910 ; also of Ep. Rep. For 1920, para. 57.

[68]  A.R. No. 272 of 1905

[69]  Nellore Inscriptions, A. 25.

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