The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Introduction

Text of the Inscriptions 

Cholas

Rajendra

Kulottunga

Uttamachola

Vikramachola

Parakesarivarman

Rajaraja

Miscellaneous

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

Konerirajapuram Temple

Uttama Chola

No. 130.- ON THE NORTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE UMAMAHESVARA TEMPLE AT KONERIRAJAPURAM[3]  

This inscription is dated in the 6th year of Parakesarivarman Uttama-Chola.  It registers the grant of a land for a lamp to the temple of Adityesvaram-Udaiya Mahadeva at Tirunallam.  

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 6th year of (the reign of) Uttama-Chola alias king Parakesarivarman, the headman of Elinur . . . for burning one perpetual lamp, as long as the moon and the sun (endure), to (the temple of) Adityesvaramudaiya-Mahadeva at Tirunallam.  (The boundaries of) the land which I, on behalf of Devan[4] in presence of the ‘Karanikas’, (set boundaries of) the land which I, on behalf of lands of the god (are as follow) : - (the eastern boundary is) to the west of the land (called) Kulavampandal (belonging to) Palasiriyan of Midur ; the southern boundary is to the north of (the channel called) Rishabhavahana – vaykkal ; the western boundary is to the east of the land (belonging to) Palasiriyan Sattan Kari and (his) younger brother and to the channel of the village ; the northern boundary is to the south of the land (belonging to) these same (persons).  

(L. 3.) (The total extent of) the land thus (described) (viz.) (one) quarter, one-fortieth, one three-hundred and twentieth and 1/320 of three-fourths, one hundred and sixtieth and one hundred and sixtieth [5].  This land was excluded (being set apart) for burning one perpetual lamp as long as the moon and the sun (endure).  (The assembly of) all Mahesvaras shall protect this (charity).  This lamp was given by this person.

No. 146.- ON THE SOUTH WALL OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE UMAMAHESVARA TEMPLE AT KONERIRAJAPURAM[8]                                         

This inscription is engraved below a group of sculptures reproduced on the accompanying plate.  It states that, during the reign of Madhurantakadeva alias Uttama-Chola, his mother Madevadigalar alias Sembiyan-Madeviyar caused to be built in the name of her husband Gandaradityadeva, a stone temple at Tirunallam, i.e., the modern Konderirajapuram, which is one of the ancient Saivite places of worship mentioned in the Devaram.  The inscription serves as a key to understand the sculptures below which it is engraved.  The female figure kneeling down in a worshipping posture is Queen Sembiyan Madeviyar and the one close to the linga is Gandaradityadeva.  The two figures behind the queen are her attendants.  The name Adityesvara-Mahadeva which occurs in other inscriptions of Konerirajapuram indicates that it was derived from Gandaraditya.  

Hail ! Prosperity! Madevadigalar alias the glorious Sembiyan-Madeviyar, queen of Gandaradityadeva, constructed in the sacred name of her husband (viz.,) the glorious Gandaradityadeva, a stone temple to the lord (i.e., the god) of Tirunallam (at the time) when her illustrious son, i.e., the glorious Madhurantakadeva alias the glorious Uttama-Chola, was graciously ruling.  This is (the image of) the glorious Gandaradityadeva which was (caused to be) made in this sacred stone temple in the posture of worshipping the sacred feet of the lord (i.e., the god) of Tirunallam.

No. 151.- ON THE SOUTH AND EAST WALLS OF THE CENTRAL SHRINE IN THE UMAMAHESVARASVAMIN TEMPLE AT KONERIRAJAPURAM[1] 

This and the next number together constitute one record of Parakesarivarman who is identical with Madhurantaka Uttama-Chola.  The object of the inscription is to register the grant of certain lands to the temple at Tirunallam in Vennadu, which had been constructed of stone by queen Sembiyan-Madeviyar in the name of her husband Gandaraditya.  Prior to the date of this record she is stated to have laid out a new flower-garden for the temple by purchasing lands from the assembly of Tirunallam and getting them exempted from payment of taxes and to have increased the original provision for feeding Brahmanas in the temple.  The king also granted in the 3rd year of this reign two veli of land for the upkeep of the garden and in the sixth year a further 16 veli for the expenses in connexion with the feeding of Brahmanas ( II. 24 to 26). 

In the 7th year and 240th day of his reign when the king was encamped at Pichchankoyil, one of his executive officers named Parakesari Muvendavelan informed the former that the gift for feeding Brahanas was not sufficient and that a further gift of 12 veli of land had to be made.  This was done accordingly in the 7th year of reign (II. 23 to 40).  A detailed description of the boundary line of the two veli and the 12 veli of land respectively granted for the maintenance of the flower-garden and the feeding house is given in 47 lines (II. 51 to 98).  The privileges and exemptions granted in favour of these two lands occupy lines 99 to 115.  With line 116 commences a new grant dated in the 8th year and 143rd day of the same king when he was encamped at Karaikkattu Panaiyur.  The request now was for regulation of the expenses for all the income derived from the devadana  lands of the Tirunallam temple.  Accordingly, on the 151st day of the same year the king ordered that specified amounts of gold and paddy collected as tax on the devadana lands of Tirunallam were to be deducted from the general revenue and that the number of Brahmanas who were fed in the feeding house be raised from 25 to 40, the additional being met from the remaining balance under a certain item provided from in the old regulations. 

This brings us to the end of No. 151 which is engraved on the last section of the south wall and the adjoining section on the east wall of the temple which itself faces west.  The two next sections on the east wall, two lines on the top of the north wall and a portion again of the east wall seem to contain the continuation.  Consequently, on account of the irregular arrangement on the walls, this continuation is treated separately as No. 151A.  It describes the regulated expenses referred to at the end of No. 151.  As many as 4,151 kalam of paddy and lands, whose measurements are given in great detail, were provided for, in order to maintain the regular service in the temple, such as, the various dishes of oblations to the images, sandal paste, incense, lamps, the sribali-ceremony held on the natal star jyeshtha of queen Sembiyan-Madeviyar, feeding Brahmanas, pay (with cost of clothing) of the worshipper, the festivals Margali-Tiruvadirai and Vaigasi – visagam, the pay (with cost of clothing) of Brahmanas who crushed sandal, the Brahmana servants who held the canopy (over the images) and rendered other necessary service, servants who picked up flowers and strung them, servants who swept the sacred temple and smeared it with cow dung, musicians, trumpeters, conch-blowers, watchmen of images, reciters of the Tiruppadiyam hymns, Brahmanas who attended to the general management of the temple (kovil-variyam), the temple accountant of the potter caste, the potter who supplied pots, the dyer (?) who dyed the sacred cloth (for the images), the Brahmana who carried the water from the Kaveri for the sacred bath, the official auditor who checked the temple transactions under orders of the king, temple repairs, the monthly sacred baths and the ceremonies on eclipses, renewal of screens and canopies, the purificatory ceremony called Jalapavitra, annual renewal of sacred cloths, the astrologer who recited the astronomical changes every day and carried the calendar (nalolai) with him, the pay (including cost of clothing) of the gardeners and of their assistants, the temple architect, the carpenter and the blacksmit, special worship for the images of Tripuravijaya, Vrishabhavahana and Ganapati and the sacred bath with the five articles, viz., milk, curds, butter, sugar and honey.  The extent of the houses occupied by the temple servants, hymners, priests, musicians, the temple manager and others, is also recorded. 

The several officers of the king who legalized the grant by affixing their signatures, the immunities granted to and the privileges enjoyed by the donee, viz., the present Umamahesvara temple at Tirunallam, are of very great interest.  The officers mentioned are the councilors (Karumam-arayum), revenue officers (Puravuvari), officers (in charge) of revenue registers (Varippottagam), revenue clerks (Variyilidu), Mugavetti[2], Pattolai and the Chief Secretary (Olainayagam).  The privileges and immunities granted are almost the same as those mentioned in Vol. II, pp. 512 and 530 f.  The scheme of the document was apparently a model on which the later grants recorded on the large Leyden copper-plates[3] and other similar ones were drawn up. 

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! Udaiyapirattiyar Sembiyan – Madeviyar was pleased to convert the temple of god Mahadeva (Siva) of Tirunallam in Vennadu into a sacred stone temple, bearing the sacred name of (her husband) the glorious Gandaraditya. 

(L. 2.) For the land required to (lay out) a sacred flower-garden to the god, (she) obtained free of taxes, by complete sale, (a portion of) the land belonging to the members of the assembly of this village. 

(L. 3.) We were requested that, in order to (make) provision for korru and pudavai  (cloth) money for the four persons who do work in the flower-garden made (therein and called) the glorious Gandaraditya and other flower-gardens, the two veli of Kiladakuvilai land in Vennadu with its income of two hundred and twenty-four kalam of paddy may be entered in the books from the 3rd year (or reign), as a tax-free devadana for the maintenance of the flower-garden (nandavanappuram). 

(L. 8.) We declared that the two veli of Kiladukuvilai land in Vennadu shall have its previous owners replaced and the tenants removed [4]; that it shall, inclusive of the karanmai  and miyatchi, be a tax-free devadana for the maintenance of the flower-garden (nandavanappuram) of Mahadeva (Siva) at Tirunallam; that it shall be (so) registered in the accounts and receive from the 3rd year (or reign) all immunities (parihara), not being subjected to the payment of any antaraya (taxes).  

(L. 12.) In accordance with the order (thus) issued and drawn up by Velan Madurantagan who writes our orders and bearing the signature of Velan Kandaradichchan, our Chief Secretary (Olainayagan), as orally instructed by the anatti of Paramesvaran Arangan alias Irumudisola-Muvendavelan of Konur, Koyil Mayilai alias Madurantaka-Muvendavelan of Sirringan and Kodukulavan Sattan alias Parakesari-Muvendavelan of Parttikkudi who look after our affairs (karumam-arayum) ; and by the vaykelvi of the Puravuvari (officers) Tandi-Pudi alias Sembiyan Uttaramantri, the headman (talaimagan) of Iraiyankudi, Paranjodi-Nilan alias Avantavikrama-Muvendavelan of Nerkunram and Araiyan Karpagam alias Virabharana – Muvendavelan of Kiraikkallur, the two veli of Kiladakuvilai land (situated) in your nadu[5], has been given away for the maintenance of the flower-garden (nandavanappuram), and registered in the account books as a tax-free devanda from the 3rd year (of Our reign), with its hamlets circumambulated.  

(L. 21.) In the 7th year and 240th day (of Our reign), when we were in the front hall (kudam) of (our) palace (vidu) within the camp [6] at Pichchankoyil on the norther side of Kadambur, Parakesari Muvendavelan who looks after our business informed us : — “Udaiyapirattiyar Sembiyan-Madeviyar was pleased to construct of stone, under the sacred name of the glorious Gandaraditya, the temple of Mahadeva (Siva) of Tirunallam which is a brahmadeya of Vennadu.  She was (also) pleased to regulate the expenses of this god on a scale higher than before.  She was further pleased to provide a feeding-house (sala) in this (temple) for (the merit of her) husband (udaiyar), so that twenty-five Brahmanas may be fed daily as long as the moon and the sun (endure).”  

(L. 26.) “For the necessary paddy to meet the regulated expenses (nibandam) of this god, the panchavara paddy of six hundred kalam from the twelve veli of land of Pungudi, an old devadana  (village) of this god, which had been formerly fixed to be deducted from (the income of) the god and given (to us) and the panchavara paddy of two hundred kalam from the four veli of land of Musittaikkudi which had (also) been fixed to be deducted from (the income of) the god and given (to us), were graciously given over to this god alone and from the sixth year (of reign) had (their) tenants removed, were made tax-free, and were entered in the accounts (as such).  (It is again found that) the paddy which this god has been getting as per pledges (udaippadi) from the old devadana (lands) together with this eight hundred kalam of paddy does not suffice to meet the regulated expenses which Her Majesty has been pleased to make and that a further (quantity of) six hundred and fifty-two kalam, (one) tuni and (one) padakku of paddy is required.  (Besides), for feeding twenty-five Brahmans in the feeding house (sala) which was established in this (temple) for (the merit of) the Udaiyar (her husband) is required, for one year, nine hundred and thirty-seven kalam and (one) tuni and (one) padakku of paddy for vegetables, firewood, ghee, curds, different spices, betel-leaves and nuts, including (the pay of) cooks, at the rate of (one) kuruni and two nali of paddy per day for each person.  The total quantity of paddy (thus further required) for the regulated expenses is (one) thousand five hundred and ninety kalam.  For this may be granted the twelve veli of Ilanalam land in Vennadu as a devadana and salabhoga, and be (so) entered in the account-books as tax-free from the pisan of the 7th year (of reign) so that there may be an income by pledge or lease [7] of (one) thousand and five hundred and ninety kalam of paddy from it.”  

(L. 37.) We (being thus informed), ordered that the twelve veli of land of Ilanalam in Vennadu shall have its previous owners replaced and its tenants removed; that from the pisan of the 7th year (of Our reign), (this land) inclusive of karanmai and miyatchi, shall be made a tax-free devandana and salabhoga ; that this village . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  shall receive all immunities (parihara), shall be tax-free so that it shall not pay any kind of tax (antaraya), and shall be (so) entered in the accounts.  

(L. 41.) In accordance with the issued order drawn up by Semban Arulan Uttamagiti who writes Our orders and under the signatures of Velan Gandaradichchan alias Minavan-Muvendavelan and Velan Annavan our Chief Secretaries (Olainayaga) and (orally) instructed by the anatti of Parakesari-Muvendavelan who looks after  Ours affairs and by the vaykelvi of the Puravuvari (officers) Sembyan Uttaramantri, Virabarana-Muvendavelan, Adigal Nakkan, the headman (kilavan) of Pavvattiri, Aruran Udayadivakaran of Peraraisur and Sendan Arakkudi of Kotpur, the twelve veli of land of Ilanalam in your nadu which have been entered in the accounts as a tax-free devadana  and salabhoga from the pasan of the 7th year (of Our reign) shall have its hamlets circumambulated ; (and for this purpose) we give Parakesari Muvendavelan, Ramabhatta of Adanur, Tali-Bhatta of Kodungai and the Puravuvari Sembiyan Uttaramantri to swell (your number).  You shall, in company with these persons, mark out the boundaries, take round the female elephant, circumambulate the hamlets, plant stones and milk-bush and prepare[8]  the written deed.  

(L. 49.) A royal order with the above wording having reached the residents of the district (nattom) in the 7th year [9] of (the reign of) king Parakesarivarman, we, the residents of the district, saw the royal order (coming), went to meet (it), worshipped, received and placed (the order) on our heads, marked out the boundary, led round the female elephant and circumambulated the hamlets of the land of Kiladakuvilai of which (the boundaries are): —  

(L. 50.) The eastern boundary commences from the head of the channel running southwards for irrigating Korrangudi in Vennadu – it being (a branch) of the channel which irrigates Vadakannamangalam in the same nadu.  Allowing the menadai[10] water of this channel to irrigate, it (i.e., the boundary line) passes along the existing course in a southerly direction in the middle of it, joins the boundary of Korrangudi and including the half of this channel, (it thus far lies) to the west of the boundary of Tirunallam.  From this (point) it proceeds up to the western embankment (of the channel) and passes in a westerly direction and (then) in a southerly direction along the existing boundary of Korrangudi (and thus far lies) to the north and west (of it).  It passes (again) eastwards and southwards along this existing boundary and joins the spot, on the western embankment of the tank dug out by Puttondan in the land of Korrangudi where the dyke on the northern boundary of Ilanalam empties itself, (and thus far lies) to the west of the boundary of Korrangudi.

(L. 56.) The southern boundary passes in a westerly direction along this existing dyke of numerous windings in the middle of it; and joins the south-east corner of the field called Sanakkal of of Tirunallam, (and thus far lies) to the north of the boundary line of Ilanalam.  

(L. 57.) The western boundary passes northwards along the existing eastern boundary of the field called Sanakkal and joins the channel which runs to irrigate (the lands of) Vadakannamangalam, (and thus far lies) to the east (of Sanakkal).  

(L. 59.) The northern boundary passes eastwards along this existing channel (of Vadakannamangalam) in the middle of it, joins the channel which flows from this southward to irrigate (the lands of) Korrangudi . . . . . . . . , (and thus far lies) to the south of the field called Mannaichchey . . . . . of Tirunallam.   (These are) the two veli of land Kiladakuvilai (thus) comprised in the above described four big boundaries.  

(L. 61.) The eastern boundary of Ilanalam, which is the devadana and salabhoga of this god (is as follows) : — . . . . .the western embankment of the tank dug out by Puttondan in the land (belonging to) Korrangudi in Vennadu . . . . . .commencing from the spot . . . .  . of the southern boundary of Kiladakuvilai, and passing southwards close upon the western embankment of this tank and eastwards close upon (its) southern embankment, (it thus far lies) to the west and to the south (of the tank).  From this point (it again) passes southwards and eastwards along the existing western boundary of this Korrangudi and joining the western boundary of (the field of) Kadu[gu]var which is a devadana in this nadu . . . .(it thus far lies to) the west and to the south of the boundary of Korrangudi . . . . . . . this, . . . . [11] . . . . passes southwards along the existing boundary, joins the channel of Pungudi which forms the northern boundary of the land (belonging to) Paravaikkudi, a brahmadeya of this nadu (and thus far lies) to the west of the western boundary of the field (called) Kaduguvar . . . . . . . .passes westwards in the middle of it allowing the flow of the menadaiwater to irrigate the villages which (have to) receive water from the channel of Pungudi, joins the boundary of Tirunallam, (and thus far lies to) the north of the boundary of Paravaikkudi including half of the above said channel.  From this (point it) goes up to the north bank, passes northwards along the existing boundary of Tirunallam, and (thus far lies to) the east (of it) ; (then) passing westwards along the said existing boundary, joins the spot where the channel irrigating Ilanalam terminates (?), passes westwards and southwards at the middle of this channel as it goes, and joins the channel of Pungudi which forms the northern boundary of Paravaikkudi, (and thus far lies to) the north and west of the boundary of Tirunallam.[12]  

(L. 76.) The western boundary passes westwards and north-westwards along this Pungudi channel at its middle as it goes, joins the boundary of Tirunallam including half of this channel, (and thus far lies to the) north and east of the boundary of Paravaikkudi.  (Then) passing northwards along this channel at its middle, as it goes, (it) joins the channel flowing to Vadakannamangalam for irrigating (its lands), (and thus far lies to the) east of the boundary of Tirunallam.  (Then) from here allowing the flow of the menadai water of this channel, (it) passes along the middle of the channel of Vadakannamangalam northwards, reaches the eastern embankment, and (thus far lies to the) east including half of this channel.  

(L. 84.) The northern boundary passes eastwards along the ridge (varambu) of the southern boundary of the land belonging to Paramesvaran Kunran and Singan Chandrasegaran of Tirunallam, joins the nattam (village-site) called Tirunallattuchcheri on the northern side of the village-site of Ilanalam, (and thus far lies to the) south (of it).  From this (point it) proceeds south of the vidai[13]  of the western boundary of the flower-garden (known as) Sembiyanmadevi belonging  to (the temple of) Mahadeva (Siva) of Tirunallam (situated) in the said cheri and (then) east of the vidai of (its) southern boundary, (and thus far lies to the) south (of it) ; (it then) passes northwards along the middle of the street which forms the eastern boundary of this flower-garden, reaches the south-west corner of the tank of the northern side of Ilanalam, passes in a north-easterly direction in the middle of this tank, joins the north-eastern corner, (and thus far lies to the) east of the boundary of Tirunallam including half of this tank.  From this (point it) passes northwards in the same direction as the path (on the) ridge which goes to Tirunallam, (and thus far lies to the) east (of it).  From here (it) passes eastwards along the existing ridge of the southern boundary of the land called Mattaimunruma (belonging) to (the god) Mahadeva (Siva) of Tirunallam, (and thus far lies to the) south (of it).  From this (point it) passes southwards along the ridge as it goes, on the western boundary of the field called Sanakkal in Tirunallam, (and thus far lies to the) to the west (of it).  It (then) passes eastwards along the ridge as it goes, on the southern boundary of this, reaches, the south-western corner of the land of Kiladakuvilai which was a flower garden property, (and thus far lies) to the south of the boundary of Tirunallam.  From here (it) passes eastwards as it goes, along the middle of the dyke which forms the southern boundary of the land of Kiladakuvilai, joins the spot where it first started on the western embankment of the tank dug out by Puttondan in the land of Korrangudi, and (thus far lies) to the south of the boundary of the land of Kiladakuvilai, including half of the dyke.  These (are) the twelve veli of land of Ilanalam included within the four big boundaries thus specified.  

(L. 99.)  These two villages thus (defined) including village-sites, houses, house-sites, open spaces, waste-land where cattle graze, tanks, threshing-floors, ant-hills, halls (?), jungle, pidiligai, barren grounds, saltish grounds, hollow grounds, reservoirs, dykes, creaks, rivers, river-beds, pits where fish exist, hollows where honey is gathered, trees growing up the wells sunk below, with every king (of land) where the iguana runs or the tortoise crawls, without excluding any portion of land included (in the boundaries), replacing (its) previous owners and removing tenants, were granted tax-free as devadana, nandavanappura and salabhoga inclusive of karanmai and miyatchi.  


(L. 104.) The (following is the) written declaration (vyavasthai) for the grant (thus made) : — These lands shall (enjoy the privilege of) being irrigated by channel dug out as (per rules) for the distribution of water.  Others shall not cut and dig out diversions from these channels nor put up small piccotas, nor baill water by baskets, nor obstruct (the flow) with cross-banks.  The water (thus made) available must not be wasted ; that water must be economically used.  Storied buildings and mansions may be erected with burnt tiles (bricks ?) ; step-reservoirs might be sunk ; coconuts might be planted in groves ; artemissia, sweet marjoram, andropogon muriatum, champaka, red lilies, mango, jack, coconut, Palmyra and other fruit-yielding trees might be planted . . . . . ; the coconut, areca and Palmyra (trees) thus planted, shall not be climbed (i.e., tapped) by toddy-drawers ; (and) big oil-presses might be set up.  (The following are) the immunities granted for (the lands) thus declared : — fee for governing the district (nadatchi), fee for governing the village (uratchi), the toll of a nali on each basket (vattinali), (pitanali), marriage-fee (kannalakkanam), the fee on washerman’s stone (vannarapparai), the fee on the potter (kusakkanam), fee on brokers, the fee on thegoldsmith (tattarappattam), fee on (bazaars of ?) betel leaves (ilaikkulam), the cloth on (each) loom, fee for (maintaining) justice (manrupadu), mavirai, (fee for stopping) free-accidents (tiyeri), (fee on) good cow (nalla), (fee on) good bull (nallerudu), (fee for) district patrol udupokku, (fee for) carrying bows (virpidi), valamanjadi, tolls, tax on feries (odakkuli), tax on water (nirkuli), (fee on) toddy-drawers (ilamputchi)[14], attukkirai, urkalanju and all other (income) which the king could take and enjoy, shall no longer be taken by the king but shall be received only by the Mahadeva (Siva) of the sacred stone temple of Tirunallam.  

(L. 114.) The thus-described declaration and exemptions being obtained, we (the residents of the country and the king’s officers) led round the female elephant, planted stones and milk-bush and drew up the document.  This is the signature of (me) Minavan Muvendavelan.  

(L. 116.) In the 8th year and 143rd day (of the reign) of king Parakesarivarman, when His Majesty was pleased to be seated in the first floor of the mansion within (his) camp-palace at Karaikkattu-Panaiyur, He was pleased to hear (a request) for the regulation of expenses of the devadana  villages, of the Tirunallam (temple).  (He was pleased to order thus) “Three kalanju, (one) manjadi and (one) kunri  of gold and thirty-nine kalam, (one) padakku and four nali of panchavara (paddy) – the tax (nilavopadi) accruing on land (measuring) to (veli) and a half, four-twentieth + 1/320 of one-twentieth, one-fortieth and one by three hundred and twentieth, which is a devadana of Tirunallam and a brahmadeya  in Vennadu, as part of the seventy veli of land according to the old (account) books of this Tirunallam (village), may, from the 8th year (of Our reign), be deducted from the gold and the panchavara (paddy) which this Tirunallam has been paying as tax in the past ; the excess of paddy from Ilanalam, a devadana of this god in this nadu, which will remain after meeting the expenses provided for, (shall be utilized) to feed forty persons (in all) by adding fifteen Brahmanas to the twenty-five Brahmanas (already) fed in the sala of this god ; and one camphor-lamp and one sacred perpetual lamp shall also burn in (the temple of) the god of this Tirunallam.”  The entry in the accounts in this wise being graciously ordered (by the king), (the order) was written by the Mandiravolai  (officer) Sembiyan and was issued with the signatures of the Olainayagam (officers) Minavan Muvendavelan and Velan Annattadigal, at the direction of the officer Kodukulavan Sattan alias Parakesari Muvendavelan of Paruttikkudi, so that (in pursuance of the above order) it may be entered in the accounts; (the following persons), viz.,  the Puravuvari  (officers) Aruran Udayadivakaran of Peraraisur and Adigal Nakkan the headman of Pavvattiri ; the Varippottagam (officer) TaliChandrasekharan of Tirunallur; the Mugavetti (officer) Rajadityan of Mukkurumbil; the Kanganivarippottagam (officer) Villaippangilan Niraiyan Arangan, the Varippottagakanakku (officer)  . . . . . Tiruvanjiyamudaiyan, the Variyilidu (officer) Suran Aniyan and the (Pattolai (officer) Ganapuravan, being present, (it was ordered) in the eighth year and (one) hundred and fifty-first day, that out of the seventy veli of land according to the old account) books of Tirunallam, a brahmadeya in Vennadu,  the land which is (in extent) two (veli) and a half, four-twentieths, three-eightieths, one by three hundred and twentieth + 1/320 of one-twentieth, one-fortieth and one by three hundred and twentieth and is a devadana of Tirunallam under the enjoyment of the god being made tax-free in favour of this god, may be deducted (from the accounts) from the 8th year (of reign).  (Also) may be deducted . . . . three kalanju (one) manjadi and (one) kunri of gold, the panchavara (paddy) . . . . . . . kalam, (one) padakku and four nali . . . . . (thus this) land (measuring) two (veli) and a half, four-twentieths, three-eightieths, one by three hundred and twentieth + 1/320 of . . . . . .and one by three hundred and twentieth . . . . . .  of land . . . . .

Make these lands of Tirunallam . . . . . . . including lands . . . . . tax . . . . . . .and lands paying . . . . Having (thus) been pleased (to order) (the lands) as are in enjoyment of the god in this Hall, tax-free . . . . one-eightieth, one hundred and sixtieth + 1/320 of one fourth, of half ma (and) one hundred and sixtieth (and) one by three hundred and twentieth – in all – the land of this Tirunallam (viz.) being nine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . three hundred and twentieth + 1/320 of half ma (and) one-eightieth, the (following) expenditure (nibhandam) from (the income of) the lands of Musuttaikudi and Ilanallam which are the Brahmadeya  of Vennadu . . . . . . . . to the god for the sacred morning offerings.

Home Page